Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2108

Search results for: Functionally gradient material

2108 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh

Abstract:

Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Material, Pressure, Steady State Creep, Thick-Cylinder.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
2107 Mechanical and Thermal Stresses in Functionally Graded Cylinders

Authors: A. Kurşun, E. Kara, E. Çetin, Ş. Aksoy, A. Kesimli

Abstract:

In this study, thermal elastic stress distribution occurred on long hollow cylinders made of functionally graded material (FGM) was analytically defined under thermal, mechanical and thermo mechanical loads. In closed form solutions for elastic stresses and displacements are obtained analytically by using the infinitesimal deformation theory of elasticity. It was assumed that elasticity modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and density of cylinder materials could change in terms of an exponential function as for that Poisson’s ratio was constant. A gradient parameter n is chosen between - 1 and 1. When n equals to zero, the disc becomes isotropic. Circumferential, radial and longitudinal stresses in the FGMs cylinders are depicted in the figures. As a result, the gradient parameters have great effects on the stress systems of FGMs cylinders.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, hollow cylinder, thermoelasticity, thermomechanical load.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2837
2106 Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness

Authors: Mostafa Raki, Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Keywords: Stability of plate, thermal buckling, rectangularplate, functionally graded material, first order shear deformationtheory.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813
2105 Effect of Geometrical Parameters on Natural Frequencies of FGM Cylindrical shell with Holes Under Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Mostafa Ghayour, Mohammad Sadegh Golabi

Abstract:

In the recent years, functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have gained considerable attention in the high temperature environment applications. In this paper, free vibration of thin functionally graded cylindrical shell with hole composed of stainless steel and zirconia is studied. The mechanical properties vary smoothly and continuously from one surface to the other according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The Influence of shell geometrical parameters, variations of volume fractions and boundary conditions on natural frequency is considered. The equations of motion are based on strains-displacement relations from Love-s shell theory and Rayleigh method. The results have been obtained for natural frequencies of cylindrical shell with holes for different shape, number and location in this paper.

Keywords: Functionally gradient material, Vibration, various boundary conditions, cylindrical shells.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1466
2104 Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

Authors: Gholam Reza Koochaki

Abstract:

This work presents the highly accurate numerical calculation of the natural frequencies for functionally graded beams with simply supported boundary conditions. The Timoshenko first order shear deformation beam theory and the higher order shear deformation beam theory of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams analysis. The material property gradient is assumed to be in the thickness direction. The Hamilton-s principle is utilized to obtain the dynamic equations of functionally graded beams. The influences of the volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on the fundamental frequencies are discussed. Comparison of the numerical results for the homogeneous beam with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory results show that the derived model is satisfactory.

Keywords: Functionally graded beam, Free vibration, Hamilton's principle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1869
2103 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, Cylindrical pressure tubes, Small deformation theory, Yield onset, Thermal loading.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682
2102 Investigation of Stability of Functionally Graded Material when Encountering Periodic Loading

Authors: M. Amiri

Abstract:

In this work, functionally graded materials (FGMs), subjected to loading, which varies with time has been studied. The material properties of FGM are changing through the thickness of material as power law distribution. The conical shells have been chosen for this study so in the first step capability equations for FGM have been obtained. With Galerkin method, these equations have been replaced with time dependant differential equations with variable coefficient. These equations have solved for different initial conditions with variation methods. Important parameters in loading conditions are semi-vertex angle, external pressure and material properties. Results validation has been done by comparison between with those in previous studies of other researchers.

Keywords: Impulsive semi-vertex angle, loading, functionally graded materials, composite material.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 797
2101 Effects of Thread Dimensions of Functionally Graded Dental Implants on Stress Distribution

Authors: Kaman M. O., Celik N.

Abstract:

In this study, stress distributions on dental implants made of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBM) are investigated numerically. The implant body is considered to be subjected to axial compression loads. Numerical problem is assumed to be 2D, and ANSYS commercial software is used for the analysis. The cross section of the implant thread varies as varying the height (H) and the width (t) of the thread. According to thread dimensions of implant and material properties of FGBM, equivalent stress distribution on the implant is determined and presented with contour plots along with the maximum equivalent stress values. As a result, with increasing material gradient parameter (n), the equivalent stress decreases, but the minimum stress distribution increases. Maximum stress values decrease with decreasing implant radius (r). Maximum von Mises stresses increases with decreasing H when t is constant. On the other hand, the stress values are not affected by variation of t in the case of H = constant.

