Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

Search results for: cylindrical wheels

256 Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.

Keywords: Bullet train, dynamical hunting, cylindrical wheels, damping, stability, creep, vibration analysis.

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255 Numerical Analysis of Fractured Process in Locomotive Steel Wheels

Authors: J. Alizadeh K., R. S. Ashofteh, A. Asadi Lari

Abstract:

Railway vehicle wheels are designed to operate in harsh environments and to withstand high hydrostatic contact pressures. This situation may result in critical circumstances, in particular wheel breakage. This paper presents a time history of a series of broken wheels during a time interval [2007-2008] belongs to locomotive fleet on Iranian Railways. Such fractures in locomotive wheels never reported before. Due to the importance of this issue, a research study has been launched to find the potential reasons of this problem. The authors introduce a FEM model to indicate how and where the wheels could have been affected during their operation. Then, the modeling results are presented and discussed in detail.

Keywords: Crack, fatigue, FE analysis, wheel.

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254 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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253 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer

Abstract:

The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking.

Keywords: Select-high method, select-low method, torque distribution, wheeled robot.

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252 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani

Abstract:

We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented.

The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a « geometric ›› distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement.

Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: Mobile robot, actuation, redundancy, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo Moore-Penrose, reductive control.

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251 Parametric Study on Grindability of GFRP Laminates Using Different Abrasives

Authors: P. Chockalingam, C. K. Kok, T. R. Vijayaram

Abstract:

A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.

Keywords: Grinding, glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates, grinding force, surface finish.

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250 Structure of Linkages and Cam Gear for Integral Steering of Vehicles

Authors: Petre Alexandru, Dragos Macaveiu, Catalin Alexandru

Abstract:

This paper addresses issues of integral steering of vehicles with two steering axles, where the rear wheels are pivoted in the direction of the front wheels, but also in the opposite direction. The steering box of the rear axle is presented with simple linkages (single contour) that correlate the pivoting of the rear wheels according to the direction of the front wheels, respectively to the rotation angle of the steering wheel. The functionality of the system is analyzed – the extent to which the requirements of the integral steering are met by the considered/proposed mechanisms. The paper highlights the quality of the single contour linkages, with two driving elements for meeting these requirements, emphasizing diagrams of mechanisms with 2 driving elements. Cam variants are analyzed and proposed for the rear axle steering box. Cam profiles are determined by various factors.

Keywords: Cam gear, four wheel drive, integral steering, linkage.

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249 Fabrication of Cylindrical Silicon Nanowire-Embedded Field Effect Transistor Using Al2O3 Transfer Layer

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Tae Il Lee, Su Jeong Lee, Jae Min Myoung

Abstract:

In order to manufacture short gap single Si nanowire (NW) field effect transistor (FET) by imprinting and transferring method, we introduce the method using Al2O3 sacrificial layer. The diameters of cylindrical Si NW addressed between Au electrodes by dielectrophoretic (DEP) alignment method are controlled to 106, 128, and 148 nm. After imprinting and transfer process, cylindrical Si NW is embedded in PVP adhesive and dielectric layer. By curing transferred cylindrical Si NW and Au electrodes on PVP-coated p++ Si substrate with 200nm-thick SiO2, 3μm gap Si NW FET fabrication was completed. As the diameter of embedded Si NW increases, the mobility of FET increases from 80.51 to 121.24 cm2/V·s and the threshold voltage moves from –7.17 to –2.44 V because the ratio of surface to volume gets reduced.

Keywords: Al2O3 Sacrificial transfer layer, cylindrical silicon nanowires, Dielectrophorestic alignment, Field effect transistor.

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248 Volume Fraction Law for Stainless Steel on Inner Surface and Nickel on Outer Surface For FGM Cylindrical Shell

Authors: M.Hosseinjani Zamenjani, A.R.Tahmasebi Birgani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. The effects of the FGM configuration are studied by studying the frequencies of FG cylindrical shells. In this case FG cylindrical shell has Nickel on its outer surface and stainless steel on its inner surface. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of configurations of the constituent materials on the frequencies. The properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power-law distribution. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, the influence of the constituent various volume fractions on the frequencies.

Keywords: Nickel, Stainless Steel, Cylindrical shell.

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247 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

Abstract:

The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum.

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246 Nickel on Inner Surface and Stainless Steel on Outer Surface for Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell

Authors: A.R.Tahmasebi Birgani, M.Hosseinjani Zamenjani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Study is on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. The effects of the FGM configuration are studied by studying the frequencies of FG cylindrical shells. In this case FG cylindrical shell has Nickel on its inner surface and stainless steel on its outer surface. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of configurations of the constituent materials on the frequencies. The properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power-law distribution. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, the influence of the constituent various volume fractions on the frequencies.

