Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 730

Search results for: ceramics composite

730 Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System

Authors: Aung Kyaw Moe, Lukin Evgeny Stepanovich, Popova Nelya Alexandrovna

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.

Keywords: Ceramic, composite material, sintering, corundum.

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729 The Effect of Parameters on Productions of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Fatih Sevim, Emel Sevimli, Fatih Demir, Turan Çalban

Abstract:

Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: Nanofibers, ceramics composite, sol-gel processing, electrospinning.

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728 Efficacy and Stability of Ceramic Powder to Inactivate Avian Influenza Virus

Authors: Chanathip Thammakarn, Misato Tsujimura, Keisuke Satoh, Tomomi Hasegawa, Miho Tamura, Akinobu Kawamura, Yuki Ishida, Atsushi Suguro, Hakimullah Hakim, Sakchai Ruenphet, , Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

This experiment aims to demonstrate the efficacy of ceramic powder derived from various sources to inactivate avian influenza virus and its possibility to use in the environment. The ceramics used in the present experiment were derived from chicken feces (CF), scallop shell (SS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and soybean (SB). All ceramics were mixed with low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H7N1, and then kept at room temperature. The recovered virus was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All ceramics were assessed the inactivation stability in the environment by keeping under sunlight and under wet-dry condition until reached 7 week or 7 resuspension times respectively. The results indicate that all ceramics have excellent efficacy to inactivate LPAIV. This efficacy can be maintained under the simulated condition. The ceramics are expected to be the good materials for application in the biosecurity system at farms.

Keywords: Avian Influenza, Ceramics, Efficacy, Stability.

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727 Machining of FRP Composites by Abrasive Jet Machining Optimization Using Taguchi

Authors: D. V. Srikanth, M. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract:

Abrasive Jet Machining is an Unconventional machining process in which the metal is removed from brittle and hard material in the form of micro-chips. With increase in need of materials like ceramics, composites, in manufacturing of various Mechanical & Electronic components, AJM has become a useful technique for micro machining. The present study highlights the influence of different parameters like Pressure, SOD, Time, Abrasive grain size, nozzle diameter on the Metal removal of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) composite by Abrasive jet machining. The results of the Experiments conducted were analyzed and optimized with TAGUCHI method of Optimization and ANOVA for Optimal Value.

Keywords: ANOVA, FRP Composite, AJC.

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726 Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Management of Lampang Ceramics Industry

Authors: Nattida Wannaruk, Wasawat Nakkiew

Abstract:

This research aims to study the factors that affect the performance of green supply chain management in the Lampang ceramics industry. The data investigation of this research was questionnaires which were gathered from 20 factories in the Lampang ceramics industry. The research factors are divided into five major groups which are green design, green purchasing, green manufacturing, green logistics and reverse logistics. The questionnaire has consisted of four parts that related to factors green supply chain management and general information of the Lampang ceramics industry. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and priority of each factor by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The understanding of factors affecting the green supply chain management of Lampang ceramics industry was indicated in the summary result along with each factor weight. The result of this research could be contributed to the development of indicators or performance evaluation in the future.

Keywords: Lampang ceramics industry, green supply chain management, analytic hierarchy process, factors affecting.

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725 Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials

Authors: Christian C. Vaso, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera

Abstract:

One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.

Keywords: Ceramics, microstructure, fuel cells, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

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724 Investigation of Silane Modified Ceramic Surface of Porous Mullite Ceramics

Authors: I. Markovska, F. Yovkova, G. Minov, D. Rusev, L. Lyubchev

Abstract:

The present research focus on the processing of mullite-based ceramics from oil refinery industrial wastes and byproducts of agricultural industry and on the investigating of silane modified surface of ceramics. Two waste products were used as initial material – waste aluminum oxide and waste rice husk. The burning - out additives used were waste rise husk. It is known that  the oxide ceramics surface is hydrophilic due to the presence of – OH groups in it. The nature of ceramic surface regarding permeation of water and hydrocarbons can be changed by further treatment with silanes. The samples were studied mainly by X-ray analysis, FT-IR absorbance measurements and microscopic analysis. The X-ray analyses showed the phase composition depends on the firing temperature and on the purity of the starting alumina. Two kind of silanes were used for the transformation of surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic – trimethoxymethylsilane (TMMS) and trimethylclorsilane (TMCS).

Keywords: Porous mullite ceramics, waste materials, trimethoxymethylsilane, trimethylclorsilane.

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723 Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics

Authors: A. Karnis, L. Gautron

Abstract:

Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.

Keywords: Cadmium, Calcium-rich phases, Diopside, Domesticwastes, Fly ashes, Glass-ceramics, Lead, Municipal Solid WasteIncineration.

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722 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, Abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining.

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721 Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, IR thermography, composite material, thermal stimulation.

