Search results for: Tawan Limpiyakorn
5 Communities of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge
Authors: Puntipar Sonthiphand, Tawan Limpiyakorn
Abstract:In this study, communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) prepared by enriching sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in three continuous-flow reactors receiving an inorganic medium containing different ammonium concentrations of 2, 10, and 30 mM NH4 +-N (NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30, respectively) were investigated using molecular analysis. Results suggested that almost all AOA clones from NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30 fell into the same AOA cluster and AOA communities in NAS2 and NAS10 were more diverse than those of NAS30. In contrast to AOA, AOB communities obviously shifted from the seed sludge to enriched NASs and in each enriched NAS, communities of AOB varied particularly. The seed sludge contained members of N. communis cluster and N. oligotropha cluster. After it was enriched under various ammonium loads, members of N. communis cluster disappeared from all enriched NASs. AOB with high affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 2, AOB with low affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 30, and both types of AOB survived in NAS 10. These demonstrated that ammonium load significantly influenced AOB communities, but not AOA communities in enriched NASs.
Keywords: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizingarchaea, nitrifying activated sludge.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1473
4 Effect of Real Wastewater on Biotransformation of 17α-ethynylestradiol by Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Nitrifying Activated Sludge
Authors: Natthawan Likitmongkonsakun, Tawan Limpiyakorn
17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in an oral contraceptives pill. EE2 is an endocrine disrupting compound, high in estrogenic potency. Although EE2 exhibits low degree of biodegradability with common microorganisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), this compound can be biotransformed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via a co-metabolism mechanism in WWTPs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of real wastewater on biotransformation of EE2 by AOB. A preliminary experiment on the effect of nitrite and pH levels on abiotic transformation of EE2 suggested that the abiotic transformation occurred at only pH <6.8. Biotransformation of EE2 under the presence of municipal or industrial wastewater demonstrated that different types of wastewater affect EE2 biotransformation differently. Organic matters in wastewater were believed to deteriorate EE2 biotransformation via the competition effect. At a lower initial ammonium concentration, EE2 biotransformation can be retarded and the extent of the deterioration was COD-concentration dependent. However, when an initial ammonium concentration was elevated, thisphenomena disappeared. This is because when increasing the amount of the primary substrate, more AMO enzymes can be produced resulting in unlimited transformation of all compounds in the tests reducing the competitive effect of organic matters on EE2.
Keywords: 17α-ethynylestradiol, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrifying activated sludge, wastewater.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5302
3 Integrating Security Indifference Curve to Formal Decision Evaluation
Authors: Anon Yantarasri, Yachai Limpiyakorn
Abstract:Decisions are regularly made during a project or daily life. Some decisions are critical and have a direct impact on project or human success. Formal evaluation is thus required, especially for crucial decisions, to arrive at the optimal solution among alternatives to address issues. According to microeconomic theory, all people-s decisions can be modeled as indifference curves. The proposed approach supports formal analysis and decision by constructing indifference curve model from the previous experts- decision criteria. These knowledge embedded in the system can be reused or help naïve users select alternative solution of the similar problem. Moreover, the method is flexible to cope with unlimited number of factors influencing the decision-making. The preliminary experimental results of the alternative selection are accurately matched with the expert-s decisions.
Keywords: Decision Analysis and Resolution, Indifference Curve, Multi-criteria Decision Making.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1516
2 Prioritization of Mutation Test Generation with Centrality Measure
Authors: Supachai Supmak, Yachai Limpiyakorn
Mutation testing can be applied for the quality assessment of test cases. Prioritization of mutation test generation has been a critical element of the industry practice that would contribute to the evaluation of test cases. The industry generally delivers the product under the condition of time to the market and thus, inevitably sacrifices software testing tasks, even though many test cases are required for software verification. This paper presents an approach of applying a social network centrality measure, PageRank, to prioritize mutation test generation. The source code with the highest values of PageRank, will be focused first when developing their test cases as these modules are vulnerable for defects or anomalies which may cause the consequent defects in many other associated modules. Moreover, the approach would help identify the reducible test cases in the test suite, still maintaining the same criteria as the original number of test cases.
Keywords: Software testing, mutation test, network centrality measure, test case prioritization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 124
1 Underlying Cognitive Complexity Measure Computation with Combinatorial Rules
Authors: Benjapol Auprasert, Yachai Limpiyakorn
Abstract:Measuring the complexity of software has been an insoluble problem in software engineering. Complexity measures can be used to predict critical information about testability, reliability, and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of the source code. During the past few years, many complexity measures have been invented based on the emerging Cognitive Informatics discipline. These software complexity measures, including cognitive functional size, lend themselves to the approach of the total cognitive weights of basic control structures such as loops and branches. This paper shows that the current existing calculation method can generate different results that are algebraically equivalence. However, analysis of the combinatorial meanings of this calculation method shows significant flaw of the measure, which also explains why it does not satisfy Weyuker's properties. Based on the findings, improvement directions, such as measures fusion, and cumulative variable counting scheme are suggested to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive complexity measures.
Keywords: Cognitive Complexity Measure, Cognitive Weight of Basic Control Structure, Counting Rules, Cumulative Variable Counting Scheme.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1750