Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 400

Search results for: complementary Golay codes

400 Beam Coding with Orthogonal Complementary Golay Codes for Signal to Noise Ratio Improvement in Ultrasound Mammography

Authors: Y. Kumru, K. Enhos, H. Köymen

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the experimental results on using complementary Golay coded signals at 7.5 MHz to detect breast microcalcifications of 50 µm size. Simulations using complementary Golay coded signals show perfect consistence with the experimental results, confirming the improved signal to noise ratio for complementary Golay coded signals. For improving the success on detecting the microcalcifications, orthogonal complementary Golay sequences having cross-correlation for minimum interference are used as coded signals and compared to tone burst pulse of equal energy in terms of resolution under weak signal conditions. The measurements are conducted using an experimental ultrasound research scanner, Digital Phased Array System (DiPhAS) having 256 channels, a phased array transducer with 7.5 MHz center frequency and the results obtained through experiments are validated by Field-II simulation software. In addition, to investigate the superiority of coded signals in terms of resolution, multipurpose tissue equivalent phantom containing series of monofilament nylon targets, 240 µm in diameter, and cyst-like objects with attenuation of 0.5 dB/[MHz x cm] is used in the experiments. We obtained ultrasound images of monofilament nylon targets for the evaluation of resolution. Simulation and experimental results show that it is possible to differentiate closely positioned small targets with increased success by using coded excitation in very weak signal conditions.

Keywords: Coded excitation, complementary Golay codes, DiPhAS, medical ultrasound.

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399 A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction

Authors: Sanjay Singh, M Sathish Kumar, H. S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication systems. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. A major drawback of OFDM is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal which can significantly impact the performance of the power amplifier. In this paper we have compared the PAPR reduction performance of Golay and Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. From our simulation it has been found that the PAPR reduction performance of Golay coded OFDM is better than the Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. Moreover, for the optimum PAPR reduction performance, code configuration for Golay and Reed-Muller codes has been identified.

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, Perfect Codes, Golay Codes, Reed-Muller Codes

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398 Joint Microstatistic Multiuser Detection and Cancellation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects for the Uplink of MC-CDMA Systems Using Golay Codes

Authors: Peter Drotar, Juraj Gazda, Pavol Galajda, Dusan Kocur

Abstract:

The study in this paper underlines the importance of correct joint selection of the spreading codes for uplink of multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) at the transmitter side and detector at the receiver side in the presence of nonlinear distortion due to high power amplifier (HPA). The bit error rate (BER) of system for different spreading sequences (Walsh code, Gold code, orthogonal Gold code, Golay code and Zadoff-Chu code) and different kinds of receivers (minimum mean-square error receiver (MMSE-MUD) and microstatistic multi-user receiver (MSF-MUD)) is compared by means of simulations for MC-CDMA transmission system. Finally, the results of analysis will show, that the application of MSF-MUD in combination with Golay codes can outperform significantly the other tested spreading codes and receivers for all mostly used models of HPA.

Keywords: HPA, MC-CDMA, microstatistic filter, multi-user receivers, PAPR.

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397 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals

Authors: J. S. Bhullar, Manish Gupta

Abstract:

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

Keywords: Quantum Codes, BCH Codes, Dual BCH Codes, Designed Distance.

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396 Squaring Construction for Repeated-Root Cyclic Codes

Authors: O. P. Vinocha , J. S. Bhullar , Manish Gupta

Abstract:

We considered repeated-root cyclic codes whose block length is divisible by the characteristic of the underlying field. Cyclic self dual codes are also the repeated root cyclic codes. It is known about the one-level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes. In this correspondence, we introduced of two level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes of length 2a b , a > 0, b is odd.

Keywords: Squaring Construction, generator matrix, selfdual codes, cyclic codes, coset codes, repeated root cycliccodes.

