Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5527

Search results for: average sample number

5527 The Comparisons of Average Outgoing Quality Limit between the MCSP-2-C and MCSP-C

Authors: P. Guayjarernpanishkand, T. Mayureesawan

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of average outgoing quality limit of the MCSP-2-C plan with MCSP-C when MCSP-2-C has been developed from MCSP-C. The parameters used in MCSP-2- C are: i (the clearance number), c (the acceptance number), m (the number of conforming units to be found before allowing c nonconforming units in the sampling inspection), f1 and f2 (the sampling frequency at level 1 and 2, respectively). The average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) values from two plans were compared and we found that for all sets of i, r, and c values, MCSP-2-C gives higher values than MCSP-C. For all sets of i, r, and c values, the average outgoing quality values of MCSP-C and MCSP-2-C are similar when p is low or high but is difference when p is moderate.

Keywords: average outgoing quality, average outgoing quality limit, continuous sampling plan.

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5526 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Mohamed Amine Belmiloud, Nord Eddine Sad Chemloul

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity ε and the varying of the Richardson number Ri on the variation of average Nusselt number Nu. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless Governing Equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to 10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra=104 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr=0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number Ri and emissivity ε affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: Numerical study, mixed convection, square cavity, wall emissivity, lid-driven.

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5525 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Authors: Davood Shishebori, Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad, Sina Seifi

Abstract:

In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

Keywords: MDS sampling plan, RGS plan, sampling plan for resubmitted lots, process capability index, average sample number, Bayesian approach.

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5524 An Evaluation of Average Run Length of MaxEWMA and MaxGWMA Control Charts

Authors: S. Phanyaem

Abstract:

Exponentially weighted moving average control chart (EWMA) is a popular chart used for detecting shift in the mean of parameter of distributions in quality control. The objective of this paper is to compare the efficiency of control chart to detect an increases in the mean of a process. In particular, we compared the Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MaxEWMA) and Maximum Generally Weighted Moving Average (MaxGWMA) control charts when the observations are Exponential distribution. The criteria for evaluate the performance of control chart is called, the Average Run Length (ARL). The result of comparison show that in the case of process is small sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more efficiency to detect shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart. For the case of large sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect small shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart, and when the process is a large shift in mean, the MaxGWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect mean shift than MaxEWMA control chart.

Keywords: Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, Maximum General Weighted Moving Average, Average Run Length.

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5523 Simulation of Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined open Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan nia

Abstract:

In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= - 45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Inclination angle, Opencavity, Natural convection

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5522 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: Electrohydrodynamics, swirling flow, convective heat transfer, solid sample.

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5521 An EWMA p Chart Based On Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: S. Sukparungsee

Abstract:

Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: Number of defects, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, Average Run Length, Square root transformations.

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5520 Optimal Parameters of Double Moving Average Control Chart

Authors: Y. Areepong

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present explicit analytical formulas for evaluating important characteristics of Double Moving Average control chart (DMA) for Poisson distribution. The most popular characteristics of a control chart are Average Run Length ( 0 ARL ) - the mean of observations that are taken before a system is signaled to be out-of control when it is actually still incontrol, and Average Delay time ( 1 ARL ) - mean delay of true alarm times. An important property required of 0 ARL is that it should be sufficiently large when the process is in-control to reduce a number of false alarms. On the other side, if the process is actually out-ofcontrol then 1 ARL should be as small as possible. In particular, the explicit analytical formulas for evaluating 0 ARL and 1 ARL be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on a width of the moving average ( w ) and width of control limit ( H ) for designing DMA chart with minimum of 1 ARL

Keywords: Optimal parameters, Average Run Length, Average Delay time, Double Moving Average chart.

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5519 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure

Authors: A. Karimipour, M. Afrand, M. Akbari, M.R. Safaei

Abstract:

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

Keywords: Mixed convection, inclined driven cavity, Richardson number.

