Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1938

Search results for: electrical conductivity measurement.

1938 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: Single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 362
1937 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar

Abstract:

The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by Radio frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40oC to +150oC can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by Capacitance Bridge and in-waveguide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1890
1936 Electrical Impedance Imaging Using Eddy Current

Authors: A. Ambia, T. Takemae, Y. Kosugi, M. Hongo

Abstract:

Electric impedance imaging is a method of reconstructing spatial distribution of electrical conductivity inside a subject. In this paper, a new method of electrical impedance imaging using eddy current is proposed. The eddy current distribution in the body depends on the conductivity distribution and the magnetic field pattern. By changing the position of magnetic core, a set of voltage differences is measured with a pair of electrodes. This set of voltage differences is used in image reconstruction of conductivity distribution. The least square error minimization method is used as a reconstruction algorithm. The back projection algorithm is used to get two dimensional images. Based on this principle, a measurement system is developed and some model experiments were performed with a saline filled phantom. The shape of each model in the reconstructed image is similar to the corresponding model, respectively. From the results of these experiments, it is confirmed that the proposed method is applicable in the realization of electrical imaging.

Keywords: Back projection algorithm, electrical impedancetomography, eddy current, magnetic inductance tomography.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1466
1935 Effect of Fine-Ground Ceramic Admixture on Early Age Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, P. Volfová, M. Keppert, R. Černý

Abstract:

Properties of cement pastes with fine-ground ceramics used as an alternative binder replacing Portland cement up to 20% of its mass are investigated. At first, the particle size distribution of cement and fine-ground ceramics is measured using laser analyser. Then, the material properties are studied in the early hardening period up to 28 days. The hydration process of studied materials is monitored by electrical conductivity measurement using TDR sensors. The changes of materials- structures within the hardening are observed using pore size distribution measurement. The compressive strength measurements are done as well. Experimental results show that the replacement of Portland cement by fine-ground ceramics in the amount of up to 20% by mass is acceptable solution from the mechanical point of view. One can also assume similar physical properties of designed materials to the reference material with only Portland cement as binder.

Keywords: Fine-ground ceramics, cement pastes, early age properties, mechanical properties, pore size distribution, electrical conductivity measurement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1366
1934 Experimental Investigation and Sensitivity Analysis for the Effects of Fracture Parameters to the Conductance Properties of Laterite

Authors: Bai Wei, Kong Ling-Wei, Guo Ai-Guo

Abstract:

This experiment discusses the effects of fracture parameters such as depth, length, width, angle and the number of the fracture to the conductance properties of laterite using the DUK-2B digital electrical measurement system combined with the method of simulating the fractures. The results of experiment show that the changes of fracture parameters produce effects to the conductance properties of laterite. There is a clear degressive period of the conductivity of laterite during increasing the depth, length, width, or the angle and the quantity of fracture gradually. When the depth of fracture exceeds the half thickness of the soil body, the conductivity of laterite shows evidently non-linear diminishing pattern and the amplitude of decrease tends to increase. The length of fracture has fewer effects than the depth to the conductivity. When the width of fracture reaches some fixed values, the change of the conductivity is less sensitive to the change of the width, and at this time, the conductivity of laterite maintains at a stable level. When the angle of fracture is less than 45°, the decrease of the conductivity is more clearly as the angle increases. But when angle is more than 45°, change of the conductivity is relatively gentle as the angle increases. The increasing quantity of the fracture causes the other fracture parameters having great impact on the change of conductivity. When moisture content and temperature were unchanged, depth and angle of fractures are the major factors affecting the conductivity of laterite soil; quantity, length, and width are minor influencing factors. The sensitivity of fracture parameters affect conductivity of laterite soil is: depth >angles >quantity >length >width.

Keywords: laterite, fracture parameters, conductance properties, conductivity, uniform design, sensitivity analysis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1189
1933 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m·K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: Envelope, Edge conduction, Thermal conductivity, Vacuum insulation panel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2310
1932 Development of the Measurement Apparatus for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Core Material

Authors: Jongmin Kim, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

A measurement apparatus is designed and fabricated to measure the effective thermal conductivity (keff) of a VIP (vacuum insulation panel) core specimen under various vacuum states and external loads. The apparatus consists of part for measuring keff, and parts for controlling external load and vacuum condition. Uncertainty of the apparatus is validated by measuring the standard reference material and comparing with commercial devices with VIP samples. Assessed uncertainty is maximum 2.5 % in case of the standard reference material, 10 % in case of VIP samples. Using the apparatus, keff of glass paper under various vacuum levels is examined.