Keywords: Nickel, Stainless Steel, Cylindrical shell.

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245 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Clamped-Clamped Boundary Conditions

Authors: M.R.Alinaghizadehand, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Study of the vibration cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is important. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clampedclamped boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.

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244 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Free-Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: A.R.Tahmasebi Birgani, M.Hosseinjani Zamenjani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of free-free boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell.

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243 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

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242 Fuel Economy and Stability Enhancement of the Hybrid Vehicles by Using Electrical Machines on Non-Driven Wheels

Authors: P. Naderi, S.M.T. Bathaee, R. Hoseinnezhad, R. Chini

Abstract:

Using electrical machine in conventional vehicles, also called hybrid vehicles, has become a promising control scheme that enables some manners for fuel economy and driver assist for better stability. In this paper, vehicle stability control, fuel economy and Driving/Regeneration braking for a 4WD hybrid vehicle is investigated by using an electrical machine on each non-driven wheels. In front wheels driven vehicles, fuel economy and regenerative braking can be obtained by summing torques applied on rear wheels. On the other hand, unequal torques applied to rear wheels provides enhanced safety and path correction in steering. In this paper, a model with fourteen degrees of freedom is considered for vehicle body, tires and, suspension systems. Thereafter, powertrain subsystems are modeled. Considering an electrical machine on each rear wheel, a fuzzy controller is designed for each driving, braking, and stability conditions. Another fuzzy controller recognizes the vehicle requirements between the driving/regeneration and stability modes. Intelligent vehicle control to multi objective operation and forward simulation are the paper advantages. For reaching to these aims, power management control and yaw moment control will be done by three fuzzy controllers. Also, the above mentioned goals are weighted by another fuzzy sub-controller base on vehicle dynamic. Finally, Simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure can enhance the vehicle performance in different modes effectively.

Keywords: Hybrid, pitch, roll, regeneration, yaw.

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241 Vibration of FGM Cylindrical Shells under Effect Clamped-simply Support Boundary Conditions using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R.Isvandzibaei, E.Bidokh, M.R.Alinaghizadeh, A.Nasirian, A.Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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240 Analytical Solution of Stress Distribution ona Hollow Cylindrical Fiber of a Composite with Cylindrical Volume Element under Axial Loading

Authors: M. H. Kargarnovin, K. Momeni

Abstract:

The study of the stress distribution on a hollow cylindrical fiber placed in a composite material is considered in this work and an analytical solution for this stress distribution has been constructed. Finally some parameters such as fiber-s thickness and fiber-s length are considered and their effects on the distribution of stress have been investigated. For finding the governing relations, continuity equations for the axisymmetric problem in cylindrical coordinate (r,o,z) are considered. Then by assuming some conditions and solving the governing equations and applying the boundary conditions, an equation relates the stress applied to the representative volume element with the stress distribution on the fiber has been found.

Keywords: Axial Loading, Composite, Hollow CylindricalFiber, Stress Distribution.

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239 Thermal and Mechanical Buckling of Short and Long Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Using First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: O. Miraliyari, M.M. Najafizadeh, A.R. Rahmani, A. Momeni Hezaveh

Abstract:

This paper presents the buckling analysis of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells under thermal and mechanical loads. The shell properties are assumed to vary continuously from the inner surface to the outer surface of the shell. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations and first order shear deformation theory assumptions. The resulting equations are solved for simply supported boundary conditions. The critical temperature and pressure loads are calculated for both short and long cylindrical shells. Comparison studies show the effects of functionally graded index, loading type and shell geometry on critical buckling loads of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells.

Keywords: Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Short and long cylindrical shell, Thermal and mechanical loads.

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238 Verification Process of Cylindrical Contact Force Models for Internal Contact Modeling

Authors: Cândida M. Pereira, Amílcar L. Ramalho, Jorge A. Ambrósio

Abstract:

In the numerical solution of the forward dynamics of a multibody system, the positions and velocities of the bodies in the system are obtained first. With the information of the system state variables at each time step, the internal and external forces acting on the system are obtained by appropriate contact force models if the continuous contact method is used instead of a discrete contact method. The local deformation of the bodies in contact, represented by penetration, is used to compute the contact force. The ability and suitability with current cylindrical contact force models to describe the contact between bodies with cylindrical geometries with particular focus on internal contacting geometries involving low clearances and high loads simultaneously is discussed in this paper. A comparative assessment of the performance of each model under analysis for different contact conditions, in particular for very different penetration and clearance values, is presented. It is demonstrated that some models represent a rough approximation to describe the conformal contact between cylindrical geometries because contact forces are underestimated.

Keywords: Clearance joints, Contact mechanics, Contact dynamics, Internal cylindrical contact, Multibody dynamics.

