Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31231
Treatment of Chrome Tannery Wastewater by Biological Process - A Mini Review

Authors: Supriyo Goswami, Debabrata Mazumder


Chrome tannery wastewater causes serious environmental hazard due to its high pollution potential. As a result, rigorous treatment is necessary for abatement of pollution from this type of wastewater. There are many research studies on chrome tannery wastewater treatment in the field of physical, chemical, and biological methods. In general, biological treatment process is found ineffective for direct application because of adverse effects by toxic chromium, sulphide, chloride etc. However, biological methods were employed mainly for a few sub processes generating significant amount of organic matter and without chromium, chlorides etc. In this context the present paper reviews the characteristics feature and pollution potential of wastewater generated from chrome tannery units and treatment of the same. The different biological processes used earlier and their chronological development for treatment of the chrome tannery wastewater are thoroughly reviewed in this paper. In this regard, the scope of hybrid bioreactor - an advanced technology option has also been explored, as this kind of treatment is well suited for the wastewater having inhibitory substances. 

Keywords: Biological treatment, Hybrid bioreactor, Composite tannery wastewater, Organic removal

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3573


[1] Artiga, P, Oyanedel, V, Garrldo, J.M. and Mendez, R, An innovative biofilm-suspended biomass hybrid membrane. Desalination, 2005, 179, pp 171-179.
[2] Ayoub, G M., Hamzeh, A., and Semerjian, L, Post treatment of tannery wastewater using lime/bittern coagulation and activated carbon adsorption. Desalination, 2011, 273, pp 359–65.
[3] Azimi, A, A, Hooshyari, B, Hrdadi, N and Bidhendi, Gnnabi, Enhanced cod and nutrient removal efficiency in a hybrid integrated fixed film activated sludge process. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction B, Engineering, 2007, 31, pp 523-533.
[4] Banu Rajesh J and Kaliappan, Treatment of tannery wastewater using hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. J Environ Eng. Sci, 2007 6,pp 415-421.
[5] Bera Debabrata, Chattopadhyay Parimal, & Ray Lalitarauri, Continuous removal of chromium from tannery wastewater using activated sludge process - Determination of kinetic parameters. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 2012, 19, pp 32-36.
[6] Cristina S. C. Calheiros, Anouk F. Duque, Alexandra, Moura, Isabel, S. Henriques, Antonio Correia, Antonio O. S. S. Rangel and Paula M.L. Castro, Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment. Bioresource Technology, 2009, 100, pp 3228–3235.
[7] Cristina, S. C., Calheiros, Antonio, O. S. S, Rangel, and Paula, M.L. Castro, Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Research, 2007 41, pp.1790 – 1798.
[8] Dotro Gabriela, Castro Silvana, Tujchneider Ofelia, Piovano Nancy, Paris Marta, Faggi Ana, Palazolo Paul, Larsen Daniel, Mitch Mark, Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters, Journal of Hazardous Materials 2012, 239-240, pp 142-151.
[9] Di Iaconi C, Lopez A, Ramadori R, Di Pinto A.C,and Passino R, Combined Chemical and Biological degradation of tannery wastewater by a periodic submerged filter (SBBR), Water Research, 2002, 36, pp 2205–14.
[10] Durai G, Rajamohan N, Karthikeyan C and Rajasimman M, Kinetics Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater Using Mixed Culture. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2010, 3(2), pp 105-109.
[11] Durai G, and Rajasimman M Biological treatment of Tannery wastewater - A review, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2011, 4(1), pp1-17.
[12] Dutta, S. S An introduction to the principles of leather manufacture, 4th Edn. Indian Leather Technologists Association, Calcutta (2000).
[13] Eckenfelder Jr. and Wesley, W. (2000), Industrial Water Pollution Control, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore (2000).
[14] El-fadel M, Abou-ibrahim A, and Ayob G. Aerobic hybrid growth process modeling: A parametric sensitivity analysis. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Pollution Control and Waste Management, Tunis (EPCOWM’2002), 2002, pp -333-348.
[15] El-Sheikh Mahmoud A, Hazem I, Saleh J, Flora R, MahmoudR, and Abdel-Ghany, Biological tannery wastewater treatment using two stage UASB reactors. Desalination, 2011, 276, pp 253–9.
[16] Espantaleon A. G, Nieto J. A, Fernande M, and Marsal A, Use of activated clays in the removal of dyes and surfactants from tannery waste waters, Applied Clay Science, 2003, 24, pp-105–110.
[17] Farabegoli G, Carucci A, Majone M, and Rolle E, Biological treatment of tannery wastewater in the presence of chromium, Journal of Environmental Management, 2004, 71, pp 345–9.
[18] Fouad, Moharram and Bhargava, Renu, Mathematical Model for the Biofilm–Activated Sludge Reactor, Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2005, 131, pp 557-562.
[19] Ganesh R, Balaji G, and Ramanujam R. A, Biodegradation of tannery wastewater using sequencing batch reactor - respirometric assessment, Bioresource Technology, 2006, 97, 1815–21.
[20] Gebara Farida, Activated sludge biofilm wastewater treatment system, Water Research, 1999, 33(1), pp 230-238.
[21] Genschow Elke, Hegemann Werner, and Maschke Christian, Biological sulfate removal from tannery wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic treatment, Water. Research, 1996 30(9), pp 2072-2078.
