Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Mehmood Usman

47 Pakistan Sign Language Recognition Using Statistical Template Matching

Authors: Aleem Khalid Alvi, M. Yousuf Bin Azhar, Mehmood Usman, Suleman Mumtaz, Sameer Rafiq, RaziUr Rehman, Israr Ahmed

Abstract:

Sign language recognition has been a topic of research since the first data glove was developed. Many researchers have attempted to recognize sign language through various techniques. However none of them have ventured into the area of Pakistan Sign Language (PSL). The Boltay Haath project aims at recognizing PSL gestures using Statistical Template Matching. The primary input device is the DataGlove5 developed by 5DT. Alternative approaches use camera-based recognition which, being sensitive to environmental changes are not always a good choice.This paper explains the use of Statistical Template Matching for gesture recognition in Boltay Haath. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from PSL.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Pakistan Sign Language, DataGlove, Human Computer Interaction, Template Matching, BoltayHaath

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46 Efficient Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shehzad Ashraf Ch., Aftab Ahmed Khan, Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Ahsan Habib, Qasim Mehmood

Abstract:

Energy efficiency is the key requirement in wireless sensor network as sensors are small, cheap and are deployed in very large number in a large geographical area, so there is no question of replacing the batteries of the sensors once deployed. Different ways can be used for efficient energy transmission including Multi-Hop algorithms, collaborative communication, cooperativecommunication, Beam- forming, routing algorithm, phase, frequency and time synchronization. The paper reviews the need for time synchronization and proposed a BFS based synchronization algorithm to achieve energy efficiency. The efficiency of our protocol has been tested and verified by simulation

Keywords: time synchronization, sensor networks, energy efficiency, breadth first search

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45 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.

Keywords: Frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation.

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44 A Programmable FSK-Modulator in 350nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Saad Rahman, Vinodh Ravinath, Mahesh Balaji

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a programmable FSK-modulator based on VCO and its implementation in 0.35m CMOS process. The circuit is used to transmit digital data at 100Kbps rate in the frequency range of 400-600MHz. The design and operation of the modulator is discussed briefly. Further the characteristics of PLL, frequency synthesizer, VCO and the whole design are elaborated. The variation among the proposed and tested specifications is presented. Finally, the layout of sub-modules, pin configurations, final chip and test results are presented.

Keywords: FSK Modulator, CMOS, VCO, Phase Locked Loop, Frequency Synthesizer.

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43 The Impact of Temporal Impairment on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Video Streaming: A No Reference (NR) Subjective and Objective Study

Authors: Muhammad Arslan Usman, Muhammad Rehan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

Live video streaming is one of the most widely used service among end users, yet it is a big challenge for the network operators in terms of quality. The only way to provide excellent Quality of Experience (QoE) to the end users is continuous monitoring of live video streaming. For this purpose, there are several objective algorithms available that monitor the quality of the video in a live stream. Subjective tests play a very important role in fine tuning the results of objective algorithms. As human perception is considered to be the most reliable source for assessing the quality of a video stream subjective tests are conducted in order to develop more reliable objective algorithms. Temporal impairments in a live video stream can have a negative impact on the end users. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation tests on a set of video sequences containing temporal impairment known as frame freezing. Frame Freezing is considered as a transmission error as well as a hardware error which can result in loss of video frames on the reception side of a transmission system. In our subjective tests, we have performed tests on videos that contain a single freezing event and also for videos that contain multiple freezing events. We have recorded our subjective test results for all the videos in order to give a comparison on the available No Reference (NR) objective algorithms. Finally, we have shown the performance of no reference algorithms used for objective evaluation of videos and suggested the algorithm that works better. The outcome of this study shows the importance of QoE and its effect on human perception. The results for the subjective evaluation can serve the purpose for validating objective algorithms.

Keywords: Objective evaluation, subjective evaluation, quality of experience (QoE), video quality assessment (VQA).

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42 Real-Time Digital Oscilloscope Implementation in 90nm CMOS Technology FPGA

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Jens Ogniewski, Vinodh Ravinath

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a real-time audiorange digital oscilloscope and its implementation in 90nm CMOS FPGA platform. The design consists of sample and hold circuits, A/D conversion, audio and video processing, on-chip RAM, clock generation and control logic. The design of internal blocks and modules in 90nm devices in an FPGA is elaborated. Also the key features and their implementation algorithms are presented. Finally, the timing waveforms and simulation results are put forward.

Keywords: CMOS, VLSI, Oscilloscope, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), VHDL, Video Graphics Array (VGA)

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41 The Impact of Strategic HRM Practices on Employee’s Job Satisfaction: The Moderating Effect of Transformational Leadership

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Sarwar Mehmood Azhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the positive impact of SHRM practices and transformational leadership style on employees job satisfaction and to develop a conceptual understanding of the moderating role of transformational leadership between the relationship of SHRM practices and employees job satisfaction. This study focuses on four SHRM practices that have positive relationship with employee’s job satisfaction.

