Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Usman Ali

36 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.

Keywords: Frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation.

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35 The Impact of Temporal Impairment on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Video Streaming: A No Reference (NR) Subjective and Objective Study

Authors: Muhammad Arslan Usman, Muhammad Rehan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

Live video streaming is one of the most widely used service among end users, yet it is a big challenge for the network operators in terms of quality. The only way to provide excellent Quality of Experience (QoE) to the end users is continuous monitoring of live video streaming. For this purpose, there are several objective algorithms available that monitor the quality of the video in a live stream. Subjective tests play a very important role in fine tuning the results of objective algorithms. As human perception is considered to be the most reliable source for assessing the quality of a video stream subjective tests are conducted in order to develop more reliable objective algorithms. Temporal impairments in a live video stream can have a negative impact on the end users. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation tests on a set of video sequences containing temporal impairment known as frame freezing. Frame Freezing is considered as a transmission error as well as a hardware error which can result in loss of video frames on the reception side of a transmission system. In our subjective tests, we have performed tests on videos that contain a single freezing event and also for videos that contain multiple freezing events. We have recorded our subjective test results for all the videos in order to give a comparison on the available No Reference (NR) objective algorithms. Finally, we have shown the performance of no reference algorithms used for objective evaluation of videos and suggested the algorithm that works better. The outcome of this study shows the importance of QoE and its effect on human perception. The results for the subjective evaluation can serve the purpose for validating objective algorithms.

Keywords: Objective evaluation, subjective evaluation, quality of experience (QoE), video quality assessment (VQA).

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34 Analysis of Poverty Reduction Strategies as Mechanism for Development in Nigeria from 1999-2014

Authors: Ahmed Usman Egye, Hamza Muhammad

Abstract:

Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult challenges facing third world countries in their development efforts. Evidences in Nigeria showed that the number of those in poverty has continued to increase. This paper is aimed at analyzing the performance of poverty alleviation measures undertaken by successive administrations in Nigeria with a view to addressing the quagmire. The study identified the whole gamut of factors that served as stumbling blocks to the implementation of each of the strategies and recommended the involvement of local people in the identification and design of projects so that sufficient participation could be achieved.

Keywords: Poverty, development, strategies, Nigeria.

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33 Simulating Gradient Contour and Mesh of a Scalar Field

Authors: Usman Ali Khan, Bismah Tariq, Khalida Raza, Saima Malik, Aoun Muhammad

Abstract:

This research paper is based upon the simulation of gradient of mathematical functions and scalar fields using MATLAB. Scalar fields, their gradient, contours and mesh/surfaces are simulated using different related MATLAB tools and commands for convenient presentation and understanding. Different mathematical functions and scalar fields are examined here by taking their gradient, visualizing results in 3D with different color shadings and using other necessary relevant commands. In this way the outputs of required functions help us to analyze and understand in a better way as compared to just theoretical study of gradient.

Keywords: MATLAB, Gradient, Contour, Scalar Field, Mesh

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32 Value Co-Creation in Used-Car Auctions: A Service Scientific Perspective

Authors: Safdar Muhammad Usman, Youji Kohda, Katsuhiro Umemoto

Abstract:

Electronic market place plays an important intermediary role for connecting dealers and retail customers. The main aim of this paper is to design a value co-creation model in used-car auctions. More specifically, the study has been designed in order to describe the process of value co-creation in used-car auctions, to explore the co-created values in used-car auctions, and finally conclude the paper indicating the future research directions. Our analysis shows that economic values as well as non-economic values are co-created in used-car auctions. In addition, this paper contributes to the academic society broadening the view of value co-creation in service science.

Keywords: Value co-creation, Used-car auctions, Non-economic values, Service science.

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31 Image Authenticity and Perceptual Optimization via Genetic Algorithm and a Dependence Neighborhood

Authors: Imran Usman, Asifullah Khan, Rafiullah Chamlawi, Abdul Majid

Abstract:

Information hiding for authenticating and verifying the content integrity of the multimedia has been exploited extensively in the last decade. We propose the idea of using genetic algorithm and non-deterministic dependence by involving the un-watermarkable coefficients for digital image authentication. Genetic algorithm is used to intelligently select coefficients for watermarking in a DCT based image authentication scheme, which implicitly watermark all the un-watermarkable coefficients also, in order to thwart different attacks. Experimental results show that such intelligent selection results in improvement of imperceptibility of the watermarked image, and implicit watermarking of all the coefficients improves security against attacks such as cover-up, vector quantization and transplantation.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, fragile watermarking, geneticalgorithm, Image authentication.