[22] Görgün Erdem, Insel Guclu, Artan Nazik and Orhon Derin: Model evaluation of temperature dependency for carbon and nitrogen removal in a full-scale activated sludge plant treating leather-tanning wastewater, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, PartA: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 2007, 42, pp 747–756.
[23] Govindasamy P, Madhavan SD, Revathi S, and Shanmugam, P Performance Evaluation of Common Effluent Treatment Plant for Tanneries at Pallavaram CETP, Journal of Environ. science & Engg, 2006, 478, (43), pp 213-220.
[24] Haydar, S and Aziz J. A, Kinetic Coefficients for the Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater Using Activated Sludge Process, Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci., 2009, 5, pp 39-43.
[25] Haydar S, Aziz J. A, and Ahmad M. S, Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater using Activated Sludge process, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2007, 1, pp 61-66.
[26] Lee Chi-Yuane, Model for biological reactors having suspended and attached growths, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1992, 118, pp 982-987.
[27] Lefebvre O, Vasudevan N, Torrijosa M, Thanasekaran K, and Moletta R, Halophilic biological treatment of tannery soak liquor in a sequencing batch reactor, Water Research, 2005, 39, pp 1471–1480.
[28] Lefebvre, O., Vasudevan, N., Torrijosa, M., Thanasekaran, K. and Moletta, R, Anaerobic digestion of tannery soak liquor with an aerobic post-treatment. Water Research, 2006, 40, pp 1492–500.
[29] Leta S, Assefa F, Gumaelius L. and Dalhammar G, Biological nitrogen and organic matter removal from tannery wastewater in pilot plant operations in Ethiopia. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 2004, 66, pp 333–9.
[30] Li Choa, Ji Min, Li Xianli, and Wang Mengshu, Municipal Wastewater Treatment in a New Type Bio-carrier Reactor, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2011, 10, pp 962-967.
[31] Mannucci A, Munz G, Mori G, and Lubello C, Anaerobic treatment of vegetable tannery wastewaters: a review, Desalination, 2010, 264, pp 1– 8.
[32] Mazumder D, Mukherjee S, and Ray P. K, Treatment of tannery waste water in a hybrid bioreactor. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2008, 34, pp 43-56.
[33] Min K. S, Yu J. J, Kim Y. J, and Yun Z, Removal of ammonium from tannery wastewater by electrochemical treatment, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 2004, 39, pp 1867–79.
[34] Molina A, Gallego Roca, J. A Mendoza, Aguado D-Aleixandre, M. V Galiana, Reducing pollution from the deliming–baiting operation in a tannery. Wastewater reuse by microfiltration membranes. Chem. Eng. Res. Des, 2012.
[35] Munz G, Gori R, Cammilli L and Lubello C, Characterization of tannery wastewater and biomass in a membrane bioreactor using respirometric analysis, Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99, pp 8612–8.
[36] Orhon D, Ates Genceli E and Ubay Cokgor E, Characterization and modelling of activated sludge for tannery wastewater, Water Environment Research, 1999, pp 50–63.
[37] Pramod W, Ramteke S, Awasthi S, Srinath T and Joseph, Babu, Efficiency assessment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2010, 169, pp 125-131.
[38] Ram B, Bajpai P. K, and Parwana H.K, Kinetics of chrome-tannery effluent treatment by the activated sludge system, Process Biochemistry, 1999, 35, pp 255–65.
[39] Rao N. N, Somasekhar K. M, Kaul S. N, and Szpyrkoicz, L, Electrochemical oxidation of tannery wastewater, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 2001, 76, pp 1124–31.
[40] Roy Utpal Singha, Goswami Abhishek Roy, Aich Anulipi, Chattopadhya B, Dutta S, and Mukhopadhyay S. K, Changes in physicochemical characteristics of wastewater carrying canals after relocation of Calcutta tannery agglomerates within the East Calcutta Wetland ecosystem (a Ramsar site), International Journal of Environmental Studies, 2013 70, pp 203-221.
[41] Sarkar, K.T Theory and Practice of Leather Manufacture, Indian Leather Technologist Association, Calcutta, (1981).
[42] Song Z, Williams C.J, and Edyvean R. G. J, Treatment of tannery wastewater by chemical coagulation, Desalination, 2004, 164, pp 249– 59.
[43] Subramani, T and Haribalaji D, Biodegradation of Tannery Effluent and Designing the reactor Clarifier and Activated sludge process, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, 2012, 2(3), pp 774-781.
[44] Sundarapandiyan S, Chandrasekar R, Ramanaiah B, Krishnan S, and Saravanan P, Electrochemical oxidation and reuse of tannery saline wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Material, 2010, 180, pp 197–203.
[45] Szpyrkowicz Lidia and Kaul Santosh N Biochemical removal of nitrogen from tannery wastewater: performance and stability of a fullscale plant, J Chem Technol Biotechnol, 2004, 79, pp 879–888.
[46] Szpyrkowicz L, Kelsall G.H, Kaoul S. N, and De Faveri, M., Performance of electro-chemical reactor for treatment of tannery wastewaters, Chemical Engineering Science, 2001 56, pp 1579–86.
[47] Tare Vinod,Gupta Sandeep, and Bose Purnendu, Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluents in India, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 2001 53, pp 976-982.
[48] Wiemann Matthias, Schenk Harm, and Hegemannm Werner, Anaerobic treatment of tannery wastewater with simultaneous sulphide elimination, Water Research, 1998, 32(3),pp 774-780.