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5518 Statistics of Exon Lengths in Animals, Plants, Fungi, and Protists

Authors: Alexander Kaplunovsky, Vladimir Khailenko, Alexander Bolshoy, Shara Atambayeva, AnatoliyIvashchenko

Abstract:

Eukaryotic protein-coding genes are interrupted by spliceosomal introns, which are removed from the RNA transcripts before translation into a protein. The exon-intron structures of different eukaryotic species are quite different from each other, and the evolution of such structures raises many questions. We try to address some of these questions using statistical analysis of whole genomes. We go through all the protein-coding genes in a genome and study correlations between the net length of all the exons in a gene, the number of the exons, and the average length of an exon. We also take average values of these features for each chromosome and study correlations between those averages on the chromosomal level. Our data show universal features of exon-intron structures common to animals, plants, and protists (specifically, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Cryptococcus neoformans, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Oryza sativa, and Plasmodium falciparum). We have verified linear correlation between the number of exons in a gene and the length of a protein coded by the gene, while the protein length increases in proportion to the number of exons. On the other hand, the average length of an exon always decreases with the number of exons. Finally, chromosome clustering based on average chromosome properties and parameters of linear regression between the number of exons in a gene and the net length of those exons demonstrates that these average chromosome properties are genome-specific features.

Keywords: Comparative genomics, exon-intron structure, eukaryotic clustering, linear regression.

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5517 Estimation of Bayesian Sample Size for Binomial Proportions Using Areas P-tolerance with Lowest Posterior Loss

Authors: H. Bevrani, N. Najafi

Abstract:

This paper uses p-tolerance with the lowest posterior loss, quadratic loss function, average length criteria, average coverage criteria, and worst outcome criterion for computing of sample size to estimate proportion in Binomial probability function with Beta prior distribution. The proposed methodology is examined, and its effectiveness is shown.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, Beta-binomial Distribution, LPLcriteria, quadratic loss function.

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5516 An Adequate Choice of Initial Sample Size for Selection Approach

Authors: Mohammad H. Almomani, Rosmanjawati Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the effect of the initial sample size on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting a good enough simulated system, when the number of alternatives is very large. We implement a sequential approach on M=M=1 queuing system under some parameter settings, with a different choice of the initial sample sizes to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of the initial sample size does affect the performance of our selection approach.

Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Ordinal Optimization, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation, Subset Selection, Indifference-Zone, Initial Sample Size.

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5515 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Y. Areepong

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: Average Run Length1, Optimal parameters, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart.

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5514 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, negative binomial, zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: Bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days.

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5513 Double-Diffusive Natural Convection with Marangoni and Cooling Effects

Authors: Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top square cavity and heated from the side is studied numerically. Constant temperatures and concentration are imposed along the right and left walls while the heat balance at the surface is assumed to obey Newton-s law of cooling. The finite difference method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Marangoni number, Biot number and Prandtl number on the contours of streamlines, temperature and concentration. The predicted results for the average Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented for various parametric conditions. The parameters involved are as follows; the thermal Marangoni number, 0 ≤ MaT ≤1000 , the solutal Marangoni number, 0 1000 c ≤ Ma ≤ , the Biot number, 0 ≤ Bi ≤ 6 , Grashof number, 5 Gr = 10 and aspect ratio 1. The study focused on both flows; thermal dominated, N = 0.8 , and compositional dominated, N = 1.3 .

Keywords: Double-diffusive, Marangoni effects, heat and mass transfer.

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5512 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: A. Ghafouri, N. Pourmahmoud, I. Mirzaee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated. Physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60 and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: Nano-fluid, nanoparticle diameter, heat transfer enhancement, square enclosure, Nusselt number.

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5511 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: Cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall.

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5510 The Development of Online-Class Scheduling Management System Conducted by the Case Study of Department of Social Science: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Wipada Chaiwchan, Patcharee Klinhom

Abstract:

This research is aimed to develop the online-class scheduling management system and improve as a complex problem solution, this must take into consideration in various conditions and factors. In addition to the number of courses, the number of students and a timetable to study, the physical characteristics of each class room and regulations used in the class scheduling must also be taken into consideration. This system is developed to assist management in the class scheduling for convenience and efficiency. It can provide several instructors to schedule simultaneously. Both lecturers and students can check and publish a timetable and other documents associated with the system online immediately. It is developed in a web-based application. PHP is used as a developing tool. The database management system was MySQL. The tool that is used for efficiency testing of the system is questionnaire. The system was evaluated by using a Black-Box testing. The sample was composed of 2 groups: 5 experts and 100 general users. The average and the standard deviation of results from the experts were 3.50 and 0.67. The average and the standard deviation of results from the general users were 3.54 and 0.54. In summary, the results from the research indicated that the satisfaction of users were in a good level. Therefore, this system could be implemented in an actual workplace and satisfy the users’ requirement effectively.

Keywords: Timetable, schedule, management system, online.

