Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 896

Search results for: manufacturing wastes

896 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance metrics, decision making, optimisation.

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895 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution); the cement blend performs better, with no morphological difference between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: Blended, morphological, pozzolanic properties, waste.

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894 Evaluation of Leagile Criteria Using DEMATEL Approach

Authors: Naveen Virmani, Rajeev Saha, Rajeshwar Sahai

Abstract:

There is drastic change in manufacturing era in last two decades. It has become mandatory for the industries to become aware of latest and advanced manufacturing technologies and strategies. Leagile manufacturing focuses on minimizing the wastes and meeting customers’ requirements in minimum time possible. However, it becomes difficult to implement all leagile tools simultaneously in industry. In this paper, 17 main criteria of leagile manufacturing have been found and DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) approach has been applied to analyze importance of criteria and casual relations among these criteria.

Keywords: Agile, DEMATEL approach, lean, leagile manufacturing.

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893 Evaluation of the Magnesium Wastes with Boron Oxide in Magnesium Borate Synthesis

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Magnesium wastes and scraps, one of the metal wastes, are produced by many industrial activities, all over the world. Their growing size is becoming a future problem for the world. In this study, the use of magnesium wastes as a raw material in the production of the magnesium borate hydrates are aimed. The method used in the experiments is hydrothermal synthesis. The conditions are set to, waste magnesium to B2O3, 1:3 as a molar ratio. Four different reaction times are studied which are 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques are used. As a result at all the reaction times magnesium borate hydrates are synthesized and the most crystalline forms are obtained at a reaction time of 120 minutes. The overall yields of the production are found between the values of 65-80 %.

Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borates, magnesium wastes, boron oxide

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892 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti–Lika, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution.

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891 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza, Noeli Sellin

Abstract:

Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: Agro-industrial waste, biomass, briquettes, combustion.

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890 Recycling Organic Waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as Compost

Authors: Anat Thapinta

Abstract:

This research aimed to study on the potential of recycling organic waste in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University as compost. In doing so, the composition of solid waste generated in the campus was investigated while physical and chemical properties of organic waste were analyzed in order to evaluate the portion of waste suitable for recycling as compost. As a result of the study, it was found that (1) the amount of organic waste was averaged at 299.8 kg/day in which mixed food wastes had the highest amount of 191.9 kg/day followed by mixed leave & yard wastes and mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the amount of 66.3 and 41.6 kg/day respectively; (2) physical and chemical properties of organic waste in terms of moisture content was between 69.54 to 78.15%, major elements for plant as N, P and K were 0.14 to 0.17%, 0.46 to 0.52% and 0.16 to 0.18% respectively, and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) was about 15:1 to 17.5:1; (3) recycling organic waste as compost was designed by aerobic decomposition using mixed food wastes : mixed leave & yard wastes : mixed fruit & vegetable wastes at the portion of 3:2:1 by weight in accordance with the potential of their amounts and their physical and chemical properties.

Keywords: Compost, Organic waste, Physical and chemical properties, Recycling.

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889 Hydrogeological Aspects of Washing Waste Reuse in Quarry Lakes Rehabilitation

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi

Abstract:

According to the European laws, there is the possibility of reusing the washing wastes for the environmental requalification of quarry lakes. The paper deals with the hydrogeological aspects involved in this possibility, as the introduction of finest wastes in the quarry lakes can generate alterations of the hydrogeological setting of the area, and problems for the future accessibility of the zone. To evaluate the hydrogeological compatibility of the washing wastes reuse in quarry lakes a groundwater numerical model was carried out, pointing out both the hydrogeological feasibility of this intervention and some guide lines for its optimization, in terms of inflow point with regard the groundwater flow direction and loss of volume in the quarry lake.

Keywords: Groundwater numerical modeling, hydrogeologicalalteration, quarry lake, silty-clay wastes.

