Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment
After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the environmental construction impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, besides other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfillment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analyzed to determine the most sustainability technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2702552Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 195
 United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), Shelter after disaster: Guidelines for assistance, New York: UNDRO, 1982.
 S. Collins, T. Corsellis and A. Vitale, “Transitional shelter: understanding shelter from the emergency through reconstruction and beyond,” ALNAP, 2010.
 C. Johnson, G. Lizarralde and C. H. Davidson, “A systems view of temporary housing projects in post-disaster reconstruction,” Construction Management and Economics, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 367–378, 2006.
 H. Arslan, “Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses,” Building and Environment, vol. 42, p. 400–406, 2007.
 F. Hadafi and A. Fallahi, “Temporary Housing Respond to Disasters in Developing Countries- Case Study: Iran-Ardabil and Lorestan Province Earthquakes,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1219-1225, 2010.
 Housing Foundation of Islamic Republic of Iran, “Iran-Azarbaijan Sharghi Province Earthquake,” 2012.
 J. McIntosh, J. Gray and M. Fraser, “The Implications of Post Disaster Recovery for Affordable Housing,” Journal for Housing Science, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 149-159, 2009.
 W. Siembieda, “Multi Location Disaster in Three Countries: Comparing the Recovery Process in Japan, Chile and New Zealand,” Focus: Journal of the City and Regional Planning Department.
 R. S. Sobel and P. T. Leeson, “Government’s response to Hurricane Katrina: A public choice,” Public Choice, vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 55-73, 2006.
 M. Erdik, Y. Kamer, M. Demircioglu and K. Sesetyan, “23 October 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake,” Nat Hazards (2012), vol. 64, no. 1, p. 651–665, 2012.
 M. Ghafory-Ashtiany and M. Hosseini, “Post-Bam earthquake: recovery and reconstruction,” Nat Hazards, vol. 44, p. 229–241, 2008.
 B. Khazai and E. Hausler, “Intermediate Shelters in Bam and Permanent Shelter Reconstruction in Villages Following the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake,” Earthquake Spectra, vol. 21, p. 487–511, 2005.
 M. Rafieian and A. Asgary, “Impacts of temporary housing on housing reconstruction after the Bam earthquake,” Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 63-74, 2013.
 M. Fayazi and G. Lizarralde, “The Role of Low-cost Housing in The Path from Vulnerability to Resilience,” Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 7, no. 3, 2013.
 “Report on the Great Sichuan Earthquake in China,” UN/United Nations Centre for Regional Development, 2009.
 C. Johnson, “Planning for temporary,” in Rebuilding after disasters: from emergency to sustainability, Taylor & Francis, 2009, pp. 70-87.
 H. Arslan and N. Cosgun, “Reuse and recycle potentials of the temporary houses after occupancy: Example of Duzce, Turkey,” Building and Environment, vol. 43, p. 702–709, 2008.
 T. Corsellis and A. Vitale, transitional settlement displaced populations, Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2005.
 C. Kelly, “Checklist-Based Guide to Identifying Critical Environmental Considerations in Emergency Shelter Site Selection, Construction, Management and Decommissioning,” Benfield Hazard Research Centre, University College London, CARE International, 2005.
 S. M. A. Hosseini, O. Pons, C. Mendoza Arroyo and A. de la Fuente, “Identifying Temporary Housing Main Vertexes through Assessing Post-Disaster Recovery Programs,” in World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering,, 2016.
 B. Alarcon, A. Aguado, R. Manga and A. Josa, “A Value Function for Assessing Sustainability: Application to Industrial Buildings,” Sustainability, vol. 3, pp. 35-50, 2011.
 B. Viñolas, A. Aguado, A. Josa, N. Villegas and M. Á. F. Prada, “Aplicación del análisis de valor para una evaluación integral y objetiva del profesorado universitario,” vol. 6, no. 1, 2009.
 G. Ormazabal, B. Viñolas and A. Aguado, “Enhancing Value in Crucial Decisions: Line 9 of the Barcelona Subway,” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 265–272, 2008.
 J.-T. Lombera and J. Cuadrado, “Industrial building design stage based on a system approach to their environmental sustainability,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 438–447, 2010.
 A. Aguado, A. del Caño, M. P. de la Cruz, D. Gómez and A. Josa, “Sustainability Assessment of Concrete Structures within the Spanish Structural Concrete Code,” Construction Engineering And Management, vol. 138, no. 2, p. 268–276, 2012.
 B. Viñolas, “Applications and advances of MIVES methodology in multi-criteria assessments,” Barcelona, 2011.
 O. Pons and A. Aguado, “Integrated value model for sustainable assessment applied to technologies used to build schools in Catalonia, Spain,” Building and Environment, vol. 53, pp. 49-58, 2012.
 A. del Caño, D. Gómez and M. P. de la Cruz, “Uncertainty analysis in the sustainable design of concrete structures: A probabilistic method,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 37, p. 865–873, 2012.
 O. Pons and A. de la Fuente, “Integrated sustainability assessment method applied to structural concrete columns,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 49, p. 882–893, 2013.
 A. de la Fuente, J. Armengou, O. Pons and A. Aguado, “New Precast Concrete Tower System For Wind – Turbine Support And Tool To Assess Its Sustainability Index,” Civil Engineering and Management, 2014.
 S. M. A. Hosseini, A. de la Fuentea and O. Pons, “Multicriteria Decision-Making Method for Sustainable Site Location of Post-Disaster Temporary Housing in Urban Areas,” Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 142, no. 9, 2016.
 S. M. A. Hosseini, A. de la Fuentea and O. Pons, “Multi-criteria decision-making method for assessing the sustainability of post-disaster temporary housing units technologies: A case study in Bam, 2003,” Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 20, pp. 38-51, 2016a.
 S. M. A. Hosseini, O. Pons and A. de la Fuentea, “A combination of the Knapsack algorithm and MIVES for choosing optimal temporary housing site locations: A case study in Tehran,” International journal of disaster risk reduction, vol. 27, pp. 265-277, 2018.
 O. Pons, A. de la Fuente and A. Aguado, “The Use of MIVES as a Sustainability Assessment MCDM Method for Architecture and Civil Engineering Applications,” Sustainability, vol. 8, no. 460, 2016.
 G. Gilani, A. Blanco and A. de la Fuente, “A New Sustainability Assessment Approach Based on Stakeholder's Satisfaction for Building Façades,” 2017.
 P. Pujadas, F. Pardo-Bosch, A. Aguado-Renter and A. Aguado, “MIVES multi-criteria approach for the evaluation, prioritization, and selection of public investment projects. A case study in the city of Barcelona,” Land Use Policy, vol. 64, pp. 29-37, 2017.
 Y. Kuwata, S. Takada and M. Bastami, “Building damage and human casualties during the Bam-Iran earthquake,” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 1-19, 2005.
 A. R. anafpour, “Bam earthquake, Iran: Lessons on the seismic behaviour of building structures,” in 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008.
 M. H. Havaii and M. Hosseini, “Bam earthquake from emergency response to reconstruction,” Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 229-237, 2004.
 I. McConnan, Humanitarian charter and minimum standards in disaster response, Third ed., < The> Sphere Project, 1998.
 J. Davis and R. Lambert, Engineering in Emergencies - a practical guide for relief workers, 2nd ed., ITDG, 2002.