Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2708

Search results for: Velocity Modeling.

2708 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT

Authors: G. Koukiou, V. Anastassopoulos

Abstract:

In this paper a bank of velocity filters is devised to be used for isolating a moving object with specific velocity in a sequence of frames. The approach used is a 3-D FFT based experimental procedure without applying any theoretical concept from velocity filters. Accordingly, velocity filters are built using the spectral signature of each separate moving object. Experimentation reveals the capabilities of the constructed filter bank to separate moving objects as far as the amplitude as well as the direction of the velocity are concerned.

Keywords: Velocity filters, filter banks, 3-D FFT.

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2707 CFD Simulation of Condensing Vapor Bubble using VOF Model

Authors: Seong-Su Jeon, Seong-Jin Kim, Goon-Cherl Park

Abstract:

In this study, direct numerical simulation for the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow was performed. The main goal was to develop the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation and to evaluate the accuracy of the VOF model with the developed CFD modeling. CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using UDF. In the modeling, the amount of condensation was determined using the interfacial heat transfer coefficient obtained from the bubble velocity, liquid temperature and bubble diameter every time step. To evaluate the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation, CFD simulation results were compared with SNU experimental results such as bubble volume and shape, interfacial area, bubble diameter and bubble velocity. Simulation results predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the behavior of the condensing bubble in a wide range of the subcooled boiling flow.

Keywords: Bubble condensation, CFD modeling, Subcooled boiling flow, VOF model.

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2706 Real Time Monitoring of Long Slender Shaft by Distributed-Lumped Modeling Techniques

Authors: Sina Babadi, K. M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine the stress levels at the end of a long slender shaft such as a drilling assembly used in the oil or gas industry using a mathematical model in real-time. The torsional deflection experienced by this type of drilling shaft (about 4 KM length and 20 cm diameter hollow shaft with a thickness of 1 cm) can only be determined using a distributed modeling technique. The main objective of this project is to calculate angular velocity and torque at the end of the shaft by TLM method and also analyzing of the behavior of the system by transient response. The obtained result is compared with lumped modeling technique the importance of these results will be evident only after the mentioned comparison. Two systems have different transient responses and in this project because of the length of the shaft transient response is very important.

Keywords: Distributed Lumped modeling, Lumped modeling, Drill string, Angular Velocity, Torque.

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2705 Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Mohamed Aymen Slim, Afef Abdelkrim, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: ElectroMyoGraphic (EMG) signals, Experimental approach, Handwriting process, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks, Velocity Modeling.

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2704 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff’s migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modeling, Velocity model.

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2703 Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct

Authors: M. M. Doustdar , M. Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.

Keywords: Ramjet, droplet sizing, injection velocity, air flow velocity, efficient mass fraction.

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2702 Kinetic Theory Based CFD Modeling of Particulate Flows in Horizontal Pipes

Authors: Pandaba Patro, Brundaban Patro

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of fully developed gas–solid flow in a horizontal pipe is done using the eulerian-eulerian approach, also known as two fluids modeling as both phases are treated as continuum and inter-penetrating continua. The solid phase stresses are modeled using kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF). The computed results for velocity profiles and pressure drop are compared with the experimental data. We observe that the convection and diffusion terms in the granular temperature cannot be neglected in gas solid flow simulation along a horizontal pipe. The particle-wall collision and lift also play important role in eulerian modeling. We also investigated the effect of flow parameters like gas velocity, particle properties and particle loading on pressure drop prediction in different pipe diameters. Pressure drop increases with gas velocity and particle loading. The gas velocity has the same effect ((proportional toU2 ) as single phase flow on pressure drop prediction. With respect to particle diameter, pressure drop first increases, reaches a peak and then decreases. The peak is a strong function of pipe bore.

Keywords: CFD, Eulerian modeling, gas solid flow, KTGF.

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2701 Estimation of Shock Velocity and Pressure of Detonations and Finding Their Flow Parameters

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

In this paper, mathematical modeling of detonation in the ground is studied. Estimation of flow parameters such as velocity, maximum velocity, acceleration, maximum acceleration, shock pressure as a result of an explosion in the ground have been computed in an appropriate dynamic model approach. The variation of these parameters with the diameter of detonation place (L), density of earth or stone (¤ü), time decay of detonation (T), peak pressure (Pm), and time (t) have been analyzed. The model has been developed from the concept of underwater explosions [Refs. [1]-[3]] with appropriate changes to the present model requirements.

Keywords: Shock velocity, detonation, shock acceleration, shock pressure.