Keywords: Effective thermal conductivity, guarded hot plate method, vacuum insulation panel

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739
1931 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications

Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga

Abstract:

Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.

Keywords: Copper clad steel wire, conductivity, grounding, skin effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 305
1930 Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF

Authors: Hisashi Imai, Kuan-Yu Chen, Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Hung-Yin Tsai, Junko Umeda

Abstract:

Microstructural and electrical properties of Cu-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at 1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at 1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable increment of the electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Powder metallurgy Cu-Cr alloy powder, vapor-grown carbon fiber, electrical conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1729
1929 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1057
1928 Mechanical Behaviour and Electrical Conductivity of Oxygen Separation Membrane under Uniaxial Compressive Loading

Authors: Wakako Araki, Jürgen Malzbender

Abstract:

The mechanical deformation and the electrical conductivity of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxide under uniaxial compression were investigated at various temperatures up to 1073 K. The material reveals a rather complex mechanical behaviour related to its ferroelasticity and completely different stress-strain curves are obtained during the 1st and 2nd loading cycles. A distinctive ferroelastic creep was observed at 293 K whilst typical ferroelastic stress-strain curve were obtained in the temperature range from 473 K to 873 K. At 1073 K, on the other hand, high-temperature creep deformation was observed instead of ferroelastic deformation. The conductivity increases with increasing compressive stress at all the temperatures. The increase in conductivity is related to both geometrical and piezoelectric effects. From 293 K to 873 K, where the material exhibits ferroelastic behaviour, the variation in the total conductivity decreases with increasing temperature. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the total conductivity variation also decreases with increasing temperature and the maximum in piezoconductivity has a value of about 0.75 % at 293 K for a compressive stress of 100 MPa. There is no effect of domain switching on conductivity except for the geometric effect. At 1073 K, the conductivity is simply proportional to the compressive strain.

Keywords: Ferroelasticity, Piezoconductivity, oxygen separation membrane, perovskite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1500
1927 A Comparative Study of Single- and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Incorporation to Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for Solar Cells

Authors: G. Gokceli, O. Eksik, E. Ozkan Zayim, N. Karatepe

Abstract:

Alternative electrode materials for optoelectronic devices have been widely investigated in recent years. Since indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most preferred transparent conductive electrode, producing ITO films by simple and cost-effective solution-based techniques with enhanced optical and electrical properties has great importance. In this study, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and MWCNT) incorporated into the ITO structure to increase electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and chemical stability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were firstly functionalized by acid treatment (HNO3:H2SO4), and the thermal resistance of CNTs after functionalization was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thin films were then prepared by spin coating technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point probe measurement system and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of process parameters were compared for ITO, MWCNT-ITO, and SWCNT-ITO films. Two factors including CNT concentration and annealing temperature were considered. The UV-Vis measurements demonstrated that the transmittance of ITO films was 83.58% at 550 nm, which was decreased depending on the concentration of CNT dopant. On the other hand, both CNT dopants provided an enhancement in the crystalline structure and electrical conductivity. Due to compatible diameter and better dispersibility of SWCNTs in the ITO solution, the best result in terms of electrical conductivity was obtained by SWCNT-ITO films with the 0.1 g/L SWCNT dopant concentration and heat-treatment at 550 °C for 1 hour.

Keywords: CNT incorporation, ITO electrode, spin coating, thin film.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 497
1926 Electrical Properties of Starch/Chitosan-Nh4no3 Polymer Electrolyte

Authors: A.S.A. Khiar, A.K. Arof

Abstract:

Starch/chitosan blend have been prepared via the solution casting technique. Ionic conductivity for the system was conducted over a wide range of frequency between 50 Hz-1 MHz and at temperatures between 303 K and 373 K. Sample with 35 wt% of NH4NO3 shows the highest conductivity of 3.89 ± 0.79 x 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature. Conductivity-temperature relationship suggests that samples are Arrhenian. Power law exponent was obtained through dielectric loss variation and the trend suggests that the conduction mechanism of the ions can be represented by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.