Keywords: Employee’s job satisfaction, moderating effect of transformational leadership, SHRM practices, transformational leadership, theoretical framework.

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40 Analysis of Poverty Reduction Strategies as Mechanism for Development in Nigeria from 1999-2014

Authors: Ahmed Usman Egye, Hamza Muhammad

Abstract:

Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult challenges facing third world countries in their development efforts. Evidences in Nigeria showed that the number of those in poverty has continued to increase. This paper is aimed at analyzing the performance of poverty alleviation measures undertaken by successive administrations in Nigeria with a view to addressing the quagmire. The study identified the whole gamut of factors that served as stumbling blocks to the implementation of each of the strategies and recommended the involvement of local people in the identification and design of projects so that sufficient participation could be achieved.

Keywords: Poverty, development, strategies, Nigeria.

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39 Simulating Gradient Contour and Mesh of a Scalar Field

Authors: Usman Ali Khan, Bismah Tariq, Khalida Raza, Saima Malik, Aoun Muhammad

Abstract:

This research paper is based upon the simulation of gradient of mathematical functions and scalar fields using MATLAB. Scalar fields, their gradient, contours and mesh/surfaces are simulated using different related MATLAB tools and commands for convenient presentation and understanding. Different mathematical functions and scalar fields are examined here by taking their gradient, visualizing results in 3D with different color shadings and using other necessary relevant commands. In this way the outputs of required functions help us to analyze and understand in a better way as compared to just theoretical study of gradient.

Keywords: MATLAB, Gradient, Contour, Scalar Field, Mesh

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38 Value Co-Creation in Used-Car Auctions: A Service Scientific Perspective

Authors: Safdar Muhammad Usman, Youji Kohda, Katsuhiro Umemoto

Abstract:

Electronic market place plays an important intermediary role for connecting dealers and retail customers. The main aim of this paper is to design a value co-creation model in used-car auctions. More specifically, the study has been designed in order to describe the process of value co-creation in used-car auctions, to explore the co-created values in used-car auctions, and finally conclude the paper indicating the future research directions. Our analysis shows that economic values as well as non-economic values are co-created in used-car auctions. In addition, this paper contributes to the academic society broadening the view of value co-creation in service science.

Keywords: Value co-creation, Used-car auctions, Non-economic values, Service science.

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37 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH4 emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH4 emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH4 emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste.

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36 A Survey of Model Comparison Strategies and Techniques in Model Driven Engineering

Authors: Junaid Rashid, Waqar Mehmood, Muhammad Wasif Nisar

Abstract:

This survey paper shows the recent state of model comparison as it’s applies to Model Driven engineering. In Model Driven Engineering to calculate the difference between the models is a very important and challenging task. There are number of tasks involved in model differencing that firstly starts with identifying and matching the elements of the model. In this paper, we discuss how model matching is accomplished, the strategies, techniques and the types of the model. We also discuss the future direction. We found out that many of the latest model comparison strategies are geared near enabling Meta model and similarity based matching. Therefore model versioning is the most dominant application of the model comparison. Recently to work on comparison for versioning has begun to deteriorate, giving way to different applications. Ultimately there is wide change among the tools in the measure of client exertion needed to perform model comparisons, as some require more push to encourage more sweeping statement and expressive force.

Keywords: Model comparison, model clone detection, model versioning, EMF Model, model diff.

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35 Image Authenticity and Perceptual Optimization via Genetic Algorithm and a Dependence Neighborhood

Authors: Imran Usman, Asifullah Khan, Rafiullah Chamlawi, Abdul Majid

Abstract:

Information hiding for authenticating and verifying the content integrity of the multimedia has been exploited extensively in the last decade. We propose the idea of using genetic algorithm and non-deterministic dependence by involving the un-watermarkable coefficients for digital image authentication. Genetic algorithm is used to intelligently select coefficients for watermarking in a DCT based image authentication scheme, which implicitly watermark all the un-watermarkable coefficients also, in order to thwart different attacks. Experimental results show that such intelligent selection results in improvement of imperceptibility of the watermarked image, and implicit watermarking of all the coefficients improves security against attacks such as cover-up, vector quantization and transplantation.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, fragile watermarking, geneticalgorithm, Image authentication.