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2700 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affects the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: LDV, fixed fluidized bed, velocity, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

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2699 Study of Flow Behavior of Aqueous Solution of Rhodamine B in Annular Reactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal

Abstract:

The present study deals with the modeling and simulation of flow through an annular reactor at different hydrodynamic conditions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the flow behavior. CFD modeling was utilized to predict velocity distribution and average velocity in the annular geometry. The results of CFD simulations were compared with the mathematically derived equations and already developed correlations for validation purposes. CFD modeling was found suitable for predicting the flow characteristics in annular geometry under laminar flow conditions. It was observed that CFD also provides local values of the parameters of interest in addition to the average values for the simulated geometry.

Keywords: Annular reactor, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hydrodynamics, Rhodamine B

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2698 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: Particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number.

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2697 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: Receiver tube, heat convection, heat conduction, Nusselt number.

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2696 Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: Sajith Sajeev, Brenton McLaury, Siamack Shirazi

Abstract:

In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.

Keywords: Particle transport, critical velocity, CFD, DEM.

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2695 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

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2694 Modeling the Fischer-Tropsch Reaction In a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

Authors: F. Gholami, M. Torabi Angaji, Z. Gholami

Abstract:

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is one of the most important catalytic reactions that convert the synthetic gas to light and heavy hydrocarbons. One of the main issues is selecting the type of reactor. The slurry bubble reactor is suitable choice for Fischer- Tropsch synthesis because of its good qualification to transfer heat and mass, high durability of catalyst, low cost maintenance and repair. The more common catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are Iron-based and Cobalt-based catalysts, the advantage of these catalysts on each other depends on which type of hydrocarbons we desire to produce. In this study, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is modeled with Iron and Cobalt catalysts in a slurry bubble reactor considering mass and momentum balance and the hydrodynamic relations effect on the reactor behavior. Profiles of reactant conversion and reactant concentration in gas and liquid phases were determined as the functions of residence time in the reactor. The effects of temperature, pressure, liquid velocity, reactor diameter, catalyst diameter, gasliquid and liquid-solid mass transfer coefficients and kinetic coefficients on the reactant conversion have been studied. With 5% increase of liquid velocity (with Iron catalyst), H2 conversions increase about 6% and CO conversion increase about 4%, With 8% increase of liquid velocity (with Cobalt catalyst), H2 conversions increase about 26% and CO conversion increase about 4%. With 20% increase of gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (with Iron catalyst), H2 conversions increase about 12% and CO conversion increase about 10% and with Cobalt catalyst H2 conversions increase about 10% and CO conversion increase about 6%. Results show that the process is sensitive to gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and optimum condition operation occurs in maximum possible liquid velocity. This velocity must be more than minimum fluidization velocity and less than terminal velocity in such a way that avoid catalysts particles from leaving the fluidized bed.

Keywords: Modeling, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Slurry Bubble Column Reactor.

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2693 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Downward Bubbly Flows

Authors: Mahmood Reza Rahimi, Hajir Karimi

Abstract:

Downward turbulent bubbly flows in pipes were modeled using computational fluid dynamics tools. The Hydrodynamics, phase distribution and turbulent structure of twophase air-water flow in a 57.15 mm diameter and 3.06 m length vertical pipe was modeled by using the 3-D Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase flow approach. Void fraction, liquid velocity and turbulent fluctuations profiles were calculated and compared against experimental data. CFD results are in good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, Bubbly flow, Vertical pipe, Population balance modeling, Gas void fraction, Liquid velocity, Normal turbulent stresses.

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2692 Low Air Velocity Measurement Characteristics- Variation Due to Flow Regime

Authors: A. Pedišius, V. Janušas, A. Bertašienė

Abstract:

The paper depicts air velocity values, reproduced by laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and ultrasonic anemometer (UA), relations with calculated ones from flow rate measurements using the gas meter which calibration uncertainty is ± (0.15 – 0.30) %. Investigation had been performed in channel installed in aerodynamical facility used as a part of national standard of air velocity. Relations defined in a research let us confirm the LDA and UA for air velocity reproduction to be the most advantageous measures. The results affirm ultrasonic anemometer to be reliable and favourable instrument for measurement of mean velocity or control of velocity stability in the velocity range of 0.05 m/s – 10 (15) m/s when the LDA used. The main aim of this research is to investigate low velocity regularities, starting from 0.05 m/s, including region of turbulent, laminar and transitional air flows. Theoretical and experimental results and brief analysis of it are given in the paper. Maximum and mean velocity relations for transitional air flow having unique distribution are represented. Transitional flow having distinctive and different from laminar and turbulent flow characteristics experimentally have not yet been analysed.

