Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 521

Search results for: ballistic impacts

521 Computational Approaches for Ballistic Impact Response of Stainless Steel 304

Authors: A. Mostafa

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical study on determination of ballistic limit velocity (V50) of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) used in manufacturing security screens. The simulated ballistic impact tests were conducted on clamped sheets with different thicknesses using ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear finite element (FE) package. The ballistic limit velocity was determined using three approaches, namely: numerical tests based on material properties, FE calculated residual velocities and FE calculated residual energies. Johnson-Cook plasticity and failure criterion were utilized to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the SS 304 under various strain rates, while the well-known Lambert-Jonas equation was used for the data regression for the residual velocity and energy model. Good agreement between the investigated numerical methods was achieved. Additionally, the dependence of the ballistic limit velocity on the sheet thickness was observed. The proposed approaches present viable and cost-effective assessment methods of the ballistic performance of SS 304, which will support the development of robust security screen systems.

Keywords: Ballistic velocity, stainless steel, numerical approaches, security screen.

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520 Quasi-ballistic Transport in Submicron Hg0.8Cd0.2Te Diodes: Hydrodynamic Modeling

Authors: M. Daoudi, A. Belghachi, L. Varani

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the problem of quasiballistic electron transport in ultra small of mercury -cadmiumtelluride (Hg0.8Cd0.2Te -MCT) n+-n- n+ devices from hydrodynamic point view. From our study, we note that, when the size of the active layer is low than 0.1μm and for low bias application( ( ≥ 9mV), the quasi-ballistic transport has an important effect.

Keywords: Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor, Hydrodynamicmode, Quasi-ballistic transport, Submicron diode

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519 Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Ballistic Missile Tracking

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Dharmbir Prasad, Rudra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

In the current work, adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is presented for solution of ground radar based ballistic missile (BM) tracking problem in re-entry phase with unknown ballistic coefficient. The estimation of trajectory of any BM in re-entry phase is extremely difficult, because of highly non-linear motion of BM. The estimation accuracy of AEKF has been tested for a typical test target tracking problem adopted from literature. Further, the approach of AEKF is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). The simulation result indicates the superiority of the AEKF in solving joint parameter and state estimation problems.

Keywords: Adaptive, AEKF, ballistic missile, EKF, re-entry phase, target tracking.

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518 Perforation Analysis of the Aluminum Alloy Sheets Subjected to High Rate of Loading and Heated Using Thermal Chamber: Experimental and Numerical Approach

Authors: A. Bendarma, T. Jankowiak, A. Rusinek, T. Lodygowski, M. Klósak, S. Bouslikhane

Abstract:

The analysis of the mechanical characteristics and dynamic behavior of aluminum alloy sheet due to perforation tests based on the experimental tests coupled with the numerical simulation is presented. The impact problems (penetration and perforation) of the metallic plates have been of interest for a long time. Experimental, analytical as well as numerical studies have been carried out to analyze in details the perforation process. Based on these approaches, the ballistic properties of the material have been studied. The initial and residual velocities laser sensor is used during experiments to obtain the ballistic curve and the ballistic limit. The energy balance is also reported together with the energy absorbed by the aluminum including the ballistic curve and ballistic limit. The high speed camera helps to estimate the failure time and to calculate the impact force. A wide range of initial impact velocities from 40 up to 180 m/s has been covered during the tests. The mass of the conical nose shaped projectile is 28 g, its diameter is 12 mm, and the thickness of the aluminum sheet is equal to 1.0 mm. The ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to simulate the perforation processes. The comparison of the ballistic curve was obtained numerically and was verified experimentally, and the failure patterns are presented using the optimal mesh densities which provide the stability of the results. A good agreement of the numerical and experimental results is observed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ballistic behavior, failure criterion, numerical simulation.

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517 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas

Abstract:

In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials /plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: Ballistic, Composite, Thermoplastic.

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516 Reinforcing Effects of Natural Micro-Particles on the Dynamic Impact Behaviour of Hybrid Bio-Composites Made of Short Kevlar Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Armor

Authors: Edison E. Haro, Akindele G. Odeshi, Jerzy A. Szpunar

Abstract:

Hybrid bio-composites are developed for use in protective armor through positive hybridization offered by reinforcement of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with Kevlar short fibers and palm wood micro-fillers. The manufacturing process involved a combination of extrusion and compression molding techniques. The mechanical behavior of Kevlar fiber reinforced HDPE with and without palm wood filler additions are compared. The effect of the weight fraction of the added palm wood micro-fillers is also determined. The Young modulus was found to increase as the weight fraction of organic micro-particles increased. However, the flexural strength decreased with increasing weight fraction of added micro-fillers. The interfacial interactions between the components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the size, random alignment and distribution of the natural micro-particles was evaluated. Ballistic impact and dynamic shock loading tests were performed to determine the optimum proportion of Kevlar short fibers and organic micro-fillers needed to improve impact strength of the HDPE. These results indicate a positive hybridization by deposition of organic micro-fillers on the surface of short Kevlar fibers used in reinforcing the thermoplastic matrix leading to enhancement of the mechanical strength and dynamic impact behavior of these materials. Therefore, these hybrid bio-composites can be promising materials for different applications against high velocity impacts.

