Search results for: clamped supported.
466 Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells
Authors: M. Altekin, R. F. Yükseler
Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.
Keywords: Bending, nonlinear, plate, point support, shell.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1747
465 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Under Effect Clamped-Free Boundary Conditions Using Hamilton's Principle
Authors: M.R. Isvandzibaei, M.R. Alinaghizadeh, A.H. Zaman
In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clamped-free boundary conditions
Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle, clamped supported.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1507
464 Effects of Boundary Conditions on the Dynamic Values of Solid Structures
Authors: F. Kadioglu, M. Z. Polat, A. R. Gunay
Correct measurement of a structural damping value is an important issue for the reliable design of the components exposed to vibratory and noise conditions. As far as a vibrating beam technique is concerned, the specimens under the test somehow are interacted with measuring and exciting devices, and also with boundary conditions of the test set-up. The aim of this study is to propose a vibrating beam method that offers a non-contact dynamic measurement of solid beam specimens. To evaluate the possible effects of the clamped portion of the specimens with clamped-free ends on the dynamic values (damping and the elastic modulus), the same measuring devices were used, and the results were compared to those with the free-free ends. First, the governing equations of beam specimens related to the free-free and clamped-free boundary conditions were expressed to be able to find their natural frequencies, flexural modulus and damping values. To get a clear idea of the sensitivity of the boundary conditions to the damping values at low, medium and high levels, representative materials were subjected to the tests. The results show that the specimens with low damping values are especially sensitive to the boundary conditions and that the most reliable structural damping values are obtained for the specimens with free-free ends. For the damping values at the low levels, a deviation of about 368% was obtained between the specimens with free-free and clamped-free ends, yet, for those having high inherent damping values, comparable results were obtained. It was obvious that the set-up with clamped-free boundary conditions was not able to produce correct/reliable damping values for the specimens with low inherent damping.
Keywords: Boundary conditions, damping, dynamic values, non-contact measuring systems, vibrating beam technique.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 114
463 Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter
Authors: B. M. Manjunatha, D. V. Ashok Kumar, M. Vijay Kumar
This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV system. To improve the performance of the system the number of voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical results are verified using MATLAB.
Keywords: Diode Clamped, Pulse Width Modulation, total harmonic distortion, Z Source Inverter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2082
462 Uniform Overlapped Multi-Carrier PWM for a Six-Level Diode Clamped Inverter
Abstract:Multi-level voltage source inverters offer several advantages such as; derivation of a refined output voltage with reduced total harmonic distortion (THD), reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices and also the reduced electro-magnetic-interference problems etc. In this paper, new carrier-overlapped phase-disposition or sub-harmonic sinusoidal pulse width modulation (CO-PD-SPWM) and also the carrieroverlapped phase-disposition space vector modulation (CO-PDSVPWM) schemes for a six-level diode-clamped inverter topology are proposed. The principle of the proposed PWM schemes is similar to the conventional PD-PWM with a little deviation from it in the sense that the triangular carriers are all overlapped. The overlapping of the triangular carriers on one hand results in an increased number of switchings, on the other hand this facilitates an improved spectral performance of the output voltage. It is demonstrated through simulation studies that the six-level diode-clamped inverter with the use of CO-PD-SPWM and CO-PD-SVPWM proposed in this paper is capable of generating multiple levels in its output voltage. The advantages of the proposed PWM schemes can be derived to benefit, especially at lower modulation indices of the inverter and hence this aspect of the proposed PWM schemes can be well exploited in high power applications requiring low speeds of operation of the drive.
Keywords: Diode clamped inverter, Pulse width modulation, Six level inverter, carrier based PWM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1798
461 Localized Non-Stability of the Semi-Infinite Elastic Orthotropic Plate
Authors: Reza Sharifian, Vagharshak Belubekyan
Abstract:This paper is concerned with an investigation into the localized non-stability of a thin elastic orthotropic semi-infinite plate. In this study, a semi-infinite plate, simply supported on two edges and different boundary conditions, clamped, hinged, sliding contact and free on the other edge, are considered. The mathematical model is used and a general solution is presented the conditions under which localized solutions exist are investigated.