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30 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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29 Survival Model for Partly Interval-Censored Data with Application to Anti D in Rhesus D Negative Studies

Authors: F. A. M. Elfaki, Amar Abobakar, M. Azram, M. Usman

Abstract:

This paper discusses regression analysis of partly interval-censored failure time data, which is occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model in the present of partly interval-censored. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using R software. Simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of partly interval-censored failure time data arising from anti D in Rhesus D negative studies.

Keywords: Anti D in Rhesus D negative, Cox’s model, EM algorithm.

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28 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman

Abstract:

A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: Erasure Coding, P2P, Redundancy, Replication.

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27 Pakistan Sign Language Recognition Using Statistical Template Matching

Authors: Aleem Khalid Alvi, M. Yousuf Bin Azhar, Mehmood Usman, Suleman Mumtaz, Sameer Rafiq, RaziUr Rehman, Israr Ahmed

Abstract:

Sign language recognition has been a topic of research since the first data glove was developed. Many researchers have attempted to recognize sign language through various techniques. However none of them have ventured into the area of Pakistan Sign Language (PSL). The Boltay Haath project aims at recognizing PSL gestures using Statistical Template Matching. The primary input device is the DataGlove5 developed by 5DT. Alternative approaches use camera-based recognition which, being sensitive to environmental changes are not always a good choice.This paper explains the use of Statistical Template Matching for gesture recognition in Boltay Haath. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from PSL.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Pakistan Sign Language, DataGlove, Human Computer Interaction, Template Matching, BoltayHaath

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26 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms and streamlines.

Keywords: Natural convection, Rayleigh number, surface roughness, Nusselt number, Lattice Boltzmann Method.

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25 Simulation versus Hands-On Learning Methodologies: A Comparative Study for Engineering and Technology Curricula

Authors: Mohammed T. Taher, Usman Ghani, Ahmed S. Khan

Abstract:

This paper compares the findings of two studies conducted to determine the effectiveness of simulation-based, hands-on and feedback mechanism on students learning by answering the following questions: 1). Does the use of simulation improve students’ learning outcomes? 2). How do students perceive the instructional design features embedded in the simulation program such as exploration and scaffolding support in learning new concepts? 3.) What is the effect of feedback mechanisms on students’ learning in the use of simulation-based labs? The paper also discusses the other aspects of findings which reveal that simulation by itself is not very effective in promoting student learning. Simulation becomes effective when it is followed by hands-on activity and feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, the paper presents recommendations for improving student learning through the use of simulation-based, hands-on, and feedback-based teaching methodologies.

Keywords: Simulation-based teaching, hands-on learning, feedback-based learning, scaffolding.

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24 A Comparative Study on Available IPv6 Platforms for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Usman Sarwar, Gopinath Sinniah Rao, Zeldi Suryady, Reza Khoshdelniat

Abstract:

The low power wireless sensor devices which usually uses the low power wireless private area network (IEEE 802.15.4) standard are being widely deployed for various purposes and in different scenarios. IPv6 low power wireless private area network (6LoWPAN) was adopted as part of the IETF standard for the wireless sensor devices so that it will become an open standard compares to other dominated proprietary standards available in the market. 6LoWPAN also allows the integration and communication of sensor nodes with the Internet more viable. This paper presents a comparative study on different available IPv6 platforms for wireless sensor networks including open and close sources. It also discusses about the platforms used by these stacks. Finally it evaluates and provides appropriate suggestions which can be use for selection of required IPv6 stack for low power devices.

Keywords: 6LoWPAN Stacks, 6LoWPAN Platforms, m-Stack, NanoStack, uIPv6, PhyNet 6LoWPAN, Jennic 6LoWPAN.

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23 Multilayer Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Based Software Quality Prediction

Authors: Sadaf Sahar, Usman Qamar, Sadaf Ayaz

Abstract:

In the software development lifecycle, the quality prediction techniques hold a prime importance in order to minimize future design errors and expensive maintenance. There are many techniques proposed by various researchers, but with the increasing complexity of the software lifecycle model, it is crucial to develop a flexible system which can cater for the factors which in result have an impact on the quality of the end product. These factors include properties of the software development process and the product along with its operation conditions. In this paper, a neural network (perceptron) based software quality prediction technique is proposed. Using this technique, the stakeholders can predict the quality of the resulting software during the early phases of the lifecycle saving time and resources on future elimination of design errors and costly maintenance. This technique can be brought into practical use using successful training.