Keywords: Hybrid bio-composites, organic nano-fillers, dynamic shocking loading, ballistic impacts, energy absorption.

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515 Technical and Economic Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Auchariyamet

Abstract:

Distributed Generation (DG) in the form of renewable power generation systems is currently preferred for clean power generation. It has a significant impact on the distribution systems. This impact may be either positively or negatively depending on the distribution system, distributed generator and load characteristics. In this works, an overview of DG is briefly introduced. The technology of DG is also listed while the technical impacts and economic impacts are explained.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Technical Impacts, Economic Impacts.

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514 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Jr., Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana

Abstract:

Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: Leisure, tourism, environmental impacts, Brazil.

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513 Penetration Analysis for Composites Applicable to Military Vehicle Armors, Aircraft Engines and Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for analyzing penetration for composite material using an explicit nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This method may be used in the early stage of design for the protection of military vehicles, aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures made of composite materials. This paper deals with simple ballistic penetration tests for composite materials and the FEA modeling method and results. The FEA was performed to interpret the ballistic field test phenomenon regarding the damage propagation in the structure subjected to local foreign object impact.

Keywords: Computer Aided Engineering, CAE, Finite Element Analysis, FEA, impact analysis, penetration analysis, composite material.

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512 Life Cycle-Based Analysis of Meat Production: Ecosystem Impacts

Authors: Michelle Zeyuan Ma, Hermann Heilmeier

Abstract:

Recently, meat production ecosystem impacts initiated many hot discussions and researchers, and it is a difficult implementation to reduce such impacts due to the demand of meat products. It calls for better management and control of ecosystem impacts from every aspects of meat production. This article analyzes the ecosystem impacts of meat production based on meat products life cycle. The analysis shows that considerable ecosystem impacts are caused by different meat production steps: initial establishment phase, animal raising, slaughterhouse processing, meat consumption, and wastes management. Based on this analysis, the impacts are summarized as: leading factor for biodiversity loss; water waste, land use waste and land degradation; greenhouse gases emissions; pollution to air, water, and soil; related major diseases. The article also provides a discussion on a solution-sustainable food system, which could help in reducing ecosystem impacts. The analysis method is based on the life cycle level, it provides a concept of the whole meat industry ecosystem impacts, and the analysis result could be useful to manage or control meat production ecosystem impacts from investor, producer and consumer sides.

Keywords: Eutrophication, life cycle based analysis, sustainable food, waste management.

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511 Ballistics of Main Seat Ejection Cartridges for Aircraft Application

Authors: B. A. Parate, K. D. Deodhar, V. K. Dixit, V. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

This article outlines the ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges for aircraft application. The ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges plays a vital role during the ejection of the pilot in an emergency. The ballistic parameters such as maximum pressure, time to reach the maximum pressure, and time required to reach half the maximum pressure that responsible to the spinal injury of the pilot are assessed. Therefore, the evaluations of these parameters are very critical during various stages of development. Elaborate testing is carried out for main seat ejection cartridges on seat ejection tower (SET) at different operating temperatures considering physiological limits. As these trials are cumbersome in nature, a vented vessel (VV) testing facility is devised to lay down the performance parameters at hot and cold temperature conditions. Single base (SB) propellant having hepta-tubular configuration is selected as the main filling. Gun powder plays the role of a booster based on ballistic requirements. The evaluation methodology of various performance parameters of main seat ejection cartridges is explained in this paper. Physiological parameters such as maximum seat ejection velocity, acceleration, and rate of rising of acceleration are also experimentally determined on SET. All the parameters are observed well within physiological limits. This paper addresses the internal ballistic of main seat ejection cartridges, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various performance parameters for aircraft application.

Keywords: Ballistics of seat ejection, ejection seat, gas generator, gun propulsion, main seat ejection cartridges, maximum pressure, performance parameters, propellant, progressive burning and vented vessel.