Keywords: Localized, Non-stability, Orthotropic, Semi-infiniteProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1074
460 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Free-free and Clamed-clamped Boundary Conditions
Authors: M. R.Isvandzibaei, A.Jahani
In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of free-free and clamped-clamped boundary conditions.
Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1515
459 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater
Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram
Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.
Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 506
458 Implementation and Comparison between Two Algorithms of Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped Voltage Source Inverter
Authors: K. Benamrane, T. Abdelkrim, T. Benslimane, Aeh. Benkhelifa, B. Bezza
Abstract:This paper presents a comparison between two Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) algorithms applied to a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The first algorithm applied is the triangular-sinusoidal strategy; the second is the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) strategy. In the first part, we present a topology of three-level NCP VSI. After that, we develop the two PWM strategies to control this converter. At the end the experimental results are presented.
Keywords: Multilevel inverter, Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM), triangular-sinusoidal strategy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2389
457 The Effects of Various Boundary Conditions on Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Beamwith Piezoelectric Layers Based on Third order Shear Deformation Theory
Authors: O. Miraliyari
This article attempts to analyze functionally graded beam thermal buckling along with piezoelectric layers applying based on the third order shearing deformation theory considering various boundary conditions. The beam properties are assumed to vary continuously from the lower surface to the upper surface of the beam. The equilibrium equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations, piezoelectric material constitutive equations and third order shear deformation theory assumptions. In order to fulfill such an aim, at first functionally graded beam with piezoelectric layers applying the third order shearing deformation theory along with clamped -clamped boundary conditions are thoroughly analyzed, and then following making sure of the correctness of all the equations, the very same beam is analyzed with piezoelectric layers through simply-simply and simply-clamped boundary conditions. In this article buckling critical temperature for functionally graded beam is derived in two different ways, without piezoelectric layer and with piezoelectric layer and the results are compared together. Finally, all the conclusions obtained will be compared and contrasted with the same samples in the same and distinguished conditions through tables and charts. It would be noteworthy that in this article, the software MAPLE has been applied in order to do the numeral calculations.
Keywords: Thermal buckling, functionally graded beam, piezoelectric layer, various boundary conditions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1492
456 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ
The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.
Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2360
455 Stability Optimization of Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid
Authors: Karam Y. Maalawi, Hanan E.M EL-Sayed
Abstract:This paper presents an exact analytical model for optimizing stability of thin-walled, composite, functionally graded pipes conveying fluid. The critical flow velocity at which divergence occurs is maximized for a specified total structural mass in order to ensure the economic feasibility of the attained optimum designs. The composition of the material of construction is optimized by defining the spatial distribution of volume fractions of the material constituents using piecewise variations along the pipe length. The major aim is to tailor the material distribution in the axial direction so as to avoid the occurrence of divergence instability without the penalty of increasing structural mass. Three types of boundary conditions have been examined; namely, Hinged-Hinged, Clamped- Hinged and Clamped-Clamped pipelines. The resulting optimization problem has been formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem solved by invoking the MatLab optimization toolbox routines, which implement constrained function minimization routine named “fmincon" interacting with the associated eigenvalue problem routines. In fact, the proposed mathematical models have succeeded in maximizing the critical flow velocity without mass penalty and producing efficient and economic designs having enhanced stability characteristics as compared with the baseline designs.
Keywords: Functionally graded materials, pipe flow, optimumdesign, fluid- structure interactionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2108
454 Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source
Authors: A. Elnady
This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.
Keywords: Direct power control, PI controller, PD-PWM, and power control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 725
453 Retaining Users in a Commercially-Supported Social Network
Authors: Sasiphan Nitayaprapha
A commercially-supported social network has become an emerging channel for an organization to communicate with and provide services to customers. The success of the commercially-supported social network depends on the ability of the organization to keep the customers in participating in the network. Drawing from the theories of information adoption, information systems continuance, and web usability, the author develops a model to explore how a commercially-supported social network can encourage customers to continue participating and using the information in the network. The theoretical model will be proved through an online survey of customers using the commercially-supported social networking sites of several high technology companies operating in the same sector. The result will be compared with previous studies to learn about the explanatory power of the research model, and to identify the main factors determining users’ intention to continue using a commercially-supported social network. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Social network, Information adoption, Information systems continuance, Web usability, User satisfaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
452 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Clamped-Clamped Boundary Conditions
Authors: M.R.Alinaghizadehand, M.R.Isvandzibaei
Abstract:Study of the vibration cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is important. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clampedclamped boundary conditions.
Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1373
451 Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field
Authors: Sedrak Vardanyan
Abstract:The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.
Keywords: Free vibrations, magnetic cylindrical shells, exact space treatment, bending vibrational frequencies.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 699
450 A Homogenisation Procedure for the Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams at Large Vibration Amplitudes
Authors: A. Zerkane, K. El Bikri, R. Benamar
The purpose of the present paper is to show that the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded beams (FGB) with immovable ends can be reduced to that of isotropic homogeneous beams with effective bending stiffness and axial stiffness parameters by using an homogenization procedure. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the Euler-Bernouilli beam theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. The non-dimensional curvatures associated to the nonlinear fundamental mode are also given for various vibration amplitudes in the case of clamped-clamped FGB.
Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, functionally graded materials, homogenization procedure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1700
449 The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets
Authors: E. Jomehzadeh, A.R. Saidi
Abstract:In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out. The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.
Keywords: Small scale, Nonlinear vibration, Graphene sheet, Nonlocal continuumProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2195
448 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Keywords: Induction motor, multi-level inverters, NPC inverter, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector pulse width modulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 841
447 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B
Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas
Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.
Keywords: Supported AuNPs, Semiconductor photocatalyst, Photodegradation, Rhodamine B.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2168
446 Numerical Investigation of Poling Vector Angle on Adaptive Sandwich Plate Deflection
Authors: Alireza Pouladkhan, Mohammad Yavari Foroushani, Ali Mortazavi
This paper presents a finite element model for a Sandwich Plate containing a piezoelectric core. A sandwich plate with a piezoelectric core is constructed using the shear mode of piezoelectric materials. The orientation of poling vector has a significant effect on deflection and stress induced in the piezo-actuated adaptive sandwich plate. In the present study, the influence of this factor for a clamped-clamped-free-free and simple-simple-free-free square sandwich plate is investigated using Finite Element Method. The study uses ABAQUS (v.6.7) software to derive the finite element model of the sandwich plate. By using this model, the study gives the influences of the poling vector angle on the response of the smart structure and determines the maximum transverse displacement and maximum stress induced.
Keywords: Finite element method, Sandwich plate, Poling vector, Piezoelectric materials, Smart structure, Electric enthalpy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1853
445 Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil over TiO2 Supported nano-ZnO
Authors: Mbala Mukenga, Edison Muzenda, Kalala Jalama, Reinout Meijboom
Abstract:TiO2 supported nano-ZnO catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation and tested for the trans-esterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The TiO2 support stabilized the nano-ZnO in a dispersed form with limited crystallite size compared to the unsupported ZnO. The final ZnO dispersion and crystallite size and the material transfer resistance in the catalyst significantly influenced the supported nano-ZnO catalyst performance.
Keywords: nano-ZnO, soybean oil, TiO2, trans-esterificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1877
444 Clamped-clamped Boundary Conditions for Analysis Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell with a Ring based on Third Order Shear Deformation Theory
Authors: M.Pourmahmoud, M.Salmanzadeh, M.Mehrani, M.R.Isvandzibaei
Abstract:In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.
Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1500
443 The Effects of Plate-Support Condition on Buckling Strength of Rectangular Perforated Plates under Linearly Varying In-Plane Normal Load
Authors: M. Tajdari, A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Naeemi, P. Pirali
Abstract:Mechanical buckling analysis of rectangular plates with central circular cutout is performed in this paper. The finiteelement method is used to study the effects of plate-support conditions, aspect ratio, and hole size on the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates subjected to linearly varying loading. Results show that increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates. It is also concluded that the clamped boundary condition increases the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more than the simply-supported boundary condition and the free boundary conditions enhance the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more effectively than the fixed boundary conditions. Furthermore, for the bending cases, the critical buckling load of perforated plates with free edges is less than perforated plates with fixed edges.