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888 Robust Design and Optimization of Production Wastes: An Application for Industries

Authors: Christopher C. Ihueze, Charles C. Okpala, Christian E. Okafor, Peter O. Ogbobe

Abstract:

This paper focuses on robust design and optimization of industrial production wastes. Past literatures were reviewed to case study Clamason Industries Limited (CIL) - a leading ladder-tops manufacturer. A painstaking study of the firm-s practices at the shop floor revealed that Over-production, Waiting time, Excess inventory, and Defects are the major wastes that are impeding their progress and profitability. Design expert8 software was used to apply Taguchi robust design and response surface methodology in order to model, analyse and optimise the wastes cost in CIL. Waiting time and overproduction rank first and second in contributing to the costs of wastes in CIL. For minimal wastes cost the control factors of overproduction, waiting-time, defects and excess-inventory must be set at 0.30, 390.70, 4 and 55.70 respectively for CIL. The optimal value of cost of wastes for the months studied was 22.3679. Finally, a recommendation was made that for the company to enhance their profitability and customer satisfaction, they must adopt the Shingeo Shingo-s Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED), which will immediately tackle the waste of waiting by drastically reducing their setup time.

Keywords: Excess-inventory, setup time, single minute exchange of dies, optimal value, over-production, robust design.

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887 Taguchi Robust Design for Optimal Setting of Process Wastes Parameters in an Automotive Parts Manufacturing Company

Authors: Charles Chikwendu Okpala, Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

Abstract:

As a technique that reduces variation in a product by lessening the sensitivity of the design to sources of variation, rather than by controlling their sources, Taguchi Robust Design entails the designing of ideal goods, by developing a product that has minimal variance in its characteristics and also meets the desired exact performance. This paper examined the concept of the manufacturing approach and its application to brake pad product of an automotive parts manufacturing company. Although the firm claimed that only defects, excess inventory, and over-production were the few wastes that grossly affect their productivity and profitability, a careful study and analysis of their manufacturing processes with the application of Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) tool showed that the waste of waiting is the fourth waste that bedevils the firm. The selection of the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array which is based on the four parameters and the three levels of variation for each parameter revealed that with a range of 2.17, that waiting is the major waste that the company must reduce in order to continue to be viable. Also, to enhance the company’s throughput and profitability, the wastes of over-production, excess inventory, and defects with ranges of 2.01, 1.46, and 0.82, ranking second, third, and fourth respectively must also be reduced to the barest minimum. After proposing -33.84 as the highest optimum Signal-to-Noise ratio to be maintained for the waste of waiting, the paper advocated for the adoption of all the tools and techniques of Lean Production System (LPS), and Continuous Improvement (CI), and concluded by recommending SMED in order to drastically reduce set up time which leads to unnecessary waiting.

Keywords: Taguchi Robust Design, signal to noise ratio, Single Minute Exchange of Dies, lean production system, waste.

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886 Lean in Large Enterprises: Study Results

Authors: Dorota Stadnicka, Katarzyna Antosz

Abstract:

The idea of Lean Manufacturing has been known for 20 years. In Polish enterprises its first implementation took place in the automotive industry in the 90s. Many companies, in order to reduce costs, use lower quality materials or overload employees with work and do not notice other possibilities for improving the company’s effectiveness. Enterprises are afraid of the unknown. And that is the problem in many cases with the Lean Manufacturing conception. This article presents the study results conducted in enterprises, the aim of which was to identify waste awareness and the need of lean manufacturing implementation. The authors also wanted to gain information on the most commonly used tools and the way of implementation and the methods of the effects assessment of using the mentioned conception. The study was conducted in large enterprises located on a limited area.

Keywords: Large enterprises, lean manufacturing, tools, wastes elimination.

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885 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Iron oxide wastes, reduction, coke, recycling.

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884 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: Biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes.

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883 Pre-Eliminary Design Adjustable Workstation for Piston Assembly Line Considering Anthropometric for Indonesian People

Authors: T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Inaki M. Hakim, A. M. Syarafi

Abstract:

Manufacturing process has been considered as one of the most important activity in business process. It correlates with productivity and quality of the product so industries could fulfill customer’s demand. With the increasing demand from customer, industries must improve their manufacturing ability such as shorten lead-time and reduce wastes on their process. Lean manufacturing has been considered as one of the tools to waste elimination in manufacturing or service industry. Workforce development is one practice in lean manufacturing that can reduce waste generated from operator such as waste of unnecessary motion. Anthropometric approach is proposed to determine the recommended measurement in operator’s work area. The method will get some dimensions from Indonesia people that related to piston workstation. The result from this research can be obtained new design for the work area considering ergonomic aspect.