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510 Effect of Impact Location upon Sub-Impacts between Beam and Block

Authors: T. F. Jin, X. C. Yin, P. B. Qian

Abstract:

The present investigation is concerned with sub-impacts taken placed when a rigid hemispherical-head block transversely impacts against a beam at different locations. Dynamic substructure technique for elastic-plastic impact is applied to solve numerically this problem. The time history of impact force and energy exchange between block and beam are obtained. The process of sub-impacts is analyzed from the energy exchange point of view. The results verify the influences of the impact location on impact duration, the first sub-impact and energy exchange between the beam and the block.

Keywords: Beam, sub-impact, substructure, elastic-plasticity.

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509 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale

Abstract:

During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: Earthquake, bridge crane, heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator, impacts.

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508 Social Business Models: When Profits and Impacts Are Not at Odds

Authors: Elisa Pautasso, Matteo Castagno, Michele Osella

Abstract:

In the last decade the emergence of new social needs as an effect of the economic crisis has stimulated the flourishing of business endeavours characterised by explicit social goals. Social start-ups, social enterprises or Corporate Social Responsibility operations carried out by traditional companies are quintessential examples in this regard. This paper analyses these kinds of initiatives in order to discover the main characteristics of social business models and to provide insights to social entrepreneurs for developing or improving their strategies. The research is conducted through the integration of literature review and case study analysis and, thanks to the recognition of the importance of both profits and social impacts as the key success factors for a social business model, proposes a framework for identifying indicators suitable for measuring the social impacts generated.

Keywords: Business model, case study, impacts, social business.

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507 The Impacts of Off-Campus Students on Local Neighbourhood in Malaysia

Authors: Dasimah Bt Omar, Faizul Abdullah, Fatimah Yusof, Hazlina Hamdan, Naasah Nasrudin, Ishak Che Abullah

Abstract:

The impacts of near-campus student housing, or offcampus students accommodation cannot be ignored by the universities and as well as the community officials. Numerous scholarly studies, have highlighted the substantial economic impacts either; direct, indirect or induced, and cumulatively the roles of the universities have significantly contributed to the local economies. The issue of the impacts of off-campus student rental housing on neighbourhoods is one that has been of long-standing but increasing concern in Malaysia. Statistically, in Malaysia, there was approximately a total of 1.2 - 1.5 million students in 2009. By the year 2015, it is expected that 50 per cent of 18 to 30 year olds active population should gain access to university education, amounting to 120,000 yearly. The objectives of the research are to assess the impacts off-campus students on the local neighbourhood and specifically to obtain information on the living and learning conditions of off-campus students of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, Malaysia. It is also to isolate those factors that may impede the successful learning so that priority can be given to them in subsequent policy implementations and actions by government and the higher education institutions.

Keywords: off-campus students, neighbourhood, impacts, living and learning conditions

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506 Fingerprint on Ballistic after Shooting

Authors: Narong Kulnides

Abstract:

This research involved fingerprints on ballistics after shooting. Two objectives of research were as follow; (1) to study the duration of the existence of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm and .223 cartridge case after shooting, and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the detection of latent fingerprints by Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The latent fingerprint appearance were studied on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases before and after shooting with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The detection times were 3 minute, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66, 72, 78 and 84 hours respectively. As a result of the study, it can be conclude that

  1. Before shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on 38, .45, and 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing can detect the fingerprints at all detection times.
  2. After shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue did not appear. The detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 100% of the time and the detection of latent fingerprints on .223 cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 40% and 46.67% of the time, respectively.

Keywords: Ballistic, Fingerprint, Shooting.

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505 A Critical Review on the Development of a Theoretical Framework for Managing Environmental Impacts of Construction Project

Authors: Sami Mustafa M. E. Ahmed, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi, Zulkipli B. Ghazali

Abstract:

Construction industry is considered as one of the main contributor of natural resources depletion, responsible for high level pollution and it is one of the attributes that pose climate changes and other environmental threats. A lot of efforts had and have been done to reduce and control these impacts. Project Environmental Management (PEM) includes the processes required to ensure that the impacts of the project execution to the surrounding environment will remain within the limits stated in legal permits. The main aim of most of researches conducted managing Environmental Impacts (EI) is to protect earth planet from pollution. Those researches are presenting four major environmental elements; Environmental Management Systems (EMS), Environmental Design (ED), Environmental Planning (EP) and Environmental Impacts Assessments (EIA). Although everything has been said about environmental management for construction projects, but almost everything remains to be said and therefore to be explored or rediscovered because incontestably, almost everything remains to be done. This paper aimed at reviewing some of what has been said about PEM. Also one of its objectives is to explore and rediscover the whole view of managing the EI problems by proposing a framework that based on the relation between these environmental researches.