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395 Performance Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Othman O. Khalifa, Sheroz khan, Mohamad Zaid, Muhamad Nawawi

Abstract:

This paper mainly about the study on one of the widely used error correcting codes that is Low parity check Codes (LDPC). In this paper, the Regular LDPC code has been discussed The LDPC codes explained in this paper is about the Regular Binary LDPC codes or the Gallager.

Keywords: LDPC, channel coding.

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394 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li

Abstract:

This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: Skew cyclic code, gray map, automophism, cyclic code.

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393 Pontrjagin Duality and Codes over Finite Commutative Rings

Authors: Khalid Abdelmoumen, Mustapha Najmeddine, Hussain Ben-Azza

Abstract:

We present linear codes over finite commutative rings which are not necessarily Frobenius. We treat the notion of syndrome decoding by using Pontrjagin duality. We also give a version of Delsarte-s theorem over rings relating trace codes and subring subcodes.

Keywords: Codes, Finite Rings, Pontrjagin Duality, Trace Codes.

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392 Discrete Polynomial Moments and Savitzky-Golay Smoothing

Authors: Paul O'Leary, Matthew Harker

Abstract:

This paper presents unified theory for local (Savitzky- Golay) and global polynomial smoothing. The algebraic framework can represent any polynomial approximation and is seamless from low degree local, to high degree global approximations. The representation of the smoothing operator as a projection onto orthonormal basis functions enables the computation of: the covariance matrix for noise propagation through the filter; the noise gain and; the frequency response of the polynomial filters. A virtually perfect Gram polynomial basis is synthesized, whereby polynomials of degree d = 1000 can be synthesized without significant errors. The perfect basis ensures that the filters are strictly polynomial preserving. Given n points and a support length ls = 2m + 1 then the smoothing operator is strictly linear phase for the points xi, i = m+1. . . n-m. The method is demonstrated on geometric surfaces data lying on an invariant 2D lattice.

Keywords: Gram polynomials, Savitzky-Golay Smoothing, Discrete Polynomial Moments

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391 Low Complexity Regular LDPC codes for Magnetic Storage Devices

Authors: Gabofetswe Malema, Michael Liebelt

Abstract:

LDPC codes could be used in magnetic storage devices because of their better decoding performance compared to other error correction codes. However, their hardware implementation results in large and complex decoders. This one of the main obstacles the decoders to be incorporated in magnetic storage devices. We construct small high girth and rate 2 columnweight codes from cage graphs. Though these codes have low performance compared to higher column weight codes, they are easier to implement. The ease of implementation makes them more suitable for applications such as magnetic recording. Cages are the smallest known regular distance graphs, which give us the smallest known column-weight 2 codes given the size, girth and rate of the code.

Keywords: Structured LDPC codes, cage graphs.

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390 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II

Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade

Abstract:

In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.

Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.

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389 Coded Transmission in Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Method

Authors: Ihor Trots, Yuriy Tasinkevych, Andrzej Nowicki, Marcin Lewandowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16-bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequencies 4 MHz was used. Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the wire phantom as well as of the tissue mimicking phantom is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Keywords: Golay coded sequences, radiation pattern, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging.

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388 Enhancing the Error-Correcting Performance of LDPC Codes through an Efficient Use of Decoding Iterations

Authors: Insah Bhurtah, P. Clarel Catherine, K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah

Abstract:

The decoding of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes is operated over a redundant structure known as the bipartite graph, meaning that the full set of bit nodes is not absolutely necessary for decoder convergence. In 2008, Soyjaudah and Catherine designed a recovery algorithm for LDPC codes based on this assumption and showed that the error-correcting performance of their codes outperformed conventional LDPC Codes. In this work, the use of the recovery algorithm is further explored to test the performance of LDPC codes while the number of iterations is progressively increased. For experiments conducted with small blocklengths of up to 800 bits and number of iterations of up to 2000, the results interestingly demonstrate that contrary to conventional wisdom, the error-correcting performance keeps increasing with increasing number of iterations.

Keywords: Error-correcting codes, information theory, low-density parity-check codes, sum-product algorithm.

