Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30123
Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1115350

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 951

References:


[1] A. Zorpas and A. Skouroupatis, “Indoor air quality evaluation of two museums in a subtropical climate conditions,” Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 20, pp. 52-60, October 2015.
[2] N. Carslaw and P.A. Wolkoff, “A new European initiative for indoor air pollution research”. Indoor Air, vol. 16, pp. 4-6, February 2006.
[3] P. Engel, E. Hurtado and M. Ruel, “Smoke exposure of women and young children in highland Guatemala: predictions and recall accuracy”, Human Organization, vol. 54, pp. 408-417, September 1988.
[4] J. Kiurski, S. Aksentijević, I. Oros and V. Kecić, “Indoor air emissions from photocopying”. in Proc. of 7th International Scientific Conference "Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development - SED 2014, Uzice, Serbia, 2014, pp.16-22.
[5] Hays D. How does a photocopier work? Scientifica American 2003, Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-does-a-photocopier-wo/, Accessed: 01 November 2015.
[6] J. Kiurski, V. Kecić, I. Oros, J. Ranogajec, “Ammonia Release during Photocopying Operations,” in Proc. of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 2014, pp. 692-696.
[7] E. Edney, D. Driscoll, R. Speer, W. Weathers, T. Kleindienst, W. Li and F.D. Smith, “Impact of aerosol liquid water on secondary organic aerosol yields of irradiated toluene/ propylene/ NOx/ (NH4)2SO4/ air mixtures” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 34, pp. 3907–3939, March 2000.
[8] B.D Henschel, R.C. Fortann and N.F. Roache, “Variations in the emission of volatile organic compounds from the toner for a specific photocopier,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Associations, vol. 51, pp. 708-717, May 2001.
[9] J. Kiurski, S. Aksentijević, I. Oros and V. Kecić, “Application of two-way ANOVA on carbon monoxide emission during photocopying process, ” in Proc. of 8th International Scientific Conference "Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development - SED 2015", Uzice, Serbia, 2015, pp. 4-1-4-6.
[10] J. Kiurski, I. Oros, V. Kecić and S. Aksentijević, “Statistical Interpretation of Carbon Dioxide Emission in the Photocopying Process,” in Proc. of 21st International Symposium on Analytical and Environmental Problems, University of Szeged, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szeged, Hungary, 2015, pp. 209-212.
[11] O.A. Seppänen, “Association of ventilation rates and CO2 concentrations with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings,” Indoor Air,” vol. 9, pp. 226-252, April, 2004.
[12] M. Santamouris, A. Synnefa, M. Asssimakopoulos, I Livada, K. Pavlou, M. Papaglastra, N. Gaitania, D. Kolokotsa and V. Assimakopoulos,” Experimental investigation of the air flow and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in classrooms with intermittent natural ventilation,” Energy and Buildings,” vol. 40, pp. 1833-1843, April 2008.
[13] J. Bower, 2009, Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials, Environmental Health, Chapter 5, Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ nceh/publications/books/housing/cha05.htm, Accessed 05 November 2015.
[14] United State Consumer Product Safety Commision, 2015, The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality, Available at: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Guides/Home/The-Inside-Story-A-Guide-to-Indoor-Air-Quality/, Accessed 05 November 2015.
[15] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 1991, Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. 91-158, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/1991-0158-2161.pdf, Accessed 06 November 2015.
[16] J. Kiurski, I. Oros, V. Kecic, I. Kovacevic and S. Aksentijevic, “The temporal variation of indoor pollutants in photocopying shop,” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00477-015-1107-4.
[17] Aeroqual Limited, 2010, Aeroqual - Product catalogue, Available at: http://www.aeroqual.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/AQL-Product-Catalogue.pdf, Accessed 06 November 2015.
[18] M. Hadùi Stojković, Statistics, Descriptive and statistical analysis. Subotica: Faculty of Economy, University of Novi Sad, 2006. in Serbian
[19] Z. Ivković, Mathematical Statistics, Beograd: Naučna knjiga, 1980. in Serbian
[20] H. Grady, Environmental Chemometrics – Principles and Modern Applications, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.
[21] C. Reimann, P. Flizmoser, R.Garret and R. Dutter, Statistical Data Analysis Explained, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008.
[22] G. Hanrahan, Environmental Chemometrics – Principles and Modern Applications, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.
[23] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Carbon Monoxide, Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0105.html, Accessed 07 November 2015.
[24] J.P. Stevens, Intermediate statistics: A modern approach (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.