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34 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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33 Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Literature Review and Value Chain Activities Filter

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Sarwar Mehmood Azhar, Hammad Basir

Abstract:

In today’s era, it is no news that organizations should demonstrate honest conduct as well as ethical administration. Therefore, the concept of corporate social responsibility (subsequently CSR) has created its tag upon the company’s focal point as well as marketing communications, and will continue in the future. The importance of CSR has increased in the last decade, and this concept has attracted global attention. The notion of CSR has strategic significance for many organizations. However, businesses are not adapting the activities of CSR that benefit to all of its stakeholders (including society). The main reason is the practitioners are unfortunately unable to comprehend its importance; and therefore, the activities of the CSR are so detached from the business activities. Hence, it is required to develop an understanding that the activities of CSR are not only beneficial for the society but it also benefit to business. This paper focuses on the concept of strategic CSR, and develops a theoretical framework that will help practitioners to filter and chose the activities of CSR that are strategic in nature.

Keywords: Economic responsibility, ethical responsibility, legal responsibility, philanthropic responsibility, strategic corporate social responsibility, value chain activities filter.

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32 Survival Model for Partly Interval-Censored Data with Application to Anti D in Rhesus D Negative Studies

Authors: F. A. M. Elfaki, Amar Abobakar, M. Azram, M. Usman

Abstract:

This paper discusses regression analysis of partly interval-censored failure time data, which is occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model in the present of partly interval-censored. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using R software. Simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of partly interval-censored failure time data arising from anti D in Rhesus D negative studies.

Keywords: Anti D in Rhesus D negative, Cox’s model, EM algorithm.

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31 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman

Abstract:

A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: Erasure Coding, P2P, Redundancy, Replication.

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30 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms and streamlines.

Keywords: Natural convection, Rayleigh number, surface roughness, Nusselt number, Lattice Boltzmann Method.

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29 Simulation versus Hands-On Learning Methodologies: A Comparative Study for Engineering and Technology Curricula

Authors: Mohammed T. Taher, Usman Ghani, Ahmed S. Khan

Abstract:

This paper compares the findings of two studies conducted to determine the effectiveness of simulation-based, hands-on and feedback mechanism on students learning by answering the following questions: 1). Does the use of simulation improve students’ learning outcomes? 2). How do students perceive the instructional design features embedded in the simulation program such as exploration and scaffolding support in learning new concepts? 3.) What is the effect of feedback mechanisms on students’ learning in the use of simulation-based labs? The paper also discusses the other aspects of findings which reveal that simulation by itself is not very effective in promoting student learning. Simulation becomes effective when it is followed by hands-on activity and feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, the paper presents recommendations for improving student learning through the use of simulation-based, hands-on, and feedback-based teaching methodologies.

Keywords: Simulation-based teaching, hands-on learning, feedback-based learning, scaffolding.

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28 A Comparative Study on Available IPv6 Platforms for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Usman Sarwar, Gopinath Sinniah Rao, Zeldi Suryady, Reza Khoshdelniat

Abstract:

The low power wireless sensor devices which usually uses the low power wireless private area network (IEEE 802.15.4) standard are being widely deployed for various purposes and in different scenarios. IPv6 low power wireless private area network (6LoWPAN) was adopted as part of the IETF standard for the wireless sensor devices so that it will become an open standard compares to other dominated proprietary standards available in the market. 6LoWPAN also allows the integration and communication of sensor nodes with the Internet more viable. This paper presents a comparative study on different available IPv6 platforms for wireless sensor networks including open and close sources. It also discusses about the platforms used by these stacks. Finally it evaluates and provides appropriate suggestions which can be use for selection of required IPv6 stack for low power devices.

Keywords: 6LoWPAN Stacks, 6LoWPAN Platforms, m-Stack, NanoStack, uIPv6, PhyNet 6LoWPAN, Jennic 6LoWPAN.

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27 Effect of Increasing Road Light Luminance on Night Driving Performance of Older Adults

Authors: Said M. Easa, Maureen J. Reed, Frank Russo, Essam Dabbour, Atif Mehmood, Kathryn Curtis

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to determine if a minimal increase in road light level (luminance) could lead to improved driving performance among older adults. Older, middleaged and younger adults were tested in a driving simulator following vision and cognitive screening. Comparisons were made for the performance of simulated night driving under two road light conditions (0.6 and 2.5 cd/m2). At each light level, the effects of self reported night driving avoidance were examined along with the vision/cognitive performance. It was found that increasing road light level from 0.6 cd/m2 to 2.5 cd/m2 resulted in improved recognition of signage on straight highway segments. The improvement depends on different driver-related factors such as vision and cognitive abilities, and confidence. On curved road sections, the results showed that driver-s performance worsened. It is concluded that while increasing road lighting may be helpful to older adults especially for sign recognition, it may also result in increased driving confidence and thus reduced attention in some driving situations.

Keywords: Driving, older adults, night-time, road lighting, attention, simulation, curves, signs.