Keywords: Software quality, fuzzy logic, perceptron, prediction.

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22 Fabless Prototyping Methodology for the Development of SOI based MEMS Microgripper

Authors: H. M. Usman Sani, Shafaat A. Bazaz, Nisar Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper, Fabless Prototyping Methodology is introduced for the design and analysis of MEMS devices. Conventionally Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed before system level simulation. In our proposed methodology, system level simulation is performed earlier than FEA as it is computationally less extensive and low cost. System level simulations are based on equivalent behavioral models of MEMS device. Electrostatic actuation based MEMS Microgripper is chosen as case study to implement this methodology. This paper addresses the behavioral model development and simulation of actuator part of an electrostatically actuated Microgripper. Simulation results show that the actuator part of Microgripper works efficiently for a voltage range of 0-45V with the corresponding jaw displacement of 0-4.5425μm. With some minor changes in design, this range can be enhanced to 15μm at 85V.

Keywords: MEMS Actuator, Behavioral Model, CoventorWare, Microgripper, SOIMUMPs, System Level Simulation

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21 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna Mohd Zain

Abstract:

Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 150oC.Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Palm shell-PEEK, Regeneration, thermal.

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20 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar

Abstract:

As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.

Keywords: Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever.

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19 Frequent Itemset Mining Using Rough-Sets

Authors: Usman Qamar, Younus Javed

Abstract:

Frequent pattern mining is the process of finding a pattern (a set of items, subsequences, substructures, etc.) that occurs frequently in a data set. It was proposed in the context of frequent itemsets and association rule mining. Frequent pattern mining is used to find inherent regularities in data. What products were often purchased together? Its applications include basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog design, sale campaign analysis, Web log (click stream) analysis, and DNA sequence analysis. However, one of the bottlenecks of frequent itemset mining is that as the data increase the amount of time and resources required to mining the data increases at an exponential rate. In this investigation a new algorithm is proposed which can be uses as a pre-processor for frequent itemset mining. FASTER (FeAture SelecTion using Entropy and Rough sets) is a hybrid pre-processor algorithm which utilizes entropy and roughsets to carry out record reduction and feature (attribute) selection respectively. FASTER for frequent itemset mining can produce a speed up of 3.1 times when compared to original algorithm while maintaining an accuracy of 71%.

Keywords: Rough-sets, Classification, Feature Selection, Entropy, Outliers, Frequent itemset mining.

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18 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: Direct voice input, risk, security, technology and trust.

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17 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method Natural convection, Nusselt Number Rayleigh number, Roughness.

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16 Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

Authors: Sajad Farokhi, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Jan Flusser, Usman Ullah Sheikh

Abstract:

Although face recognition seems as an easy task for human, automatic face recognition is a much more challenging task due to variations in time, illumination and pose. In this paper, the influence of time-lapse on visible and thermal images is examined. Orthogonal moment invariants are used as a feature extractor to analyze the effect of time-lapse on thermal and visible images and the results are compared with conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A new triangle square ratio criterion is employed instead of Euclidean distance to enhance the performance of nearest neighbor classifier. The results of this study indicate that the ideal feature vectors can be represented with high discrimination power due to the global characteristic of orthogonal moment invariants. Moreover, the effect of time-lapse has been decreasing and enhancing the accuracy of face recognition considerably in comparison with PCA. Furthermore, our experimental results based on moment invariant and triangle square ratio criterion show that the proposed approach achieves on average 13.6% higher in recognition rate than PCA.

Keywords: Infrared Face recognition, Time-lapse, Zernike moment invariants

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15 Assessment of the Administration and Services of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Ahmed Adam, Umar Ibrahim, Ezra S. Gbaje

Abstract:

This study is posed to explore the practice of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the computers and other tools available, their services and challenges of the practices. Three questions were framed to identify number of public computers and tools available, their services and problems faced during the practice. The study used qualitative research design along with semi-constructed interview and observation as tools for data collection. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data. The sample size of the study comprises 52 librarian and IT staff from the seven academic institutions in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that, PACs were provided for access to the Internet, digital resources, library catalogue and training services. The study further explored that, despite the limit number of the computers, users were not allowed to enjoy many services. The study recommends that libraries in Kaduna state should provide more public computers to be able to cover the population of their users; libraries should allow users to use the computers without limitations and restrictions.