Keywords: Adjustable, anthropometric, ergonomic, waste.

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882 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.

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881 Process Simulation of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE) Production from Naphtha Cracking Wastes

Authors: Pakorn Traiprasertpong, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

The production of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was simulated through Aspen Plus. The objective of this work was to use the simulation results to be an alternative platform for ETBE production from naphtha cracking wastes for the industry to develop. ETBE is produced from isobutylene which is one of the wastes in naphtha cracking process. The content of isobutylene in the waste is less than 30% weight. The main part of this work was to propose a process to save the environment and to increase the product value by converting a great majority of the wastes into ETBE. Various processes were considered to determine the optimal production of ETBE. The proposed process increased ETBE production yield by 100% from conventional process with the purity of 96% weight. The results showed a great promise for developing this proposed process in an industrial scale.

Keywords: ETBE, process simulation, naphtha cracking, Aspen Plus

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880 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: Magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy.

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879 A Study of Lean Principles Implementation in the Libyan Healthcare and Industry Sectors

Authors: Nasser M. Amaitik, Ngwan F. Elsagzli

Abstract:

Lean technique is very important in the service and industrial fields. It is defined as an effective tool to eliminate the wastes. In lean the wastes are defined as anything which does not add value to the end product. There are wastes that can be avoided, but some are unavoidable for many reasons.    

The present study aims to apply the principles of lean in two different sectors, healthcare and industry. Two case studies have been selected to apply the experimental work. The first case was Al-Jalaa Hospital, while the second case study was the Technical Company of Aluminum Sections in Benghazi, LIBYA. In both case studies the Value Stream Map (VSM) of the current state has been constructed. The proposed plans have been implemented by merging or eliminating procedures or processes.

The results obtained from both case studies showed improvement in Capacity, Idle time and Utilized time.

Keywords: Healthcare service delivery, Idle time, Lean principles, Utilized time, Value stream mapping, Wastes.

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878 Integrating Big Island Layout with Pull System for Production Optimization

Authors: M. H. M. Rusli, A. Jaffar, M. T. Ali, S. Muhamud @ Kayat

Abstract:

Lean manufacturing is a production philosophy made popular by Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). It is globally known as the Toyota Production System (TPS) and has the ultimate aim of reducing cost by thoroughly eliminating wastes or muda. TPS embraces the Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing; achieving cost reduction through lead time reduction. JIT manufacturing can be achieved by implementing Pull system in the production. Furthermore, TPS aims to improve productivity and creating continuous flow in the production by arranging the machines and processes in cellular configurations. This is called as Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS). This paper studies on integrating the CMS with the Pull system to establish a Big Island-Pull system production for High Mix Low Volume (HMLV) products in an automotive component industry. The paper will use the build-in JIT system steps adapted from TMC to create the Pull system production and also create a shojinka line which, according to takt time, has the flexibility to adapt to demand changes simply by adding and taking out manpower. This will lead to optimization in production.

Keywords: Big Island layout, Lean manufacturing, Material and Information Flow Chart, Pull system production, TPS.

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877 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Waste in Metal Matrix Composites: Towards Sustainability

Authors: L. Lancaster, M. H. Lung, D. Sujan

Abstract:

The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these agroindustrial wastes in useful way not only save the manufacturing cost of products but also reduce the pollutions on environment. This paper represents a literature review on a range of industrial wastes and their utilization in metal matrix composites. The paper describes the synthesis methods of agro-industrial waste filled metal matrix composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and physical properties. It also highlights the current application and future potential of agro-industrial waste reinforced composites in aerospace, automotive and other construction industries.