Keywords: Environmental planning, sustainable design, EIA and EMS.

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504 Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites

Authors: Rui Magalhães, Sohel Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Clara Gonçalves, Pedro Nunes, Gustavo Dias

Abstract:

Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.

Keywords: Auxetic fabrics, high performance, composites, impact resistance, energy absorption.

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503 Impacts of E-learning in Nursing Education: In the Light of Recent Studies

Authors: A.Ö. İlkay, C.O. Zeynep

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has changed our life and learn. ICT bares doors to new innovative methods to deliver education. E-learning is a part of ICT and has been endorsed as a tool for developing “21st century skills” in higher education. The aim of this review is to establish the impacts of e-learning in undergraduate nursing education. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the impacts of e-learning in nursing education by using Akdeniz University electronic databases. According to results, we can decelerate that the nursing faculties cannot treat e-learning methods as a single tool. E-learning should be used with a good understanding of learners’ needs.

Keywords: E-learning, nursing education, systematic literature review.

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502 Does Material Choice Drive Sustainability of 3D Printing?

Authors: Jeremy Faludi, Zhongyin Hu, Shahd Alrashed, Christopher Braunholz, Suneesh Kaul, Leulekal Kassaye

Abstract:

Environmental impacts of six 3D printers using various materials were compared to determine if material choice drove sustainability, or if other factors such as machine type, machine size, or machine utilization dominate. Cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessments were performed, comparing a commercial-scale FDM machine printing in ABS plastic, a desktop FDM machine printing in ABS, a desktop FDM machine printing in PET and PLA plastics, a polyjet machine printing in its proprietary polymer, an SLA machine printing in its polymer, and an inkjet machine hacked to print in salt and dextrose. All scenarios were scored using ReCiPe Endpoint H methodology to combine multiple impact categories, comparing environmental impacts per part made for several scenarios per machine. Results showed that most printers’ ecological impacts were dominated by electricity use, not materials, and the changes in electricity use due to different plastics was not significant compared to variation from one machine to another. Variation in machine idle time determined impacts per part most strongly. However, material impacts were quite important for the inkjet printer hacked to print in salt: In its optimal scenario, it had up to 1/38th the impacts coreper part as the worst-performing machine in the same scenario. If salt parts were infused with epoxy to make them more physically robust, then much of this advantage disappeared, and material impacts actually dominated or equaled electricity use. Future studies should also measure DMLS and SLS processes / materials.

Keywords: 3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, Sustainability, Life-cycle assessment, Design for Environment.

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501 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

Abstract:

Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH are found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: Building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings.

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500 Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism

Authors: Oktay Emir

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.

Keywords: Tourism, perception, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, structural equation modelling.

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499 The Ballistics Case Study of the Enrica Lexie Incident

Authors: Diego Abbo

Abstract:

On February 15, 2012 off the Indian coast of Kerala, in position 091702N-0760180E by the oil tanker Enrica Lexie, flying the Italian flag, bursts of 5.56 x45 caliber shots were fired from assault rifles AR/70 Italian-made Beretta towards the Indian fisher boat St. Anthony. The shots that hit the St. Anthony fishing boat were six, of which two killed the Indian fishermen Ajesh Pink and Valentine Jelestine. From the analysis concerning the kinematic engagement of the two ships and from the autopsy and ballistic results of the Indian judicial authorities it is possible to reconstruct the trajectories of the six aforementioned shots. This essay reconstructs the trajectories of the six shots that cannot be of direct shooting but have undergone a rebound on the water. The investigation carried out scientifically demonstrates the rebound of the blows on the water, the gyrostatic deviation due to the rebound and the tumbling effect always due to the rebound as regards intermediate ballistics. In consideration of the four shots that directly impacted the fishing vessel, the current examination proves, with scientific value, that the trajectories could not be downwards but upwards. Also, the trajectory of two shots that hit to death the two fishermen could not be downwards but only upwards. In fact, this paper demonstrates, with scientific value: The loss of speed of the projectiles due to the rebound on the water; The tumbling effect in the ballistic medium within the two victims; The permanent cavities subject to the injury ballistics and the related ballistic trauma that prevented homeostasis causing bleeding in one case; The thermo-hardening deformation of the bullet found in Valentine Jelestine's skull; The upward and non-downward trajectories. The paper constitutes a tool in forensic ballistics in that it manages to reconstruct, from the final spot of the projectiles fired, all phases of ballistics like the internal one of the weapons that fired, the intermediate one, the terminal one and the penetrative structural one. In general terms the ballistics reconstruction is based on measurable parameters whose entity is contained with certainty within a lower and upper limit. Therefore, quantities that refer to angles, speed, impact energy and firing position of the shooter can be identified within the aforementioned limits. Finally, the investigation into the internal bullet track, obtained from any autopsy examination, offers a significant “lesson learned” but overall a starting point to contain or mitigate bleeding as a rescue from future gunshot wounds.

