Search results for: P.K.Biswas
22 Image Segmentation Using Suprathreshold Stochastic Resonance
Authors: Rajib Kumar Jha, P.K.Biswas, B.N.Chatterji
In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.
Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1115
21 Gravitational and Centrifugal Forces in the Nut-Kerr-Newman Space-Time
Authors: Atikur Rahman Baizid, Md. Elias Uddin Biswas, Ahsan Habib
Abstract:Nayak et al have discussed in detail the inertial forces such as Gravitational, Coriolis-Lense-Thirring and Centrifugal forces in the Kerr-Newman Space-time in the Kerr-Newman Space-time. The main theme of this paper is to study the Gravitational and Centrifugal forces in the NUT-Kerr-Newman Space-time.
Keywords: Gravitational Forces, Centrifugal Forces, Nut-Kerr-Newman, Space time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1180
20 Parallel-Distributed Software Implementation of Buchberger Algorithm
Authors: Praloy Kumar Biswas, Prof. Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury
Abstract:Grobner basis calculation forms a key part of computational commutative algebra and many other areas. One important ramification of the theory of Grobner basis provides a means to solve a system of non-linear equations. This is why it has become very important in the areas where the solution of non-linear equations is needed, for instance in algebraic cryptanalysis and coding theory. This paper explores on a parallel-distributed implementation for Grobner basis calculation over GF(2). For doing so Buchberger algorithm is used. OpenMP and MPI-C language constructs have been used to implement the scheme. Some relevant results have been furnished to compare the performances between the standalone and hybrid (parallel-distributed) implementation.
Keywords: Grobner basis, Buchberger Algorithm, Distributed- Parallel Computation, OpenMP, MPI.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1726
19 Development of Subjective Measures of Interestingness: From Unexpectedness to Shocking
Authors: Eiad Yafi, M. A. Alam, Ranjit Biswas
Abstract:Knowledge Discovery of Databases (KDD) is the process of extracting previously unknown but useful and significant information from large massive volume of databases. Data Mining is a stage in the entire process of KDD which applies an algorithm to extract interesting patterns. Usually, such algorithms generate huge volume of patterns. These patterns have to be evaluated by using interestingness measures to reflect the user requirements. Interestingness is defined in different ways, (i) Objective measures (ii) Subjective measures. Objective measures such as support and confidence extract meaningful patterns based on the structure of the patterns, while subjective measures such as unexpectedness and novelty reflect the user perspective. In this report, we try to brief the more widely spread and successful subjective measures and propose a new subjective measure of interestingness, i.e. shocking.
Keywords: Shocking rules (SHR).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1419
18 Detecting Subsurface Circular Objects from Low Contrast Noisy Images: Applications in Microscope Image Enhancement
Authors: Soham De, Nupur Biswas, Abhijit Sanyal, Pulak Ray, Alokmay Datta
Abstract:Particle detection in very noisy and low contrast images is an active field of research in image processing. In this article, a method is proposed for the efficient detection and sizing of subsurface spherical particles, which is used for the processing of softly fused Au nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy is used for imaging the nanoparticles, and the proposed algorithm has been tested with the two-dimensional projected TEM images obtained. Results are compared with the data obtained by transmission optical spectroscopy, as well as with conventional circular object detection algorithms.
Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Circular Hough Transform, Au Nanoparticles, Median Filter, Laplacian Sharpening Filter, Canny Edge DetectionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2447
17 Video Data Mining based on Information Fusion for Tamper Detection
Authors: Girija Chetty, Renuka Biswas
Abstract:In this paper, we propose novel algorithmic models based on information fusion and feature transformation in crossmodal subspace for different types of residue features extracted from several intra-frame and inter-frame pixel sub-blocks in video sequences for detecting digital video tampering or forgery. An evaluation of proposed residue features – the noise residue features and the quantization features, their transformation in cross-modal subspace, and their multimodal fusion, for emulated copy-move tamper scenario shows a significant improvement in tamper detection accuracy as compared to single mode features without transformation in cross-modal subspace.