Keywords: Academic libraries, computers in the library, digital libraries, public computers.

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14 The Use of SD Bioline TB AgMPT64® Detection Assay for Rapid Characterization of Mycobacteria in Nigeria

Authors: S. Ibrahim, U. B. Abubakar, S. Danbirni, A. Usman, F. M. Ballah, C. A. Kudi, L. Lawson, G. H. Abdulrazak, I. A. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Performing culture and characterization of mycobacteria in low resource settings like Nigeria is a very difficult task to undertake because of the very few and limited laboratories carrying out such an experiment; this is a largely due to stringent and laborious nature of the tests. Hence, a rapid, simple and accurate test for characterization is needed. The “SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 Rapid ®” is a simple and rapid immunochromatographic test used in differentiating Mycobacteria into Mycobacterium tuberculosis (NTM). The 100 sputa were obtained from patients suspected to be infected with tuberculosis and presented themselves to hospitals for check-up and treatment were involved in the study. The samples were cultured in a class III Biosafety cabinet and level III biosafety practices were followed. Forty isolates were obtained from the cultured sputa, and there were identified as Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Zeihl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. All the isolates (AFB positive) were then subjected to the SD BIOLINE Analyses. A total of 31 (77.5%) were characterized as MTBC, while nine (22.5%) were NTM. The total turnaround time for the rapid assay was just 30 minutes as compared to a few days of phenotypic and genotypic method. It was simple, rapid and reliable test to differentiate MTBC from NTM.

Keywords: Culture, mycobacteria, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, SD bioline.

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13 Role of Feedbacks in Simulation-Based Learning

Authors: Usman Ghani

Abstract:

Feedback is a vital element for improving student learning in a simulation-based training as it guides and refines learning through scaffolding. A number of studies in literature have shown that students’ learning is enhanced when feedback is provided with personalized tutoring that offers specific guidance and adapts feedback to the learner in a one-to-one environment. Thus, emulating these adaptive aspects of human tutoring in simulation provides an effective methodology to train individuals. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of automating different types of feedback techniques such as Knowledge-of-Correct-Response (KCR) and Answer-Until- Correct (AUC) in software simulation for learning basic information technology concepts. For the purpose of comparison, techniques like simulation with zero or no-feedback (NFB) and traditional hands-on (HON) learning environments are also examined. The paper presents the summary of findings based on quantitative analyses which reveal that the simulation based instructional strategies are at least as effective as hands-on teaching methodologies for the purpose of learning of IT concepts. The paper also compares the results of the study with the earlier studies and recommends strategies for using feedback mechanism to improve students’ learning in designing and simulation-based IT training.

Keywords: Simulation, feedback, training, hands-on, labs.

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12 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink.

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11 Impact of Solar Energy Based Power Grid for Future Prospective of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammd Usman Sardar, Mazhar Hussain Baloch, Muhammad Shahbaz Ahmad, Zahir Javed Paracha

Abstract:

Shortfall of electrical energy in Pakistan is a challenge adversely affecting its industrial output and social growth. As elsewhere, Pakistan derives its electrical energy from a number of conventional sources. The exhaustion of petroleum and conventional resources, the rising costs coupled with extremely adverse climatic effects are taking its toll especially on the under-developed countries like Pakistan. As alternate, renewable energy sources like hydropower, solar, wind, even bio-energy and a mix of some or all of them could provide a credible alternative to the conventional energy resources that would not only be cleaner but sustainable as well. As a model, solar energy-based power grid for the near future has been attempted to offset the energy shortfalls as a mix with our existing sustainable natural energy resources. An assessment of solar energy potential for electricity generation is being presented for fulfilling the energy demands with higher level of reliability and sustainability. This model is based on the premise that solar energy potential of Pakistan is not only reliable but also sustainable. This research estimates the present & future approaching renewable energy resource specially the impact of solar energy based power grid for mitigating energy shortage in Pakistan.

Keywords: Powergrid network, solar photovoltaic (SPV) setups, solar power generation, solar energy technology (SET).