Keywords: Buckling, Perforated plates, Boundary condition, Rectangular platesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3332
442 Global and Local Structure of Supported Pd Catalysts
Authors: V. Rednic, N. Aldea, P. Marginean, D. Macovei, C. M. Teodorescu, E. Dorolti, F. Matei
Abstract:The supported Pd catalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in order to determine their global and local structure. The average particle size of the supported Pd catalysts was determined by X-ray diffraction method. One of the main purposes of the present contribution is to focus on understanding the specific role of the Pd particle size determined by X-ray diffraction and that of the support oxide. Based on X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis we consider that the whole local structure of the investigated samples are distorted concerning the atomic number but the distances between atoms are almost the same as for standard Pd sample. Due to the strong modifications of the Pd cluster local structure, the metal-support interface may influence the electronic properties of metal clusters and thus their reactivity for absorption of the reactant molecules.
Keywords: metal-support interaction, supported metal catalysts, synchrotron radiation, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-raydiffractionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1409
441 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition
Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov
In this article a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes- in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.
Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2529
440 Selective and Facilitated Transport of Vanadium (VO2 +) Ion through Supported Liquid Membrane and Effects of Membrane Characteristics
Authors: Danial Husseinzadeh
Abstract:A new supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective transport of VO2 + ions was prepared in this present work. The SLM was a thin porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane soaked with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as mobile carrier in Xylene as organic solvent. D2EHPA acts as a highly selective carrier for the uphill transport of VO2 + ions through the SLM. The transport of VO2 + ions reached to 64%. In the presence of P2O7-2 ion as suitable masking agent in the feed solution, the interfering effects of other cations were eliminated.
Keywords: Facilitated ion transport, Membrane characteristics, Supported liquid membranes, Vanadium.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1721
439 Design of Direct Power Controller for a High Power Neutral Point Clamped Converter Using Real Time Simulator
Authors: Amin Zabihinejad, Philippe Viarouge
In this paper, a direct power control (DPC) strategies have been investigated in order to control a high power AC/DC converter with time variable load. This converter is composed of a three level three phase neutral point clamped (NPC) converter as rectifier and an H-bridge four quadrant current control converter. In the high power application, controller not only must adjust the desire outputs but also decrease the level of distortions which are injected to the network from the converter. Regarding to this reason and nonlinearity of the power electronic converter, the conventional controllers cannot achieve appropriate responses. In this research, the precise mathematical analysis has been employed to design the appropriate controller in order to control the time variable load. A DPC controller has been proposed and simulated using Matlab/ Simulink. In order to verify the simulation result, a real time simulator- OPAL-RT- has been employed. In this paper, the dynamic response and stability of the high power NPC with variable load has been investigated and compared with conventional types using a real time simulator. The results proved that the DPC controller is more stable and has more precise outputs in comparison with conventional controller.
Keywords: Direct Power Control, Three Level Rectifier, Real Time Simulator, High Power Application.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1853
438 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements
Authors: C. Juntarasaid, T. Pulngern, S. Chucheepsakul
A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight.
Keywords: Variational method, postbuckling, finite element method, intrinsic coordinate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 475
437 Structural and Electronic Characterization of Supported Ni and Au Catalysts used in Environment Protection Determined by XRD,XAS and XPS methods
Authors: N. Aldea, V. Rednic, F. Matei, Tiandou Hu, M. Neumann
Abstract:The nickel and gold nanoclusters as supported catalysts were analyzed by XAS, XRD and XPS in order to determine their local, global and electronic structure. The present study has pointed out a strong deformation of the local structure of the metal, due to its interaction with oxide supports. The average particle size, the mean squares of the microstrain, the particle size distribution and microstrain functions of the supported Ni and Au catalysts were determined by XRD method using Generalized Fermi Function for the X-ray line profiles approximation. Based on EXAFS analysis we consider that the local structure of the investigated systems is strongly distorted concerning the atomic number pairs. Metal-support interaction is confirmed by the shape changes of the probability densities of electron transitions: Ni K edge (1s → continuum and 2p), Au LIII-edge (2p3/2 → continuum, 6s, 6d5/2 and 6d3/2). XPS investigations confirm the metal-support interaction at their interface.
Keywords: local and global structure, metal-support interaction, supported metal catalysts, synchrotron radiation, X-ray absorptionspectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1641