Keywords: Impact physics, intermediate ballistics, terminal ballistics, tumbling effect.

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498 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m×1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and -52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: Aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame.

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497 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance metrics, decision making, optimisation.

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496 Environmental Impact Assessment of Gotv and Hydro-Electric Dam on the Karoon River Using ICOLD Technique

Authors: A. Sayadi, A. Khodadadi D., S. Partani

Abstract:

Today Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is known as one of the most important tools for decision makers in the construction of civil and industrial projects towards sustainable development. In the past, projects were evaluated based on cost and benefit analysis regardless of the physical and biological environmental effects and its socio-economical impacts. According to the Department of Environment (DOE) of Iran's regulations, the construction of hydroelectric dams is an activity that requires an EIA report. In this paper the environmental impact assessment of the Gotvand hydro-electrical dam has been evaluated in the three environment elements, biological, Physical-chemical and cultural units. This dam is one of the largest dams in Iran with a volume of 4500 MCM and is going to be the last dam on the Karoon River in the south of Iran. In this paper the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) technique was employed for the environmental impact assessment of the dam. The research includes all socio economical and environmental effects of the dam during the construction and operation of the hydro electric dam and Environmental management, monitoring and mitigation of negative impacts were analyzed. In this project the results led to using some techniques to protect the destructive impacts on biological aspects beside the effective long time period impacts on the biological aspects. The impacts on physical aspects are temporary and negative commonly that could be restored and rehabilitated in natural process in the long time in operation period.

Keywords: "Gotvand Hydro Electric Dam", "EIA", "ICOLD and Leopold matrices"

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495 Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model

Authors: Nahlah Abbas, Saleh A. Wasimi, Nadhir Al-Ansari

Abstract:

The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

Keywords: Tigris River, climate change, water resources, SWAT.

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494 Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Albert de la Fuente

Abstract:

After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the environmental construction impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, besides other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfillment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analyzed to determine the most sustainability technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.

Keywords: Sustainability, post-disaster temporary housing, integrated value model for sustainability assessment (MIVES), life cycle assessment (LCA).

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493 Long Term Changes of Water Quality in Latvia

Authors: Maris Klavins, Valery Rodinov

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze long term changes of surface water quality in Latvia, spatial variability of water chemical composition, possible impacts of different pollution sources as well as to analyze the measures to protect national water resources - river basin management. Within this study, the concentrations of major water ingredients and microelements in major rivers and lakes of Latvia have been determined. Metal concentrations in river and lake waters were compared with water chemical composition. The mean concentrations of trace metals in inland waters of Latvia are appreciably lower than the estimated world averages for river waters and close to or lower than background values, unless regional impacts determined by local geochemistry. This may be explained by a comparatively lower level of anthropogenic load. In the same time in several places, direct anthropogenic impacts are evident, regarding influences of point sources both transboundary transport impacts. Also, different processes related to pollution of surface waters in Latvia have been analyzed. At first the analysis of changes and composition of pollutant emissions in Latvia has been realized, and the obtained results were compared with actual composition of atmospheric precipitation and their changes in time.

Keywords: Water quality, trend analysis, pollution, human impact.

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492 Development of Highly Sensitive System for Measurement and Monitoring of Small Impacts

Authors: Priyanka Guin, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Arijit Roy

Abstract:

Developing electronic system for detecting low energy impacts using open source hardware such as Arduino is challenging. A highly efficient loadcell is designed and fabricated. A commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film is used as primary sensor for sensing small impacts. Without modifying hardware, the Arduino board is configured by programming to capture the signal from the film sensor with a resolution better than 1.1 mV. By our system, impact energy as low as 1.8 µJ (corresponds to impact force of 39.9 mN) is reliably and monitored. In the linear zone, sensitivity of the system found to be as high as 20.7 kV/J or 3.3 V/N with a measurement frequency of 500 Hz. The various characteristics such as linearity, hysteresis, repeatability and spectrum analysis are discussed. After calibration, measurements of unknown impact energy and impact force are investigated and results are found to agree well.

Keywords: Arduino, impact energy, impact force, measurement system, PVDF film sensor.

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