Keywords: Laser Doppler anemometer, ultrasonic anemometer, air flow velocities, transitional flow regime, measurement, uncertainty.

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2691 Motion Detection Techniques Using Optical Flow

Authors: A. A. Shafie, Fadhlan Hafiz, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

Motion detection is very important in image processing. One way of detecting motion is using optical flow. Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. The method used for finding the optical flow in this project is assuming that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. This technique is later used in developing software for motion detection which has the capability to carry out four types of motion detection. The motion detection software presented in this project also can highlight motion region, count motion level as well as counting object numbers. Many objects such as vehicles and human from video streams can be recognized by applying optical flow technique.

Keywords: Background modeling, Motion detection, Optical flow, Velocity smoothness constant, motion trajectories.

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2690 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das

Abstract:

The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, Reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra.

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2689 Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ravikiran Sangras, Vasudevan Raghavan

Abstract:

In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments are presented and explained.

Keywords: Contoured nozzle, hot-wire anemometer, Reynolds number, velocity fluctuations, velocity spectra.

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2688 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

Authors: Mário A. R. Talaia

Abstract:

As it is known, buoyancy and drag forces rule bubble's rise velocity in a liquid column. These forces are strongly dependent on fluid properties, gravity as well as equivalent's diameter. This study reports a set of bubble rising velocity experiments in a liquid column using water or glycerol. Several records of terminal velocity were obtained. The results show that bubble's rise terminal velocity is strongly dependent on dynamic viscosity effect. The data set allowed to have some terminal velocities data interval of 8.0 ? 32.9 cm/s with Reynolds number interval 1.3 -7490. The bubble's movement was recorded with a video camera. The main goal is to present an original set data and results that will be discussed based on two-phase flow's theory. It will also discussed, the prediction of terminal velocity of a single bubble in liquid, as well as the range of its applicability. In conclusion, this study presents general expressions for the determination of the terminal velocity of isolated gas bubbles of a Reynolds number range, when the fluid proprieties are known.

Keywords: Bubbles, terminal velocity, two phase-flow, vertical column.

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2687 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference.

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2686 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Yongseok Kwon, Woowon Jeong, Eunjin Cho, Sangkug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 mm bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the sagittal plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytical solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

Keywords: Oscillating bubble, Particle-Image-Velocimetry microstreaming.

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2685 Modeling of Blood Flow Velocity into the Main Artery via Left Ventricle of Heart during Steady Condition

Authors: Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Nur Hazreen Mohd Hasni

Abstract:

A three-dimensional and pulsatile blood flow in the left ventricle of heart model has been studied numerically. The geometry was derived from a simple approximation of the left ventricle model and the numerical simulations were obtained using a formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, simulation was used to investigate the pattern of flow velocity in 3D model of heart with consider the left ventricle based on critical parameter of blood under steady condition. Our results demonstrate that flow velocity focused from mitral valve channel and continuous linearly to left ventricle wall but this skewness progresses into outside wall in atrium through aortic valve with random distribution that is irregular due to force subtract from ventricle wall during cardiac cycle. The findings are the prediction of the behavior of the blood flow velocity pattern in steady flow condition which can assist the medical practitioners in their decision on the patients- treatments.

Keywords: Mitral Valve, Aortic Valve, Cardiac Cycle, Leaflet, Biomechanics, Left Ventricle

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2684 Investigation of Self-Similarity Solution for Wake Flow of a Cylinder

Authors: A. B. Khoshnevis, F. Zeydabadi, F. Sokhanvar

Abstract:

The data measurement of mean velocity has been taken for the wake of single circular cylinder with three different diameters for two different velocities. The effects of change in diameter and in velocity are studied in self-similar coordinate system. The spatial variations of velocity defect and that of the half-width have been investigated. The results are compared with those published by H.Schlichting. In the normalized coordinates, it is also observed that all cases except for the first station are self-similar. By attention to self-similarity profiles of mean velocity, it is observed for all the cases at the each station curves tend to zero at a same point.

Keywords: Self-similarity, wake of single circular cylinder

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2683 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation

Authors: M. Morri, A. Soualmia, P. Belleudy

Abstract:

Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.

Keywords: Analytic Models, Comparison, Mean Velocity, Vegetation.

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2682 An Investigation on the Effects of Injection Spray Cone on Propulsive Droplets in a Duct

Authors: M. Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.

Keywords: Ramjet, droplet sizing, injection velocity, air flowvelocity, efficient mass fraction..

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2681 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity.

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2680 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.

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2679 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: Non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method.

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