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237 Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Sedrak Vardanyan

Abstract:

The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.

Keywords: Free vibrations, magnetic cylindrical shells, exact space treatment, bending vibrational frequencies.

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236 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Under Effect Clamped-Free Boundary Conditions Using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R. Isvandzibaei, M.R. Alinaghizadeh, A.H. Zaman

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clamped-free boundary conditions

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle, clamped supported.

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235 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Free-free and Clamed-clamped Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. R.Isvandzibaei, A.Jahani

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of free-free and clamped-clamped boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.

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234 Clamped-clamped Boundary Conditions for Analysis Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell with a Ring based on Third Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: M.Pourmahmoud, M.Salmanzadeh, M.Mehrani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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233 Effect of Geometrical Parameters on Natural Frequencies of FGM Cylindrical shell with Holes Under Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Mostafa Ghayour, Mohammad Sadegh Golabi

Abstract:

In the recent years, functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have gained considerable attention in the high temperature environment applications. In this paper, free vibration of thin functionally graded cylindrical shell with hole composed of stainless steel and zirconia is studied. The mechanical properties vary smoothly and continuously from one surface to the other according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The Influence of shell geometrical parameters, variations of volume fractions and boundary conditions on natural frequency is considered. The equations of motion are based on strains-displacement relations from Love-s shell theory and Rayleigh method. The results have been obtained for natural frequencies of cylindrical shell with holes for different shape, number and location in this paper.

Keywords: Functionally gradient material, Vibration, various boundary conditions, cylindrical shells.

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232 Roller Guide Design and Manufacturing for Spatial Cylindrical Cams

Authors: Yuan L. Lai, Jui P. Hung, Jian H. Chen

Abstract:

This paper was aimed at developing a computer aided design and manufacturing system for spatial cylindrical cams. In the proposed system, a milling tool with a diameter smaller than that of the roller, instead of the standard cutter for traditional machining process, was used to generate the tool path for spatial cams. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a multi-axis machining simulation software was further used to simulate the practical milling operation of spatial cams. It was observed from computer simulation that the tool path of small-sized cutter were within the motion range of a standard cutter, no occurrence of overcutting. Examination of a finished cam component clearly verifies the accuracy of the tool path generated for small-sized milling tool. It is believed that the use of small-sized cutter for the machining of the spatial cylindrical cams can generate a better surface morphology with higher accuracy. The improvement in efficiency and cost for the manufacturing of the spatial cylindrical cam can be expected through the proposed method.

Keywords: Cylindrical cams, Computer-aided manufacturing, Tool path.

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231 Effects Edge end Free-free Boundary Conditions for Analysis Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell with Ring based on Third Order Shear Deformation Theory using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R.Isvandzibaei, P.J.Awasare

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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230 Natural Convection of Water-Based CuO Nanofluids in a Cylindrical Enclosure

Authors: Baha Tulu Tanju, Kamil Kahveci

Abstract:

Buoyancy driven heat transfer of nanofluids in a cylindrical enclosure used as a control unit in the subsea hydrocarbon injection wells is investigated in this study. The governing equations obtained with the Boussinesq approximation are solved using Comsol Multiphysics finite element analysis and simulation software. The base fluid is water and CuO is used as nanoparticles. Solution is obtained for nanoparticle solid volume fraction of 8% and for Rayleigh number in the range of 105-107. The results show that nanoparticle usage in the cylindrical electronic control unit has a significant effect on the flow and heat transfer.

Keywords: CuO, enclosure, nanofluid, natural convection

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229 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam

Abstract:

The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.

Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.

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228 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale

Abstract:

During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: Earthquake, bridge crane, heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator, impacts.

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227 Effect of Installation of Long Cylindrical External Store on Performance, Stability, Control and Handling Qualities of Light Transport Aircraft

Authors: Ambuj Srivastava, Narender Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of installation of cylindrical external store on the performance, stability, control and handling qualities of light transport category aircraft. A pair of long cylindrical store was installed symmetrically on either side of the fuselage (port and starboard) ahead of the wing and below the fuselage bottom surface running below pilot and co-pilot window. The cylindrical store was installed as hanging from aircraft surface through specially designed brackets. The adjoining structure was sufficiently reinforced for bearing aerodynamic loads. The length to diameter ratio of long cylindrical store was ~20. Based on academic studies and flow simulation analysis, a considerable detrimental effect on single engine second segment climb performance was found which was later validated through extensive flight testing exercise. The methodology of progressive flight envelope opening was adopted. The certification was sought from Regional airworthiness authorities and for according approval.

Keywords: Second segment climb, maximum operating speed, cruise performance, single engine and twin engine, minimum control speed, and additional trim required.

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