Keywords: Bond layer, Interfacial shear stress, Bi-layered assembly, Thermal mismatch, Flip Chip Ball Grid Array.

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876 Broadening of Raw Materials in the Steel Industry, by Recycling and Recovery Wastes

Authors: A. Todorut, T. Heput

Abstract:

In technological processes, in addition to the main product, result a large amount of materials, called wastes, but due to the possibilities of recovery, by means of recycling and reusing it can fit in the category of by-products. These large amounts of dust from the steel industry are a major problem in terms of environmental and human health, landscape, etc. Solving these problems, the impressive amounts of waste can be done through their proper management and recovery for every type of waste. In this article it was watched the capitalizing through pelleting and briquetting of small and powdery waste aiming to obtain the sponge iron as raw material, used in blast furnaces and electric arc furnaces. The data have been processed in the Excel spreadsheet program, being presented in the form of diagrams.

Keywords: Agglomeration, industry, iron, pellets, wastes.

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875 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: Radioactive liquid waste, condensation, solidification, STRAD project.

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874 Reducing Greenhouse Gasses Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project in Universities of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

Abstract:

This research studied recycled wastes by Recyclable Material Bank project of 17 universities of Thailand for evaluation of reducing greenhouse gasses emission compared with landfilling activity during January 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes about 1,626.917 metric ton. The office paper has the largest amount among these recycled wastes (55.61 % of total recycled wastes). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gasses emission equivalent to about 5,263.481 metric ton of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gasses emission is office paper which is 73.45% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metal, mixed recyclables and glass, respectively.

Keywords: recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gasses

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873 Utilization Juice Wastes as Corn Replacement in the Broiler Diet

Authors: Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Mira Andriani, Guoyao Wu

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 80 unsexed broilers of the Arbor Acress strain to determine the capability of a carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture (carrot, apple, manggo, avocado, orange, melon and Dutch egg plant) in the same proportion for replacing corn in broiler diet. This study involved a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of juice wastes mixture in diets) and 4 replicates per treatment. Diets were isonitrogenous (22% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal/kg diet). Measured variables were feed consumption, average daily gain, feed conversion, as well as percentages of abdominal fat pad, carcass, digestive organs (liver, pancreas and gizzard), and heart. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for CRD. Increasing juice wastes mixture levels in diets increased feed consumption (P<0.05) and average daily gain (P<0.01), while improving feed utilization efficiency (P<0.05). These treatments also affected (P<0.05) abdominal fat pad percentage but had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass, liver, pancreas, gizzard or heart percentages. In conclusion, up to 20% of juice wastes mixture could be included for the broiler diet to effectively replace up to 40% corn in the diet.

Keywords: average daily gain, feed consumption, feedconversion, juice waste mixture

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872 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation – An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine

Abstract:

Waste of certain process can be the input source of  other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there  are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small  amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental  pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for  the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make  animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An  alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This  is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential  economical benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce  quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be  achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the  resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is  a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation  of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of  waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study  aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available  waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

 

Keywords: Biodegradable, environment, mushroom, remediation.

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871 Effect of Natural Fibres Inclusion in Clay Bricks: Physico-Mechanical Properties

Authors: Chee-Ming Chan

Abstract:

In spite of the advent of new materials, clay bricks remain, arguably, the most popular construction materials today. Nevertheless the low cost and versatility of clay bricks cannot always be associated with high environmental and sustainable values, especially in terms of raw material sources and manufacturing processes. At the same time, the worldwide agricultural footprint is fast growing, with vast agricultural land cultivation and active expansion of the agro-based industry. The resulting large quantities of agricultural wastes, unfortunately, are not always well managed or utilised. These wastes can be recycled, such as by retrieving fibres from disposed leaves and fruit bunches, and then incorporated in brick-making. This way the clay bricks are made a 'greener' building material and the discarded natural wastes can be reutilised, avoiding otherwise wasteful landfill and harmful open incineration. This study examined the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks made by adding two natural fibres to a clay-water mixture, with baked and non-baked conditions. The fibres were sourced from pineapple leaves (PF) and oil palm fruit bunch (OF), and added within the range of 0.25-0.75 %. Cement was added as a binder to the mixture at 5-15 %. Although the two fibres had different effects on the bricks produced, cement appeared to dominate the compressive strength. The non-baked bricks disintegrated when submerged in water, while the baked ones displayed cement-dependent characteristics in water-absorption and density changes. Interestingly, further increase in fibre content did not cause significant density decrease in both the baked and non-baked bricks.