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5509 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin

Abstract:

Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: Laminar forced convection, nanofluid, curve, return bend, CFD.

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5508 The Modified Eigenface Method using Two Thresholds

Authors: Yan Ma, ShunBao Li

Abstract:

A new approach is adopted in this paper based on Turk and Pentland-s eigenface method. It was found that the probability density function of the distance between the projection vector of the input face image and the average projection vector of the subject in the face database, follows Rayleigh distribution. In order to decrease the false acceptance rate and increase the recognition rate, the input face image has been recognized using two thresholds including the acceptance threshold and the rejection threshold. We also find out that the value of two thresholds will be close to each other as number of trials increases. During the training, in order to reduce the number of trials, the projection vectors for each subject has been averaged. The recognition experiments using the proposed algorithm show that the recognition rate achieves to 92.875% whilst the average number of judgment is only 2.56 times.

Keywords: Eigenface, Face Recognition, Threshold, Rayleigh Distribution, Feature Extraction

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5507 Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity

Authors: P. Prasad Rao, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18

Keywords: 1.5 bits/stage, Conversion Frequency, Redundancy Switched Capacitor Sample and Hold Circuit

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5506 A New Correlation for Overall Sherwood Number in Packed Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column

Authors: S. GhaffariTooran, H. Abolghasemi, H. Bahmanyar, M. Esmaeili, A. Safari

Abstract:

Using plug flow model in conjunction with experimental solute concentration profiles, overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient based on continuous phase (Koca), in a packed liquid-liquid extraction column has been optimized. Number of 12 experiments has been done using standard system of water/acid acetic/toluene in a 6 cm diameter, 120 cm height column. Thorough consideration of influencing parameters we intended to correlate dimensionless parameters in term of overall Sherwood number which has an acceptable average error of about 15.8%.

Keywords: Packed column, mass transfer coefficient, solvent extraction, Sherwood number.

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5505 A State Aggregation Approach to Singularly Perturbed Markov Reward Processes

Authors: Dali Zhang, Baoqun Yin, Hongsheng Xi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a single sample path based algorithm with state aggregation to optimize the average rewards of singularly perturbed Markov reward processes (SPMRPs) with a large scale state spaces. It is assumed that such a reward process depend on a set of parameters. Differing from the other kinds of Markov chain, SPMRPs have their own hierarchical structure. Based on this special structure, our algorithm can alleviate the load in the optimization for performance. Moreover, our method can be applied on line because of its evolution with the sample path simulated. Compared with the original algorithm applied on these problems of general MRPs, a new gradient formula for average reward performance metric in SPMRPs is brought in, which will be proved in Appendix, and then based on these gradients, the schedule of the iteration algorithm is presented, which is based on a single sample path, and eventually a special case in which parameters only dominate the disturbance matrices will be analyzed, and a precise comparison with be displayed between our algorithm with the old ones which is aim to solve these problems in general Markov reward processes. When applied in SPMRPs, our method will approach a fast pace in these cases. Furthermore, to illustrate the practical value of SPMRPs, a simple example in multiple programming in computer systems will be listed and simulated. Corresponding to some practical model, physical meanings of SPMRPs in networks of queues will be clarified.

Keywords: Singularly perturbed Markov processes, Gradient of average reward, Differential reward, State aggregation, Perturbed close network.

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5504 A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems

Authors: K. Kasiri, M. J. Dehghani

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a blind algorithm for peakto- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM systems, based on selected mapping (SLM) algorithm as a distortionless method. The main drawback of the conventional SLM technique is the need for transmission of several side information bits, for each data block, which results in loss in data rate transmission. In the proposed method some special number of carriers in the OFDM frame is reserved to be rotated with one of the possible phases according to the number of phase sequence blocks in SLM algorithm. Reserving some limited number of carriers wont effect the reduction in PAPR of OFDM signal. Simulation results show using ML criteria at the receiver will lead to the same system-performance as the conventional SLM algorithm, while there is no need to send any side information to the receiver.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Selected Mapping(SLM), Blind SLM (BSLM).