Keywords: starch, chitosan, permittivity, power exponent law

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2484
1925 Morphological and Electrical Characterization of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Synthesized Using Electrospinning Method for Electrical Application

Authors: Divyanka Sontakke, Arpit Thakre, D. K Shinde, Sujata Parmeshwaran

Abstract:

Electrospinning is the most widely utilized method to create nanofibers because of the direct setup, the capacity to mass-deliver consistent nanofibers from different polymers, and the ability to produce ultrathin fibers with controllable diameters. Smooth and much arranged ultrafine Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with diameters going from submicron to nanometer were delivered utilizing Electrospinning technique. PAN powder was used as a precursor to prepare the solution utilized as a part of this process. At the point when the electrostatic repulsion contradicted surface tension, a charged stream of polymer solution was shot out from the head of the spinneret and along these lines ultrathin nonwoven fibers were created. The effect of electrospinning parameter such as applied voltage, feed rate, concentration of polymer solution and tip to collector distance on the morphology of electrospun PAN nanofibers were investigated. The nanofibers were heat treated for carbonization to examine the changes in properties and composition to make for electrical application. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed before and after carbonization to study electrical conductivity and morphological characterization. The SEM images have shown the uniform fiber diameter and no beads formation. The average diameter of the PAN fiber observed 365nm and 280nm for flat plat and rotating drum collector respectively. The four probe strategy was utilized to inspect the electrical conductivity of the nanofibers and the electrical conductivity is significantly improved with increase in oxidation temperature exposed.

Keywords: Electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile carbon nanofibres, heat treatment, electrical conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 359
1924 Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. Siosemarde, F. Kave, E. Pazira, H. Sedghi, S. J. Ghaderi

Abstract:

Salinity is a measure of the amount of salts in the water. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as salinity parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. Because dissolved ions increase salinity as well as conductivity, the two measures are related. The aim of this research was determine of constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) with Statistics of Correlation coefficient, Root mean square error, Maximum error, Mean Bias error, Mean absolute error, Relative error and Coefficient of residual mass. For this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The results showed the values 16.3 & 12.4 were the best constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on EC in Pilot S1 and S2 with correlation coefficient 0.977 & 0.997 and 191.1 & 106.1 Root mean square errors (RMSE) respectively.

Keywords: constant coefficients, electrical conductivity, Khuzestan plain and total dissolved solids.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3556
1923 Prediction of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity from Particle-Size Distribution

Authors: A.F. Salarashayeri, M. Siosemarde

Abstract:

Hydraulic conductivity is one parameter important for predicting the movement of water and contaminants dissolved in the water through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity is measured on soil samples in the lab and sometimes tests carried out in the field. The hydraulic conductivity has been related to soil particle diameter by a number of investigators. In this study, 25 set of soil samples with sand texture. The results show approximately success in predicting hydraulic conductivity from particle diameters data. The following relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data (R2 = 0.52): Where d10, d50 and d60, are the soil particle diameter (mm) that 10%, 50% and 60% of all soil particles are finer (smaller) by weight and Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity is expressed in m/day. The results of regression analysis showed that d10 play a more significant role with respect to Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity (m/day), and has been named as the effective parameter in Ks calculation.

Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, particle diameter, particle-size distribution and soil

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8015
1922 An Improved Model for Prediction of the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids

Authors: K. Abbaspoursani, M. Allahyari, M. Rahmani

Abstract:

Thermal conductivity is an important characteristic of a nanofluid in laminar flow heat transfer. This paper presents an improved model for the prediction of the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on dimensionless groups. The model expresses the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid as a function of the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid, their volume fractions and particle size. The proposed model includes a parameter which accounts for the interfacial shell, brownian motion, and aggregation of particle. The validation of the model is verified by applying the results obtained by the experiments of Tio2-water and Al2o3-water nanofluids.

Keywords: Critical particle size, nanofluid, model, and thermal conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1773
1921 Carbon-Based Composites Enable Monitoring of Internal States in Concrete Structures

Authors: René Čechmánek, Jiří Junek, Bohdan Nešpor, Pavel Šteffan

Abstract:

Regarding previous research studies it was concluded that thin-walled fiber-cement composites are able to conduct electric current under specific conditions. This property is ensured by using of various kinds of carbon materials. Though carbon fibers are less conductive than metal fibers, composites with carbon fibers were evaluated as better current conductors than the composites with metal fibers. The level of electric conductivity is monitored by the means of impedance measurement of designed samples. These composites could be used for a range of applications such as heating of trafficable surfaces or shielding of electro-magnetic fields. The aim of the present research was to design an element with the ability to monitor internal processes in building structures and prevent them from collapsing. As a typical element for laboratory testing there was chosen a concrete column, which was repeatedly subjected to load by simple pressure with continual monitoring of changes in electrical properties.