Keywords: natural fibres, clay bricks, strength, water absorption, density.

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870 Improving Automotive Efficiency through Lean Management Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Raed EL-Khalil, Hussein Zeaiter

Abstract:

Managing and improving efficiency in the current highly competitive global automotive industry demands that those companies adopt leaner and more flexible systems. During the past 20 years the domestic automotive industry in North America has been focusing on establishing new management strategies in order to meet market demands. The lean management process also known as Toyota Manufacturing Process (TPS) or lean manufacturing encompasses tools and techniques that were established in order to provide the best quality product with the fastest lead time at the lowest cost. The following paper presents a study that focused on improving labor efficiency at one of the Big Three (Ford, GM, Chrysler LLC) domestic automotive facility in North America. The objective of the study was to utilize several lean management tools in order to optimize the efficiency and utilization levels at the “Pre- Marriage” chassis area in a truck manufacturing and assembly facility. Utilizing three different lean tools (i.e. Standardization of work, 7 Wastes, and 5S) this research was able to improve efficiency by 51%, utilization by 246%, and reduce operations by 14%. The return on investment calculated based on the improvements made was 284%.

Keywords: Lean Manufacturing, Standardized Work, Operation Efficiency and Utilization, Operations Management.

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869 Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

Authors: Bakare Babatunde Femi

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This paper presents an overview of these two pretreatment methods describing their benefits and laboratory scale reactors that simulate landfill conditions were constructed in order to compare emissions in terms of biogas production and leachate contamination between untreated Municipal Solid Waste and Mechanical Biological Pretreated waste. The findings of this study showed that Mechanical Biological pretreatment of waste reduces the emission level of waste and the benefit over the landfilling of untreated waste is significant.

Keywords: emissions, mechanical biological pretreatment, MSW, thermal pretreatment

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868 Identification of Lean Implementation Hurdles in Indian Industries

Authors: Bhim Singh

Abstract:

Due to increased pressure from global competitors, manufacturing organizations are switching over to lean philosophies from traditional mass production. Lean manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which focuses on elimination of various types of wastes and creates maximum value for the end customers. Lean thinking aims to produce high quality products and services at the lowest possible cost with maximum customer responsiveness. Indian Industry is facing lot of problems in this transformation from traditional mass production to lean production. Through this paper an attempt has been made to identify various lean implementation hurdles in Indian industries with the help of a structured survey. Identified hurdles are grouped with the help of factor analysis and rated by calculating descriptive statistics. To show the effect of lean implementation hurdles a hypothesis “Organizations having higher level of lean implementation hurdles will have poor (negative) performance” has been postulated and tested using correlation matrix between performance parameters of the organizations and identified hurdles. The findings of the paper will be helpful to prepare road map to identify and eradicate the lean implementation hurdles.

Keywords: Factor analysis, global competition, lean implementation and lean hurdles.

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867 Lean TQM Automotive Factory Model System

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Ahmed Jaffar

Abstract:

Integrated Total Quality Management (TQM) with Lean Manufacturing (LM) is a system comprises of TQM with LM principles and is associated with financial and nonfinancial performance measurement indicators. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total customer satisfaction by removing eight wastes available in any process in an organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by PASW Statistics 18. It was found out that these vendors have been practicing and measuring the effectiveness TQM and LM implementation. More involvement of all Malaysian automotive vendors will represent the exact status of current Malaysian automotive industry in implementing TQM and LM and can determine whether the industry is ready for integrated TQM and LM system. This is the first study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System and SAEJ4000.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Lean Manufacturing, Operational Engineering Management, Total Quality Management

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