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720 Structural and Electrical Properties of BNT-BT0.08 Ceramics Processed by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Ciceron Berbecaru, Marin Cernea, Gheorghe Virgil Aldica, Roxana Trusca

Abstract:

(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 doped with 8 mol % BaTiO3 powder (BNT-BT0.08), prepared by sol-gel method was compacted and sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. The influence of SPS temperature on the densification of BNT-BT0.08 ceramic was investigated. Starting from sol-gel nanopowder of BNT-BT containing 8 mol % BaTiO3 with an average particles size of about 30 nm, were obtained ceramics with density around 98 % of the theoretical density value when the SPS temperature used was about 850 °C. The average grain size of the resulting ceramics was 80 nm. The BNT-BT0.08 ceramic sample obtained by SPS method has shown good electric properties at various frequencies.

Keywords: (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 doped with BaTiO3, Spark PlasmaSintering (SPS), dielectric properties

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719 Effect of Fine-Ground Ceramic Admixture on Early Age Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, P. Volfová, M. Keppert, R. Černý

Abstract:

Properties of cement pastes with fine-ground ceramics used as an alternative binder replacing Portland cement up to 20% of its mass are investigated. At first, the particle size distribution of cement and fine-ground ceramics is measured using laser analyser. Then, the material properties are studied in the early hardening period up to 28 days. The hydration process of studied materials is monitored by electrical conductivity measurement using TDR sensors. The changes of materials- structures within the hardening are observed using pore size distribution measurement. The compressive strength measurements are done as well. Experimental results show that the replacement of Portland cement by fine-ground ceramics in the amount of up to 20% by mass is acceptable solution from the mechanical point of view. One can also assume similar physical properties of designed materials to the reference material with only Portland cement as binder.

Keywords: Fine-ground ceramics, cement pastes, early age properties, mechanical properties, pore size distribution, electrical conductivity measurement.

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718 Influence of Raw Materials Ratio and Sintering Temperature on the Properties of the Refractory Mullite-Corundum Ceramics

Authors: L. Mahnicka

Abstract:

The alumosilicate ceramics with mullite crystalline phase are used in various branches of science and technique. The mullite refractory ceramics with high porosity serve as a heat insulator and as a constructional materials [1], [2]. The purpose of the work was to sinter high porosity ceramic and to increase the quantity of mullite phase in this mullite, mullite-corundum ceramics. Two types of compositions were prepared at during the experiment. The first type is compositions with commercial alumina and silica oxides. The second type is from mixing these oxides with 10, 20 and 30 wt.%. of kaolin. In all samples the Al2O3 and SiO2 were in 2.57:1 ratio, because that was conformed to mullite stechiometric compositions (3Al2O3.2SiO2). The types of alumina oxides were α-Al2O3 (d50=4µm) and γ-Al2O3 (d50=80µm). Ratios of α-: γ-Al2O3 were (1:1) or (1:3). The porous materials were prepared by slip casting of suspension of raw materials. The aluminium paste (0.18 wt.%) was used as a pore former. Water content in the suspensions was 26-47 wt.%. Pore formation occurred as a result of hydrogen formation in chemical reaction between aluminium paste and water [2]. The samples were sintered at the temperature of 1650°C and 1750°C for one hour. The increasing amount of kaolin, α-: γ-Al2O3 at the ratio (1:3) and sintering at the highest temperature raised the quantity of mullite phase. The mullite phase began to dominate over the corundum phase.

Keywords: Alumina, Kaolin, Mullite-corundum, Porous refractory ceramics

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717 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified with Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 1050°C-1090°C for 2-3 h to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

Keywords: Piezoceramics, Conventional Sintering, KNN, Lead Free.

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716 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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715 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication.

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714 New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis

Abstract:

We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications. 

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, ceramic matrix composites, toughening, ultrasonics.

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713 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak

Abstract:

The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, Aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments.

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712 On the Coupled Electromechanical Behavior of Artificial Materials with Chiral-Shell Elements

Authors: Anna Girchenko, Victor A. Eremeyev, Holm Altenbach

Abstract:

In the present work we investigate both the elastic and electric properties of a chiral material. We consider a composite structure made from a polymer matrix and anisotropic inclusions of GaAs taking into account piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composite material. The principal task of the work is the estimation of the functional properties of the composite material.

Keywords: Coupled electromechanical behavior, Composite structure, Chiral metamaterial.

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711 Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, a coupled damage effect in the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor blade are developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor offers a good stability. Numerical calculations on the model developed prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed determining the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: Rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical.