Keywords: Carbon, conductivity, loading, monitoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1577
1920 Radio Technology Frequency Identification Applied in High-Voltage Power Transmission- Line for Sag Measurement

Authors: Tlotlollo Sidwell Hlalele, Shengzhi Du

Abstract:

High-voltage power transmission lines are the back bone of electrical power utilities. The stability and continuous monitoring of this critical infrastructure is pivotal. Nine-Sigma representing Eskom Holding SOC limited, South Africa has a major problem on proactive detection of fallen power lines and real time sagging measurement together with slipping of such conductors. The main objective of this research is to innovate RFID technology to solve this challenge. Various options and technologies such as GPS, PLC, image processing, MR sensors and etc., have been reviewed and draw backs were made. The potential of RFID to give precision measurement will be observed and presented. The future research will look at magnetic and electrical interference as well as corona effect on the technology.

Keywords: Precision Measurement, RFID and Sag.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2174
1919 The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile

Authors: V. Lukášová, P. Peukert, V. Votrubec

Abstract:

Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, pultruded profile, volume fraction, thermal conductivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 913
1918 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical and thermal properties, silver nano-particles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2383
1917 A Comparative Studies on Methanesulfonic and p-Touluene Sulfonic Acid Incorporated Polyacrylamide Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Tin-Air Battery

Authors: S. Sumathi, V. Sethuprakhash, W. J. Basirun

Abstract:

This study was focused on polymer electrolytes containing methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and p-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAAm) respectively. Impedance Spectroscopy technique has been employed to compare the ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes. The ionic conductivity of the PAAm hydrogel electrolytes increase upon adding the sulfonic acids. Ionic conductivity of PAAm-pTSA is higher than PAAm-MSA. The electrochemical performance evaluations were done with the tin-air cells discharge at zero current for 30minutes and at constant current density of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15mA/cm2. The tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA produce higher specific discharge capacity compared to PAAm-pTSA. Open-circuit voltage measurement revealed a higher voltage for tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA which is 1.27V.

Keywords: Methane sulfonic acid, polyacrylamide, polymer gel electrolytes, p-toluene sulfonic acid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3373
1916 Annual Changes in Some Qualitative Parameters of Groundwater in Shirvan Plain North East of Iran

Authors: Hadi Ghorbani, Samira Mohammadi Sadabad

Abstract:

Shirvan is located in plain in Northern Khorasan province north east of Iran and has semiarid to temperate climate. To investigate the annual changes in some qualitative parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and chloride concentrations which have increased during ten continuous years. Fourteen groundwater sources including deep as well as semi-deep wells were sampled and were analyzed using standard methods. The trends of obtained data were analyzed during these years and the effects of different factors on the changes in electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride and total dissolved solids were clarified. The results showed that the amounts of some qualitative parameters have been increased during 10 years time which has led to decrease in water quality. The results also showed that increased in urban populations as well as extensive industrialization in the studied area are the most important reasons to influence underground water quality. Furthermore decrease in water quantity is also evident due to more water utilization and occurrence of recent droughts in the region during recent years.

Keywords: Chloride, Electrical Conductivity, Shirvan, Total Dissolved Solids.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1131
1915 Development of a Porous Silica Film by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Binay K. Dutta, Tayseir M. Abd Ellateif, Saikat Maitra

Abstract:

In the present work homogeneous silica film on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol. The silica sol precursor with uniformly granular particle was derived by the alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of glycerol template. The film was prepared by dip coating process. The templated hetero-structured silica film was annealed at elevated temperatures to generate nano- and meso porosity in the film. The film was subsequently annealed at different temperatures to make it defect free and abrasion resistant. The sol and the film were characterized by the measurement of particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, measurement of the refractive index, thermal conductivity and abrasion resistance. The porosity of the films decreased whereas refractive index and dielectric constant of it `increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity of the films increased with the increase in the film thickness. The developed porous silica film holds strong potential for use in different areas.

Keywords: Silica film, Nanoporous, Sol-gel, Templating, Dip coating.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2771
1914 Determination of Cd, Zn, K, pH, TNV, Organic Material and Electrical Conductivity (EC) Distribution in Agricultural Soils using Geostatistics and GIS (Case Study: South- Western of Natanz- Iran)

Authors: Abbas Hani, Seyed Ali Hoseini Abari

Abstract:

Soil chemical and physical properties have important roles in compartment of the environment and agricultural sustainability and human health. The objectives of this research is determination of spatial distribution patterns of Cd, Zn, K, pH, TNV, organic material and electrical conductivity (EC) in agricultural soils of Natanz region in Esfehan province. In this study geostatistic and non-geostatistic methods were used for prediction of spatial distribution of these parameters. 64 composite soils samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth. The study area is located in south of NATANZ agricultural lands with area of 21660 hectares. Spatial distribution of Cd, Zn, K, pH, TNV, organic material and electrical conductivity (EC) was determined using geostatistic and geographic information system. Results showed that Cd, pH, TNV and K data has normal distribution and Zn, OC and EC data had not normal distribution. Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Local Polynomial Interpolation (LPI) and Redial Basis functions (RBF) methods were used to interpolation. Trend analysis showed that organic carbon in north-south and east to west did not have trend while K and TNV had second degree trend. We used some error measurements include, mean absolute error(MAE), mean squared error (MSE) and mean biased error(MBE). Ordinary kriging(exponential model), LPI(Local polynomial interpolation), RBF(radial basis functions) and IDW methods have been chosen as the best methods to interpolating of the soil parameters. Prediction maps by disjunctive kriging was shown that in whole study area was intensive shortage of organic matter and more than 63.4 percent of study area had shortage of K amount.

Keywords: Electrical conductivity, Geostatistics, Geographical Information System, TNV

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2349
1913 Contribution to the Study of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Silicon Used In Thermal Sensors

Authors: A. Ould-Abbas, M. Bouchaour, , M. Madani, D. Trari, O. Zeggai, M. Boukais, N.-E.Chabane-Sari

Abstract:

The porous silicon (PS), formed from the anodization of a p+ type substrate silicon, consists of a network organized in a pseudo-column as structure of multiple side ramifications. Structural micro-topology can be interpreted as the fraction of the interconnected solid phase contributing to thermal transport. The reduction of dimensions of silicon of each nanocristallite during the oxidation induced a reduction in thermal conductivity. Integration of thermal sensors in the Microsystems silicon requires an effective insulation of the sensor element. Indeed, the low thermal conductivity of PS consists in a very promising way in the fabrication of integrated thermal Microsystems.In this work we are interesting in the measurements of thermal conductivity (on the surface and in depth) of PS by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity is studied according to the parameters of anodization (initial doping and current density. We also, determine porosity of samples by spectroellipsometry.

Keywords: micro-Raman spectroscopy, mono-crysatl silicon, porous silicon, thermal conductivity

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1541
1912 Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions

Authors: Miroslav H. Hristov, Velizar A. Vassilev, Georgi K. Dukendjiev

Abstract:

Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.

Keywords: Air-electronic, geometrical parameters, improvement, measurement systems.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 422
1911 Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Physical Properties using Neural Networks Model

Authors: B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, A.M. Liaghat, S. Sohrabi

Abstract:

Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil hydraulic properties which is widely used in environmental studies especially subsurface ground water. Since, its direct measurement is time consuming and therefore costly, indirect methods such as pedotransfer functions have been developed based on multiple linear regression equations and neural networks model in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil properties e.g. sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, and organic matter. The objective of this study was to develop neural networks (NNs) model to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from available parameters such as sand and clay contents, bulk density, van Genuchten retention model parameters (i.e. r θ , α , and n) as well as effective porosity. We used two methods to calculate effective porosity: : (1) eff s FC φ =θ -θ , and (2) inf φ =θ -θ eff s , in which s θ is saturated water content, FC θ is water content retained at -33 kPa matric potential, and inf θ is water content at the inflection point. Total of 311 soil samples from the UNSODA database was divided into three groups as 187 for the training, 62 for the validation (to avoid over training), and 62 for the test of NNs model. A commercial neural network toolbox of MATLAB software with a multi-layer perceptron model and back propagation algorithm were used for the training procedure. The statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R2), and mean square error (MSE) were also used to evaluate the developed NNs model. The best number of neurons in the middle layer of NNs model for methods (1) and (2) were calculated 44 and 6, respectively. The R2 and MSE values of the test phase were determined for method (1), 0.94 and 0.0016, and for method (2), 0.98 and 0.00065, respectively, which shows that method (2) estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than method (1).

Keywords: Neural network, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Soil physical properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2280
1910 Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters

Authors: S.Fardindoost, A. Iraji Zad, S.M.Mahdavi

Abstract:

Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.

Keywords: Electrolysis, Hydrogen sensing, Palladium, WO3

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1886
1909 A Novel Method for Blood Glucose Measurement by Noninvasive Technique Using Laser

Authors: V.Ashok, A.Nirmalkumar, N.Jeyashanthi

Abstract:

A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on atomic gas (He-Ne) laser operating at 632.8nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

Keywords: Anisotropy factor, Blood glucose, Diabetes Mellitus, Noninvasive method, Photo detectors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2925