Keywords: Functionally graded biomaterials, dental implant finite element method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2705
2100 Free Vibration Analysis of Smart FGM Plates

Authors: F.Ebrahimi, A.Rastgo

Abstract:

Analytical investigation of the free vibration behavior of circular functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with two uniformly distributed actuator layers made of piezoelectric (PZT4) material on the top and bottom surfaces of the circular FG plate based on the classical plate theory (CPT) is presented in this paper. The material properties of the functionally graded substrate plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents and the distribution of electric potential field along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layers is simulated by a quadratic function. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for clamped edge boundary condition of the plate. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and Numerical investigations are performed for FG plates with two surface-bonded piezoelectric layers. Emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the gradient index of FG plate on the free vibration characteristics of the structure. The results are verified by those obtained from threedimensional finite element analyses.

Keywords: Circular plate, CPT, Functionally graded, Piezoelectric.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2032
2099 Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Radiation Shielding Nanoengineered Sandwich Composites

Authors: Nasim Abuali Galehdari, Thomas J. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

In recent years, nanotechnology has played an important role in the design of an efficient radiation shielding polymeric composites. It is well known that, high loading of nanomaterials with radiation absorption properties can enhance the radiation attenuation efficiency of shielding structures. However, due to difficulties in dispersion of nanomaterials into polymer matrices, there has been a limitation in higher loading percentages of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to provide a methodology to fabricate and then to characterize the functionally graded radiation shielding structures, which can provide an efficient radiation absorption property along with good structural integrity. Sandwich structures composed of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric as face sheets and functionally graded epoxy nanocomposite as core material were fabricated. A method to fabricate a functionally graded core panel with controllable gradient dispersion of nanoparticles is discussed. In order to optimize the design of functionally graded sandwich composites and to analyze the stress distribution throughout the sandwich composite thickness, a finite element method was used. The sandwich panels were discretized using 3-Dimensional 8 nodded brick elements. Classical laminate analysis in conjunction with simplified micromechanics equations were used to obtain the properties of the face sheets. The presented finite element model would provide insight into deformation and damage mechanics of the functionally graded sandwich composites from the structural point of view.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, functionally graded material, radiation shielding, sandwich composites, finite element method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 882
2098 Comprehensive Studies on Mechanical Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: Kyung-Su Na, Ji-Hwan Kim

Abstract:

Stress analysis of functionally graded composite plates composed of ceramic, functionally graded material and metal layers is investigated using 3-D finite element method. In FGM layer, material properties are assumed to be varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The 3-D finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the variation of material properties in the thickness direction. Numerical results are compared for three types of materials. In the analysis, the tensile and the compressive stresses are summarized for various FGM thickness ratios, volume fraction distributions, geometric parameters and mechanical loads.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, Stress analysis, 3-D finite element method

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1487
2097 Transient Thermal Stresses of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinder under the Green-Lindsay Model

Authors: Tariq T. Darabseh

Abstract:

The transient thermoelastic response of thick hollow cylinder made of functionally graded material under thermal loading is studied. The generalized coupled thermoelasticity based on the Green-Lindsay model is used. The thermal and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are assumed to be varied in the radial direction according to a power law variation as a function of the volume fractions of the constituents. The thermal and elastic governing equations are solved by using Galerkin finite element method. All the finite element calculations were done by using commercial finite element program FlexPDE. The transient temperature, radial displacement, and thermal stresses distribution through the radial direction of the cylinder are plotted.

Keywords: Finite element method, thermal stresses, Green-Lindsay theory, functionally graded material.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1729
2096 Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium

Authors: Nidhal Jamia, Sami El-Borgi

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.