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710 Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Composite Shell under Transverse end Load

Authors: J. Arashmehr, G. H. Rahimi, S.F.Rasouli

Abstract:

Grid composite structures have many applications in aerospace industry in which deal with transverse loadings abundantly. In present paper a stiffened composite cylindrical shell with clamped-free boundary condition under transverse end load experimentally and numerically was studied. Some electrical strain gauges were employed to measure the strains. Also a finite element analysis was done for validation of experimental result. The FEM software used was ANSYS11. In addition, the results between stiffened composite shell and unstiffened composite shell were compared. It was observed that intersection of two stiffeners has an important effect in decrease of stress in the shell. Fairly good agreements were observed between the numerical and the measured results. According to recent studies about grid composite structures, it should be noted that any investigation like this research has not been reported.

Keywords: Grid composite structure, Transverse loadings, Strain measurement, Finite element analysis

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709 Affecting Factors of the Mechanical Properties to Phenolic/Fiber Composite

Authors: Thirapat Kitinirunkul, Nattawat Winya, Komson Prapunkarn

Abstract:

Influences of the amount of phenolic, curing temperature and curing time on the Mechanical Properties of phenolic/fiber composite were investigated by using two-level factorial design. The latter was used to determine the affects of those factors on mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the affects of amount of phenolic, curing temperature and curing time of the composite to determine the best condition for mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768 by the tensile strength is more than 103 MPa.

Keywords: Phenolic Resin, Composite, Fiber Composite, Affecting Factors.

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708 Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Y. S. Tai, M. Y. Huang, H. T. Hu

Abstract:

The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced metal tubes, energy absorption, axial crushing, impact loading.

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707 The Determinants of Senior Students' Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended E-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended E-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended E-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended E-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended E-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

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706 Composite Patch Repair of Central Crack Growth in Aluminium Alloy Plate

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this work, repaired crack in 6061- T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its seize vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly we repair various cracks with composite patch (carbon/ epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: Composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress.

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705 Microstructural and In-Vitro Characterization of Glass-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Composites

Authors: Uma Batra, Seema Kapoor

Abstract:

Commercial hydroxyapatite (HA) was reinforced by adding 2, 5, and 10 wt % of 28.5%CaO-28.5%P2O5-38%Na2 O- 5%CaF2 based glass and then sintered. Although HA shows good biocompatibility with the human body, its applications are limited to non load-bearing areas and coatings due to its poor mechanical properties. These mechanical properties can be improved substantially with addition of glass ceramics by sintering. In this study, the effects of sintering hydroxyapatite with above specified phosphate glass additions are quantified. Each composition was sintered over a range of temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure and phases of the composites. The density, microhardness, and compressive strength were measured using Archimedes Principle, Vickers Microhardness Tester (at 0.98 N), and Instron Universal Testing Machine (cross speed of 0.5 mm/min) respectively. These results were used to indicate which composition provided suitable material for use in hard tissue replacement. Composites containing 10 wt % glass additions formed dense HA/TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite materials possessing good compressive strength and hardness than HA. In-vitro bioactivity was assessed by evaluating changes in pH and Ca2+ ion concentration of SBF-simulated body fluid on immersion of these composites in it for two weeks.

Keywords: Bioglass, Composite, Hydroxyapatite, Sintering.

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704 Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Laminated Composite Panels

Authors: B. Ramgopal Reddy, K. Ramji, B. Satyanarayana

Abstract:

In this paper, free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminated composite panels is presented. Three types of panels such as flat, concave and convex are considered for study. Numerical simulation is carried out using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical homogenization is employed to calculate the effective elastic properties of randomly distributed carbon nanotube reinforced composites. To verify the accuracy of the finite element method, comparisons are made with existing results available in the literature for conventional laminated composite panels and good agreements are obtained. The results of the CNT reinforced composite materials are compared with conventional composite materials under different boundary conditions.

Keywords: CNT Reinforced Composite Panels, Effective ElasticProperties, Finite Element Method, Natural Frequency.

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703 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Sae-Kung, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, TiO2/Ag composite films, Optical properties, surface plasmon resonance

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702 Investigation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Jute/Carbon Reinforced Composites

Authors: H. Sezgin, O. B. Berkalp, R. Mishra, J. Militky

Abstract:

In the last few decades, due to their advanced properties, there has been an increasing interest in hybrid composite materials. In this study, the effect of different stacking sequences of jute and carbon fabric plies on dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates were investigated. Vacuum bagging system was used to fabricate the composite samples. Each composite laminate was reinforced with two plies of jute fabric and two plies of carbon fabric by varying the position of layers. Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates with increasing temperature. Results showed that the composite sample, which has carbon fabric at the outer layers, has the highest storage and loss modulus. Besides, it was observed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples are close to each other and at about 75 °C.

Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis, textile reinforced composites, thermogravimetric analysis.

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701 Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk

Abstract:

Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

Keywords: Composite, epoxy, polyester, relining, sewage.

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