Keywords: image tamper detection, digital forensics, correlation features image fusionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1777
16 High Performance In0.42Ga0.58As/In0.26Ga0.74As Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Quantum Well Laser on In0.31Ga0.69As Ternary Substrate
Authors: Md. M. Biswas, Md. M. Hossain, Shaikh Nuruddin
Abstract:This paper reports on the theoretical performance analysis of the 1.3 μm In0.42Ga0.58As /In0.26Ga0.74As multiple quantum well (MQW) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) on the ternary In0.31Ga0.69As substrate. The output power of 2.2 mW has been obtained at room temperature for 7.5 mA injection current. The material gain has been estimated to be ~3156 cm-1 at room temperature with the injection carrier concentration of 2×1017 cm-3. The modulation bandwidth of this laser is measured to be 9.34 GHz at room temperature for the biasing current of 2 mA above the threshold value. The outcomes reveal that the proposed InGaAsbased MQW laser is the promising one for optical communication system.
Keywords: Quantum well, VCSEL, output power, materialgain, modulation bandwidth.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1541
15 Potential of Energy Conservation of Daylight Linked Lighting System in India
Authors: Biswajit Biswas
Demand of energy is increasing faster than the generation. It leads shortage of power in all sectors of society. At peak hours this shortage is higher. Unless we utilize energy efficient technology, it is very difficult to minimize the shortage of energy. So energy efficiency program and energy conservation has an important role. Energy efficient technologies are cost intensive hence it is always not possible to implement in country like India. In the recent study, an educational building with operating hours from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. has been selected to quantify the possibility of lighting energy conservation. As the operating hour is in daytime, integration of daylight with artificial lighting system will definitely reduce the lighting energy consumption. Moreover the initial investment has been given priority and hence the existing lighting installation was unaltered. An automatic controller has been designed which will be operated as a function of daylight through windows and the lighting system of the room will function accordingly. The result of the study of integrating daylight gave quite satisfactory for visual comfort as well as energy conservation.
Keywords: Lighting energy, energy efficiency, daylight, illumination, energy conservation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
14 Incremental Mining of Shocking Association Patterns
Authors: Eiad Yafi, Ahmed Sultan Al-Hegami, M. A. Alam, Ranjit Biswas
Abstract:Association rules are an important problem in data mining. Massively increasing volume of data in real life databases has motivated researchers to design novel and incremental algorithms for association rules mining. In this paper, we propose an incremental association rules mining algorithm that integrates shocking interestingness criterion during the process of building the model. A new interesting measure called shocking measure is introduced. One of the main features of the proposed approach is to capture the user background knowledge, which is monotonically augmented. The incremental model that reflects the changing data and the user beliefs is attractive in order to make the over all KDD process more effective and efficient. We implemented the proposed approach and experiment it with some public datasets and found the results quite promising.