Keywords: Functionally graded piezoelectric material, mixed-mode crack, non-local theory, Schmidt method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 731
2095 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Abstract:

The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, functionally graded material, porosity volume fraction, power law.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 400
2094 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Clamped-Clamped Boundary Conditions

Authors: M.R.Alinaghizadehand, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Study of the vibration cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is important. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clampedclamped boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1244
2093 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Free-Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: A.R.Tahmasebi Birgani, M.Hosseinjani Zamenjani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of free-free boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
2092 Effect of Shear Theories on Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, M. M. Najafizadeh, J. Alibabaei Shahraki, P. Khazaeinejad

Abstract:

Analytical solution of the first-order and third-order shear deformation theories are developed to study the free vibration behavior of simply supported functionally graded plates. The material properties of plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction as a power law distribution of volume fraction of the constituents. The governing equations of functionally graded plates are established by applying the Hamilton's principle and are solved by using the Navier solution method. The influence of side-tothickness ratio and constituent of volume fraction on the natural frequencies are studied. The results are validated with the known data in the literature.

Keywords: Free vibration, Functionally graded plate, Naviersolution method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1300
2091 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Under Effect Clamped-Free Boundary Conditions Using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R. Isvandzibaei, M.R. Alinaghizadeh, A.H. Zaman

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clamped-free boundary conditions

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle, clamped supported.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1383
2090 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Free-free and Clamed-clamped Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. R.Isvandzibaei, A.Jahani

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of free-free and clamped-clamped boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1388
2089 On Stability of Stiffened Cylindrical Shells with Varying Material Properties

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, P. Khazaeinejad

Abstract:

The static stability analysis of stiffened functionally graded cylindrical shells by isotropic rings and stringers subjected to axial compression is presented in this paper. The Young's modulus of the shell is taken to be function of the thickness coordinate. The fundamental relations, the equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the Sander's assumption. Resulting equations are employed to obtain the closed-form solution for the critical axial loads. The effects of material properties, geometric size and different material coefficient on the critical axial loads are examined. The analytical results are compared and validated using the finite element model.

Keywords: Functionally graded material, Stability, Stiffened cylindrical shell, Finite element analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633
2088 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young’s modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Stress Concentration, Circular Hole, FGM Plate, Bending.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2798
2087 Nickel on Inner Surface and Stainless Steel on Outer Surface for Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell

Authors: A.R.Tahmasebi Birgani, M.Hosseinjani Zamenjani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Study is on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. The effects of the FGM configuration are studied by studying the frequencies of FG cylindrical shells. In this case FG cylindrical shell has Nickel on its inner surface and stainless steel on its outer surface. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of configurations of the constituent materials on the frequencies. The properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power-law distribution. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, the influence of the constituent various volume fractions on the frequencies.

Keywords: Nickel, Stainless Steel, Cylindrical shell.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1163
2086 Thermo-mechanical Deformation Behavior of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates Subjected to Various Boundary Conditions and Loadings

Authors: Mohammad Talha, B. N. Singh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of shear deformable functionally graded ceramicmetal (FGM) plates. Theoretical formulations are based on higher order shear deformation theory with a considerable amendment in the transverse displacement using finite element method (FEM). The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to be temperaturedependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a powerlaw distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The temperature field is supposed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface (XY plane) and varied in the thickness direction only. The fundamental equations for the FGM plates are obtained using variational approach by considering traction free boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. A C0 continuous isoparametric Lagrangian finite element with thirteen degrees of freedom per node have been employed to accomplish the results. Convergence and comparison studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the present model. The numerical results are obtained for different thickness ratios, aspect ratios, volume fraction index and temperature rise with different loading and boundary conditions. Numerical results for the FGM plates are provided in dimensionless tabular and graphical forms. The results proclaim that the temperature field and the gradient in the material properties have significant role on the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of the FGM plates.