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5503 Numerical Simulation of Convection Heat Transfer in a Lid-Driven Cavity with an Open Side

Authors: M.Jafari, M.Farhadi, K.sedighi, E.Fattahi

Abstract:

In this manuscript, the LBM is applied for simulating of Mixed Convection in a Lid-Driven cavity with an open side. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west Lid-driven wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number (Pr) is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Reynolds number (Re) , Richardson number (Ri) and aspect ratio (A) of the cavity are changed in the range of 50-150 , of 0.1-10 and of 1-4 , respectively. The numerical code is validated for the standard square cavity, and then the results of an open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number (Nu) on lid- driven wall decreases and with same Reynolds number (Re) by increasing of aspect ratio (A), Richardson number plays more important role in heat transfer rate.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Open ended cavity, Mixed convection, Lid-driven cavity.

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5502 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: Natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer.

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5501 Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity using Large- Eddy Simulation in Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan Nia

Abstract:

In this paper Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection with large-eddy simulations (LES) in a square cavity which is filled by water has been investigated. The present results are validated by finds of other investigations which have been done with different numerical methods. Calculations were performed for high Rayleigh numbers of Ra=108 and 109. The results confirm that this method is in acceptable agreement with other verifications of such a flow. In this investigation is tried to present Large-eddy turbulence flow model by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with a clear and simple statement. Effects of increase in Rayleigh number are displayed on streamlines, isotherm counters and average Nusselt number. Result shows that the average Nusselt number enhances with growth of the Rayleigh numbers.

Keywords: Turbulent natural convection, Large Eddy Simulation, Lattice Boltzmann Method

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5500 Efficiency Evaluation of E-Commerce Websites

Authors: A. K. Abd El-Aleem, W. F. Abd El-wahed, N. A. Ismail, F. A. Torkey

Abstract:

This study suggests a model of a new set of evaluation criteria that will be used to measure the efficiency of real-world E-commerce websites. Evaluation criteria include design, usability and performance for websites, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique has been used to measure the websites efficiency. An efficient Web site is defined as a site that generates the most outputs, using the smallest amount of inputs. Inputs refer to measurements representing the amount of effort required to build, maintain and perform the site. Output is amount of traffic the site generates. These outputs are measured as the average number of daily hits and the average number of daily unique visitors.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, E-commerce, Efficiency.

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5499 Effect of Various Concentrations of Humic Acid on Growth and Development of Eggplant Seedlings in Tissue Cultures at Low Nutrient Level

Authors: Kullanart Obsuwan, Suluck Namchote, Natdhera Sanmanee, Kamolchanok Panishkan, Sirichai Dharmvanij

Abstract:

Humic acids (HAs) have been shown to activate some ion uptakes along with stimulating the lateral roots at effective concentration of micronutrients. However, the effects of HA on ion adsorption by plant roots are not easily explainable due to the varieties of HAs that differ from origins. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of HA obtained from the compost derived from mix manures and some agricultural wastes on the growth of eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena L. cv. Chao Praya) in tissue cultures at low nutrient level. Egg plant seeds were surfaced sterilized and germinated in ½ Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) without HA added or in ¼ MS supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of HAs. Then, they were cultured for 4 weeks under the controlled environment. The results showed that seedlings grown on ¼MS supplemented with HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm had the average plant heights (2.49 and 2.28 cm, respectively) higher than the other treatments. Both treatments also significantly showed the maximum average fresh and dry weights (p<0.05). Also the later yielded the highest average number of leaves and the longest average root length (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically different in the number of roots among treatments (p>0.05). This suggested that HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm could improve the growth of egg plant seedlings in tissue cultures at low nutrient level (¼ MS).

Keywords: growth, seedling, humic acid, fresh weght, dry weight, tissue culture

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5498 Numerical Simulation on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel by Triangular Ribs

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, NM Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Turbulent heat transfer to fluid flow through channel with triangular ribs of different angles are presented in this paper. Ansys 14 ICEM and Ansys 14 Fluent are used for meshing process and solving Navier stokes equations respectively. In this investigation three angles of triangular ribs with the range of Reynolds number varied from 20000 to 60000 at constant surface temperature are considered. The results show that the Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number for all cases at constant surface temperature. According to the profile of local Nusselt number on ribs walled of channel, the peak is at the midpoint between the two ribs. The maximum value of average Nusselt number is obtained for triangular ribs of angel 60°and at Reynolds number of 60000 compared to the Nusselt number for the ribs of angel 90° and 45° and at same Reynolds number. The recirculation regions generated by the ribs corresponding to the velocity streamline show the largest recirculation region at triangular ribs of angle 60° which also provides the highest enhancement of heat transfer.

Keywords: Ribs channel, Turbulent flow, Heat transfer enhancement, Recirculation flow.

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