Keywords: Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), Data mining, Incremental Association rules, Domain knowledge, Interestingness, Shocking rules (SHR).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1774
13 Neuro-fuzzy Model and Regression Model a Comparison Study of MRR in Electrical Discharge Machining of D2 Tool Steel
Authors: M. K. Pradhan, C. K. Biswas,
In the current research, neuro-fuzzy model and regression model was developed to predict Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining process for AISI D2 tool steel with copper electrode. Extensive experiments were conducted with various levels of discharge current, pulse duration and duty cycle. The experimental data are split into two sets, one for training and the other for validation of the model. The training data were used to develop the above models and the test data, which was not used earlier to develop these models were used for validation the models. Subsequently, the models are compared. It was found that the predicted and experimental results were in good agreement and the coefficients of correlation were found to be 0.999 and 0.974 for neuro fuzzy and regression model respectively
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining, material removal rate, neuro-fuzzy model, regression model, mountain clustering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1286
12 Artificial Neural Network Prediction for Coke Strength after Reaction and Data Analysis
Authors: Sulata Maharana, B Biswas, Adity Ganguly, Ashok Kumar
Abstract:In this paper, the requirement for Coke quality prediction, its role in Blast furnaces, and the model output is explained. By applying method of Artificial Neural Networking (ANN) using back propagation (BP) algorithm, prediction model has been developed to predict CSR. Important blast furnace functions such as permeability, heat exchanging, melting, and reducing capacity are mostly connected to coke quality. Coke quality is further dependent upon coal characterization and coke making process parameters. The ANN model developed is a useful tool for process experts to adjust the control parameters in case of coke quality deviations. The model also makes it possible to predict CSR for new coal blends which are yet to be used in Coke Plant. Input data to the model was structured into 3 modules, for tenure of past 2 years and the incremental models thus developed assists in identifying the group causing the deviation of CSR.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, backpropagation, CokeStrength after Reaction, Multilayer Perceptron.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2460
11 Noise Performance of Magnetic Field Tunable Avalanche Transit Time Source
Authors: Partha Banerjee, Aritra Acharyya, Arindam Biswas, A. K. Bhattacharjee, Amit Banerjee, Hiroshi Inokawa
Abstract:The effect of magnetic field on the noise performance of the magnetic field tunable avalanche transit time (MAGTATT) device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band (75 – 110 GHz), has been studied in this paper. A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) model has been developed. The simulation results show that due to the presence of applied external transverse magnetic field, both the noise spectral density and noise measure of the MAGTATT device increase significantly. The noise performance of the device has been found to be further deteriorated if the magnetic field strength is further increased. Hence, in order to achieve the magnetic field tuning of the radio frequency (RF) properties of impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) source, the noise performance of it has to be sacrificed in fair extent. Moreover, it clearly indicates that an IMPATT source must be covered with appropriate magnetic shielding material to avoid undesirable shift in operating frequency and output power and objectionable amount of deterioration in noise performance due to the presence of external magnetic field.
Keywords: 2-D model, IMPATT, MAGTATT, mm-wave, noise performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 544
10 Modeling and Analysis of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in EDM of AISI D2 Tool Steel by RSM Approach
Authors: M. K. Pradhan, C. K. Biswas
In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effect of four controllable input variables namely: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse off time and applied voltage Surface Roughness (SR) of on Electrical Discharge Machined surface. To study the proposed second-order polynomial model for SR, a Central Composite Design (CCD) is used to estimation the model coefficients of the four input factors, which are alleged to influence the SR in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 tool steel with copper electrode. The response is modeled using RSM on experimental data. The significant coefficients are obtained by performing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance. It is found that discharge current, pulse duration, and pulse off time and few of their interactions have significant effect on the SR. The model sufficiency is very satisfactory as the Coefficient of Determination (R2) is found to be 91.7% and adjusted R2-statistic (R2 adj ) 89.6%.
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining, surface roughness, response surface methodology, ANOVA, central composite design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2222
9 Analysis of Meteorological Drought Using Standardized Precipitation Index – A Case Study of Puruliya District, West Bengal, India
Authors: Moumita Palchaudhuri, Sujata Biswas
Drought is universally acknowledged as a phenomenon associated with scarcity of water. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) expresses the actual rainfall as standardized departure from rainfall probability distribution function. In this study severity and spatial pattern of meteorological drought was analyzed in the Puruliya District, West Bengal, India using multi-temporal SPI. Daily gridded data for the period 1971-2005 from 4 rainfall stations surrounding the study area were collected from IMD, Pune, and used in the analysis. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to generate drought severity maps for the different time scales and months of the year. Temporal SPI graphs show that the maximum SPI value (extreme drought) occurs in station 3 in the year 1993. Mild and moderate droughts occur in the central portion of the study area. Severe and extreme droughts were mostly found in the northeast, northwest and the southwest part of the region.