Keywords: Functionally graded material, higher order shear deformation theory, finite element method, independent field variables.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1958
2085 A Refined Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory for Assessing Scaling-Dependent Vibration Behavior of Microbeams

Authors: Xiaobai Li, Li Li, Yujin Hu, Weiming Deng, Zhe Ding

Abstract:

A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model, which accounts for nonlocal stress field, strain gradient field and higher order inertia force field, is derived based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory considering velocity gradient effect. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived both in dimensional and dimensionless form by employed the Hamilton principle. The analytical solutions based on different continuum theories are compared. The effect of higher order inertia terms is extremely significant in high frequency range. It is found that there exists an asymptotic frequency for the proposed beam model, while for the nonlocal strain gradient theory the solutions diverge. The effect of strain gradient field in thickness direction is significant in low frequencies domain and it cannot be neglected when the material strain length scale parameter is considerable with beam thickness. The influence of each of three size effect parameters on the natural frequencies are investigated. The natural frequencies increase with the increasing material strain gradient length scale parameter or decreasing velocity gradient length scale parameter and nonlocal parameter.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli Beams, free vibration, higher order inertia, nonlocal strain gradient theory, velocity gradient.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 736
2084 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei

Abstract:

In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, Temperature distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 600
2083 Large Vibration Amplitude of Circular Functionally Graded Plates Resting on Pasternak Foundations

Authors: El Kaak Rachid, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present study, the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded circular plates (FGCP) resting on Pasternak elastic foundation with immovable ends was studied. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results dealing with the problem of functionally graded plates. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear frequency to the linear frequency ratio of the FGCP has been studied. The effect of the linear and shearing foundations is to decrease the frequency ratio, where it increases with the effect of the nonlinear foundation stiffness. 

Keywords: Non-linear vibrations, Circular plates, Pasternak foundation, functionally graded materials.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1897
2082 Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Saeed Asiri, Hassan Hedia, Wael Eissa

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.

Keywords: Vibration, Attenuation, FGM, ANSYS2011, FEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2905
2081 A Homogenisation Procedure for the Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams at Large Vibration Amplitudes

Authors: A. Zerkane, K. El Bikri, R. Benamar

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to show that the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded beams (FGB) with immovable ends can be reduced to that of isotropic homogeneous beams with effective bending stiffness and axial stiffness parameters by using an homogenization procedure. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the Euler-Bernouilli beam theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. The non-dimensional curvatures associated to the nonlinear fundamental mode are also given for various vibration amplitudes in the case of clamped-clamped FGB.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, functionally graded materials, homogenization procedure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1582
2080 Work Function Engineering of Functionally Graded ZnO+Ga2O3 Thin Film for Solar Cell and Organic Light Emitting Diodes Applications

Authors: Yong-Taeg Oh, Won Song, Seok-Eui Choi, Bo-Ra Koo, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

ZnO+Ga2O3 functionally graded thin films (FGTFs) were examined for their potential use as Solar cell and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). FGTF transparent conducting oxides (TCO) were fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The composition gradient was controlled up to 10% by changing the plasma power of the two sputter guns. A Ga2O3+ZnO graded region was placed on the top layer of ZnO. The FGTFs showed up to 80% transmittance. Their surface resistances were reduced to < 10% by increasing the Ga2O3: pure ZnO ratio in the TCO. The FGTFs- work functions could be controlled within a range of 0.18 eV. The controlled work function is a very promising technology because it reduces the contact resistance between the anode and Hall transport layers of OLED and solar cell devices.

Keywords: Work Function, TCO, Functionally Graded Thin Films, Resistance, Transmittance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2052
2079 Free Vibration of Axially Functionally Graded Simply Supported Beams Using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: A. Selmi

Abstract:

Free vibration analysis of homogenous and axially functionally graded simply supported beams within the context of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented in this paper. The material properties of the beams are assumed to obey the linear law distribution. The effective elastic modulus of the composite was predicted by using the rule of mixture. Here, the complexities which appear in solving differential equation of transverse vibration of composite beams which limit the analytical solution to some special cases are overcome using a relatively new approach called the Differential Transformation Method. This technique is applied for solving differential equation of transverse vibration of axially functionally graded beams. Natural frequencies and corresponding normalized mode shapes are calculated for different Young’s modulus ratios. MATLAB code is designed to solve the transformed differential equation of the beam. Comparison of the present results with the exact solutions proves the effectiveness, the accuracy, the simplicity, and computational stability of the differential transformation method. The effect of the Young’s modulus ratio on the normalized natural frequencies and mode shapes is found to be very important.

Keywords: Differential transformation method, functionally graded material, mode shape, natural frequency.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 492