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26 Multilayer Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Based Software Quality Prediction

Authors: Sadaf Sahar, Usman Qamar, Sadaf Ayaz

Abstract:

In the software development lifecycle, the quality prediction techniques hold a prime importance in order to minimize future design errors and expensive maintenance. There are many techniques proposed by various researchers, but with the increasing complexity of the software lifecycle model, it is crucial to develop a flexible system which can cater for the factors which in result have an impact on the quality of the end product. These factors include properties of the software development process and the product along with its operation conditions. In this paper, a neural network (perceptron) based software quality prediction technique is proposed. Using this technique, the stakeholders can predict the quality of the resulting software during the early phases of the lifecycle saving time and resources on future elimination of design errors and costly maintenance. This technique can be brought into practical use using successful training.

Keywords: Software quality, fuzzy logic, perceptron, prediction.

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25 Fabless Prototyping Methodology for the Development of SOI based MEMS Microgripper

Authors: H. M. Usman Sani, Shafaat A. Bazaz, Nisar Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper, Fabless Prototyping Methodology is introduced for the design and analysis of MEMS devices. Conventionally Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed before system level simulation. In our proposed methodology, system level simulation is performed earlier than FEA as it is computationally less extensive and low cost. System level simulations are based on equivalent behavioral models of MEMS device. Electrostatic actuation based MEMS Microgripper is chosen as case study to implement this methodology. This paper addresses the behavioral model development and simulation of actuator part of an electrostatically actuated Microgripper. Simulation results show that the actuator part of Microgripper works efficiently for a voltage range of 0-45V with the corresponding jaw displacement of 0-4.5425μm. With some minor changes in design, this range can be enhanced to 15μm at 85V.

Keywords: MEMS Actuator, Behavioral Model, CoventorWare, Microgripper, SOIMUMPs, System Level Simulation

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24 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna Mohd Zain

Abstract:

Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 150oC.Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Palm shell-PEEK, Regeneration, thermal.

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23 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar

Abstract:

As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.

Keywords: Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever.

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22 Frequent Itemset Mining Using Rough-Sets

Authors: Usman Qamar, Younus Javed

Abstract:

Frequent pattern mining is the process of finding a pattern (a set of items, subsequences, substructures, etc.) that occurs frequently in a data set. It was proposed in the context of frequent itemsets and association rule mining. Frequent pattern mining is used to find inherent regularities in data. What products were often purchased together? Its applications include basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog design, sale campaign analysis, Web log (click stream) analysis, and DNA sequence analysis. However, one of the bottlenecks of frequent itemset mining is that as the data increase the amount of time and resources required to mining the data increases at an exponential rate. In this investigation a new algorithm is proposed which can be uses as a pre-processor for frequent itemset mining. FASTER (FeAture SelecTion using Entropy and Rough sets) is a hybrid pre-processor algorithm which utilizes entropy and roughsets to carry out record reduction and feature (attribute) selection respectively. FASTER for frequent itemset mining can produce a speed up of 3.1 times when compared to original algorithm while maintaining an accuracy of 71%.

Keywords: Rough-sets, Classification, Feature Selection, Entropy, Outliers, Frequent itemset mining.

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21 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: Direct voice input, risk, security, technology and trust.

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20 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method Natural convection, Nusselt Number Rayleigh number, Roughness.

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19 Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

Authors: Sajad Farokhi, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Jan Flusser, Usman Ullah Sheikh

Abstract:

Although face recognition seems as an easy task for human, automatic face recognition is a much more challenging task due to variations in time, illumination and pose. In this paper, the influence of time-lapse on visible and thermal images is examined. Orthogonal moment invariants are used as a feature extractor to analyze the effect of time-lapse on thermal and visible images and the results are compared with conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A new triangle square ratio criterion is employed instead of Euclidean distance to enhance the performance of nearest neighbor classifier. The results of this study indicate that the ideal feature vectors can be represented with high discrimination power due to the global characteristic of orthogonal moment invariants. Moreover, the effect of time-lapse has been decreasing and enhancing the accuracy of face recognition considerably in comparison with PCA. Furthermore, our experimental results based on moment invariant and triangle square ratio criterion show that the proposed approach achieves on average 13.6% higher in recognition rate than PCA.

Keywords: Infrared Face recognition, Time-lapse, Zernike moment invariants

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18 Assessment of the Administration and Services of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Ahmed Adam, Umar Ibrahim, Ezra S. Gbaje

Abstract:

This study is posed to explore the practice of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the computers and other tools available, their services and challenges of the practices. Three questions were framed to identify number of public computers and tools available, their services and problems faced during the practice. The study used qualitative research design along with semi-constructed interview and observation as tools for data collection. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data. The sample size of the study comprises 52 librarian and IT staff from the seven academic institutions in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that, PACs were provided for access to the Internet, digital resources, library catalogue and training services. The study further explored that, despite the limit number of the computers, users were not allowed to enjoy many services. The study recommends that libraries in Kaduna state should provide more public computers to be able to cover the population of their users; libraries should allow users to use the computers without limitations and restrictions.

Keywords: Academic libraries, computers in the library, digital libraries, public computers.

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