Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31097
Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin


Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: Nanofluid, CFD, curve, laminar forced convection, return bend

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 945


[1] Prasher, R., et al., Measurements of nanofluid viscosity and its implications for thermal applications. Applied Physics Letters, 2006. 89(13): p. 133108.
[2] Heris, S.Z., M.N. Esfahany, and S.G. Etemad, Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer of Al 2 O 3/water nanofluid in circular tube. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2007. 28(2): p. 203-210.
[3] Chon, C.H., et al., Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement. Applied Physics Letters, 2005. 87(15): p. 153107-153107.
[4] Nguyen, C., et al., Viscosity data for Al 2 O 3–water nanofluid—hysteresis: is heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids reliable? International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2008. 47(2): p. 103-111.
[5] Yu, W., et al., Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements. Heat Transfer Engineering, 2008. 29(5): p. 432-460.
[6] Chol, S., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. ASME-Publications-Fed, 1995. 231: p. 99-106.
[7] Lotfi, R., Y. Saboohi, and A. Rashidi, Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids: comparison of different approaches. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2010. 37(1): p. 74-78.
[8] Oztop, H.F. and E. Abu-Nada, Numerical study of natural convection in partially heated rectangular enclosures filled with nanofluids. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2008. 29(5): p. 1326-1336.
[9] Jou, R.-Y. and S.-C. Tzeng, Numerical research of nature convective heat transfer enhancement filled with nanofluids in rectangular enclosures. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2006. 33(6): p. 727-736.
[10] Ho, C.-J., M. Chen, and Z. Li, Numerical simulation of natural convection of nanofluid in a square enclosure: effects due to uncertainties of viscosity and thermal conductivity. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2008. 51(17): p. 4506-4516.
[11] Namburu, P.K., et al., Numerical study of turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids considering variable properties. International journal of thermal sciences, 2009. 48(2): p. 290-302.
[12] Roy, G., C.T. Nguyen, and P.-R. Lajoie, Numerical investigation of laminar flow and heat transfer in a radial flow cooling system with the use of nanofluids. Superlattices and Microstructures, 2004. 35(3): p. 497-511.
[13] Ding, Y., et al., Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids). International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2006. 49(1): p. 240-250.
[14] Nguyen, C.T., et al., Heat transfer enhancement using Al2O3–water nanofluid for an electronic liquid cooling system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007. 27(8): p. 1501-1506.
[15] Mansour, R.B., N. Galanis, and C.T. Nguyen, Effect of uncertainties in physical properties on forced convection heat transfer with nanofluids. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007. 27(1): p. 240-249.
[16] Palm, S.J., G. Roy, and C.T. Nguyen, Heat transfer enhancement with the use of nanofluids in radial flow cooling systems considering temperature-dependent properties. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2006. 26(17): p. 2209-2218.
[17] Arzani, H.K., et al., Experimental investigation of thermophysical properties and heat transfer rate of covalently functionalized MWCNT in an annular heat exchanger. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2016.
[18] Chengara, A., et al., Spreading of nanofluids driven by the structural disjoining pressure gradient. Journal of colloid and interface science, 2004. 280(1): p. 192-201.
[19] Wasan, D.T. and A.D. Nikolov, Spreading of nanofluids on solids. Nature, 2003. 423(6936): p. 156-159.
[20] You, S., J. Kim, and K. Kim, Effect of nanoparticles on critical heat flux of water in pool boiling heat transfer. Applied Physics Letters, 2003. 83(16): p. 3374-3376.
[21] Akbarinia, A. and A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in horizontal curved tubes. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007. 27(8): p. 1327-1337.
[22] Nnanna, A.A., et al., Assessment of thermoelectric module with nanofluid heat exchanger. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2009. 29(2): p. 491-500.
[23] Arzani, H.K., et al., Experimental and numerical investigation of thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pressure drop of covalent and noncovalent functionalized graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids in an annular heat exchanger. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2015. 68: p. 267-275.
[24] Amiri, A., et al., Laminar convective heat transfer of hexylamine-treated MWCNTs-based turbine oil nanofluid. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015. 105: p. 355-367.
[25] Amiri, A., et al., Backward-facing step heat transfer of the turbulent regime for functionalized graphene nanoplatelets based water–ethylene glycol nanofluids. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2016. 97: p. 538-546.
[26] Xuan, Y. and Q. Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids. Journal of Heat transfer, 2003. 125(1): p. 151-155.
[27] Shih, T.M., Numerical heat transfer. 1984: CRC Press.
[28] Vargaftik, N.B., Tables on the thermophysical properties of liquids and gases in normal and dissociated states. 1975.
[29] Maı̈ga, S.E.B., et al., Heat transfer behaviours of nanofluids in a uniformly heated tube. Superlattices and Microstructures, 2004. 35(3): p. 543-557.
[30] Koo, J. and C. Kleinstreuer, A new thermal conductivity model for nanofluids. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2004. 6(6): p. 577-588.
[31] Ghobadian, R. and K. Mohammadi, Simulation of subcritical flow pattern in 180 uniform and convergent open-channel bends using SSIIM 3-D model. 2011. 4(3).