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10 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

Abstract:

This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Arabic, literature, peace, development, Nigeria

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9 Effect of the Truss System to the Flexural Behavior of the External Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Yasser Bachtiar, Rita Irmawati, Abd. Madjid Akkas, Rusdi Usman Latief

Abstract:

The aesthetic qualities and the versatility of reinforced concrete have made it a popular choice for many architects and structural engineers. Therefore, the exploration of natural materials such as gravels and sands as well as lime-stone for cement production is increasing to produce a concrete material. The exploration must affect to the environment. Therefore, the using of the concrete materials should be as efficient as possible. According to its natural behavior of the concrete material, it is strong in compression and weak in tension. Therefore the contribution of the tensile stresses of the concrete to the flexural capacity of the beams is neglected. However, removing of concrete on tension zone affects to the decreasing of flexural capacity. Introduce the strut action of truss structures may an alternative to solve the decreasing of flexural capacity. A series of specimens were prepared to clarify the effect of the truss structures in the concrete beams without concrete on the tension zone. Results indicated that the truss system is necessary for the external reinforced concrete beams. The truss system of concrete beam without concrete on tension zone (BR) could develop almost same capacity to the normal beam (BN). It can be observed also that specimens BR has lower number of cracks than specimen BN. This may be caused by the fact that there was no bonding effect on the tensile reinforcement on specimen BR to distribute the cracks.

Keywords: External Reinforcement, Truss, Concrete Beams.

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8 Low Resolution Single Neural Network Based Face Recognition

Authors: Jahan Zeb, Muhammad Younus Javed, Usman Qayyum

Abstract:

This research paper deals with the implementation of face recognition using neural network (recognition classifier) on low-resolution images. The proposed system contains two parts, preprocessing and face classification. The preprocessing part converts original images into blurry image using average filter and equalizes the histogram of those image (lighting normalization). The bi-cubic interpolation function is applied onto equalized image to get resized image. The resized image is actually low-resolution image providing faster processing for training and testing. The preprocessed image becomes the input to neural network classifier, which uses back-propagation algorithm to recognize the familiar faces. The crux of proposed algorithm is its beauty to use single neural network as classifier, which produces straightforward approach towards face recognition. The single neural network consists of three layers with Log sigmoid, Hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and Linear transfer function respectively. The training function, which is incorporated in our work, is Gradient descent with momentum (adaptive learning rate) back propagation. The proposed algorithm was trained on ORL (Olivetti Research Laboratory) database with 5 training images. The empirical results provide the accuracy of 94.50%, 93.00% and 90.25% for 20, 30 and 40 subjects respectively, with time delay of 0.0934 sec per image.

Keywords: Average filtering, Bicubic Interpolation, Neurons, vectorization.

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7 Use of GIS for the Performance Evaluation of Canal Irrigation System in Rice Wheat Cropping Zone

Authors: Umm-e- Kalsoom, M. Arshad, Sadia Iqbal, M. Usman, M. Adnan

Abstract:

The research study evaluated the performance of irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and GIS technology, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated for the purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations, organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In flat irrigation system for wheat yield ranges from 3347.16 to 5260.39 kg/ha, while the total water applied to wheat crop ranges from 252.94 to 279.19 mm and WUE ranges from 13.07 to 18.37 kg/ha/mm. For rice yield ranges from 3347.47 to 5433.07 kg/ha with total water supplied to rice crop ranges from 764.71 to 978.15 mm and WUE ranges from 3.49 to 5.71 kg/ha/mm. Similarly, in raised bed system wheat yield ranges from 4569.13 to 6008.60 kg/ha, total water supplied ranges from 158.87 to 185.09 mm and WUE ranges from 27.20 to 33.54 kg/ha/mm while in rice crop, yield ranges from 5285.04 to 6716.69 kg/ha, total water supplied ranges from 600.72 to 755.06 mm and WUE ranges from 6.41 to 10.05 kg/ha/mm. Almost 51.3% water saving is observed in bed irrigation system as compared to flat system. Less water supplied to beds is more affective as its WUE value is higher than flat system where more water is supplied in both the seasons. Similarly, RWS values show that maximum water deficit while minimum area is getting adequate water supply. Greater yield is recorded in bed system as plant per square meter is more in bed system in comparison of flat system Thus, the integration of GIS tools to regularly compute performance indices could provide irrigation managers with the means for managing efficiently the irrigation system.

Keywords: Field survey, Relative Water Supply (RWS), Remote sensing maps, Water Use Efficiency (WUE).

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