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387 Systematic Unit-Memory Binary Convolutional Codes from Linear Block Codes over F2r + vF2r

Authors: John Mark Lampos, Virgilio Sison

Abstract:

Two constructions of unit-memory binary convolutional codes from linear block codes over the finite semi-local ring F2r +vF2r , where v2 = v, are presented. In both cases, if the linear block code is systematic, then the resulting convolutional encoder is systematic, minimal, basic and non-catastrophic. The Hamming free distance of the convolutional code is bounded below by the minimum Hamming distance of the block code. New examples of binary convolutional codes that meet the Heller upper bound for systematic codes are given.

Keywords: Convolutional codes, semi-local ring, free distance, Heller bound.

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386 In Vitro Study of Coded Transmission in Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Systems

Authors: Ihor Trots, Yuriy Tasinkevych, Andrzej Nowicki, Marcin Lewandowski

Abstract:

In the paper the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging is presented. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Moreover signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved while maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16- bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequency 4 MHz was used. To generate a spherical wave covering the full image region a single element transmission aperture was used and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver is presented to illustrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Keywords: Golay coded sequences, radiation pattern, signal processing, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging.

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385 Low Complexity, High Performance LDPC Codes Based on Defected Fullerene Graphs

Authors: Ashish Goswami, Rakesh Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, LDPC Codes based on defected fullerene graphs have been generated. And it is found that the codes generated are fast in encoding and better in terms of error performance on AWGN Channel.

Keywords: LDPC Codes, Fullerene Graphs, Defected Fullerene Graphs.

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384 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao

Abstract:

A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.

Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome Spinors

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383 Packing and Covering Radii of Linear Error-Block Codes

Authors: Rabiˆı DARITI, El Mamoun SOUIDI

Abstract:

Linear error-block codes are a natural generalization of linear error correcting codes. The purpose of this paper is to generalize some results on the packing and the covering radii to the error-block case. We study their properties when a code undergoes some specific modifications and combinations with another code. We give a few bounds on the packing and the covering radii of these codes.

Keywords: Linear error-block codes, π-distance, Correction capacity, Packing radius, Covering radius.

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382 Maximum Distance Separable b-Symbol Repeated-Root γ-Constacylic Codes over a Finite Chain Ring of Length 2

Authors: Jamal Laaouine, Mohammed Elhassani Charkani

Abstract:

Let p be a prime and let b be an integer. MDS b-symbol codes are a direct generalization of MDS codes. The γ-constacyclic codes of length pˢ over the finite commutative chain ring Fₚm [u]/ < u² > had been classified into four distinct types, where is a nonzero element of the field Fₚm. Let C₃ be a code of Type 3. In this paper, we obtain the b-symbol distance db(C₃) of the code C₃. Using this result, necessary and sufficient conditions under which C₃ is an MDS b-symbol code are given.

Keywords: constacyclic code, repeated-root code, maximum distance separable, MDS codes, b-symbol distance, finite chain rings

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381 String Searching in Dispersed Files using MDS Convolutional Codes

Authors: A. S. Poornima, R. Aparna, B. B. Amberker, Prashant Koulgi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose use of convolutional codes for file dispersal. The proposed method is comparable in complexity to the information Dispersal Algorithm proposed by M.Rabin and for particular choices of (non-binary) convolutional codes, is almost as efficient as that algorithm in terms of controlling expansion in the total storage. Further, our proposed dispersal method allows string search.

Keywords: Convolutional codes, File dispersal, Filereconstruction, Information Dispersal Algorithm, String search.

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380 Effect of Transmission Codes on Hybrid SC/MRC Diversity Reception MQAM system over Rayleigh Fading Channels

Authors: J.S. Ubhi, M.S. Patterh, T.S. Kamal

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of transmission codes on the performance of coherent square M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (CSMQAM) under hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining (H-S/MRC) diversity is analysed. The fading channels are modeled as frequency non-selective slow independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The results for coded MQAM are computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code and compared with uncoded MQAM under H-S/MRC diversity by plotting error probabilities versus average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for various values L and N in order to examine the improvement in the performance of the digital communications system as the number of selected diversity branches is increased. The results for no diversity, conventional SC and Lth order MRC schemes are also plotted for comparison. Closed form analytical results derived in this paper are sufficiently simple and therefore can be computed numerically without any approximations. The analytical results presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems over wireless fading channels.

Keywords: Error probability, diversity reception, Rayleigh fading channels, wireless digital communications.

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379 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.

Keywords: Code division multiple access, pseudo-noise codes, maximal length, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.

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378 H-ARQ Techniques for Wireless Systems with Punctured Non-Binary LDPC as FEC Code

Authors: Ł. Kiedrowski, H. Gierszal, W. Hołubowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the H-ARQ techniques comparison for OFDM systems with a new family of non-binary LDPC codes which has been developed within the EU FP7 DAVINCI project. The punctured NB-LDPC codes have been used in a simulated model of the transmission system. The link level performance has been evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency, codeword error rate and average number of retransmissions. The NB-LDPC codes can be easily and effective implemented with different methods of the retransmission needed if correct decoding of a codeword failed. Here the Optimal Symbol Selection method is proposed as a Chase Combining technique.

Keywords: H-ARQ, LDPC, Non-Binary, Punctured Codes.

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377 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.

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376 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano

Abstract:

Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: Complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror, floating active resistors.

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375 Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking

Authors: Ali Akbar Attari, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, spread spectrum, discrete wavelet transform, psychoacoustic, Savitsky-Golay filter.

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374 2D Bar Codes Reading: Solutions for Camera Phones

Authors: Hao Wang, Yanming Zou

Abstract:

Two-dimensional (2D) bar codes were designed to carry significantly more data with higher information density and robustness than its 1D counterpart. Thanks to the popular combination of cameras and mobile phones, it will naturally bring great commercial value to use the camera phone for 2D bar code reading. This paper addresses the problem of specific 2D bar code design for mobile phones and introduces a low-level encoding method of matrix codes. At the same time, we propose an efficient scheme for 2D bar codes decoding, of which the effort is put on solutions of the difficulties introduced by low image quality that is very common in bar code images taken by a phone camera.

Keywords: 2D bar code reading, camera phone, low-level encoding, mixed model

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373 Isomorphism on Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: A.Nagoor Gani, J.Malarvizhi

Abstract:

In this paper, the order, size and degree of the nodes of the isomorphic fuzzy graphs are discussed. Isomorphism between fuzzy graphs is proved to be an equivalence relation. Some properties of self complementary and self weak complementary fuzzy graphs are discussed.

Keywords: complementary fuzzy graphs, co-weak isomorphism, equivalence relation, fuzzy relation, weak isomorphism.

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372 Performance Verification of Seismic Design Codes for RC Frames

Authors: Payam Asadi, Ali Bakhshi

Abstract:

In this study, a frame work for verification of famous seismic codes is utilized. To verify the seismic codes performance, damage quantity of RC frames is compared with the target performance. Due to the randomness property of seismic design and earthquake loads excitation, in this paper, fragility curves are developed. These diagrams are utilized to evaluate performance level of structures which are designed by the seismic codes. These diagrams further illustrate the effect of load combination and reduction factors of codes on probability of damage exceedance. Two types of structures; very high important structures with high ductility and medium important structures with intermediate ductility are designed by different seismic codes. The Results reveal that usually lower damage ratio generate lower probability of exceedance. In addition, the findings indicate that there are buildings with higher quantity of bars which they have higher probability of damage exceedance. Life-cycle cost analysis utilized for comparison and final decision making process.

Keywords: RC frame, fragility curve, performance-base design, life-cycle cost analyses, seismic design codes.

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371 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.

Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.

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