Keywords: Standardized Precipitation Index, Meteorological Drought, Geographical Information System, Drought severity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4836
8 Genetic Algorithm Parameters Optimization for Bi-Criteria Multiprocessor Task Scheduling Using Design of Experiments
Authors: Sunita Dhingra, Satinder Bal Gupta, Ranjit Biswas
Multiprocessor task scheduling is a NP-hard problem and Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been revealed as an excellent technique for finding an optimal solution. In the past, several methods have been considered for the solution of this problem based on GAs. But, all these methods consider single criteria and in the present work, minimization of the bi-criteria multiprocessor task scheduling problem has been considered which includes weighted sum of makespan & total completion time. Efficiency and effectiveness of genetic algorithm can be achieved by optimization of its different parameters such as crossover, mutation, crossover probability, selection function etc. The effects of GA parameters on minimization of bi-criteria fitness function and subsequent setting of parameters have been accomplished by central composite design (CCD) approach of response surface methodology (RSM) of Design of Experiments. The experiments have been performed with different levels of GA parameters and analysis of variance has been performed for significant parameters for minimisation of makespan and total completion time simultaneously.
Keywords: Multiprocessor task scheduling, Design of experiments, Genetic Algorithm, Makespan, Total completion time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2687
7 A Comparative Study on Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety among the Students of Different Tier of Academic Hierarchy
Authors: Nitai Biswas, Prasenjit Kapas, Arumay Jana, Asish Paul
Abstract:Introduction: Motivation is basic drive for all kinds of action. It has direct influence on academic achievement and sports performance that builds urge to incentive values of success. In other words, it can be defined as the need for success to attain excellence. Anxiety in pre competition especially in sports formulates positive inward settings in mind to overcome the challenge. There is a tendency to perceive competitive situations as some threatening issues and to respond them with feelings of apprehension and tension. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare the achievement motivation and competition anxiety among three different classes of students. Methods and Materials: To conduct the study the researcher has taken 131 male subjects from three different classes as Extra Department, Bachelor of Physical Education-I and Master of Physical EducationII, aged 19-28 years. Achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety were measured by the questionnaire. To analyze the data mean, standard deviation for each parameter as descriptive statistics and one way analysis of variance as inferential statistics were employed. Results: From the result of the study in achievement motivation (p ≥ 0.05) and competition anxiety (p ≥ 0.05) no significant differences were found among the said three groups. Conclusion: The study concluded that all three groups had almost the same state of achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety.
Keywords: Anxiety, sports psychology, sports competition anxiety, achievement motivation, academic hierarchy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1168
6 In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Authors: K. Biswas, U. H. Armin, S. M. J. Prodhan, J. A. Prithul, S. Sarker, F. Afrin
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder) is mostly predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Prolonging the function of acetylcholine by inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase is most effective treatment therapy of AD. Traditionally Pterocarpus santalinus L. is widely known for its medicinal use. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was investigated and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. To confirm this activity (in vivo), learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. For the test, memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist). Anti-amnesic effect of the extract was investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. The study also includes brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results proved that scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly decreased by administration of the extract solution, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that bark extract of Pterocarpus santalinus can be better option for further studies on AD via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.
Keywords: Pterocarpus santalinus, cholinesterase inhibitor, passive avoidance, Alzheimer’s disease.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 661
5 Fault Tolerant (n, k)-Star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems
Authors: Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Li Bai, Saroj Biswas, Frank Ferrese
This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.
Keywords: (n, k)-star Topology, Fault Tolerance, Conditional Diagnosability, Multi-Agent System, Automated Power System.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2356
4 Life Cycle Assessment of Seawater Desalinization in Western Australia
Authors: Wahidul K. Biswas
Abstract:Perth will run out of available sustainable natural water resources by 2015 if nothing is done to slow usage rates, according to a Western Australian study . Alternative water technology options need to be considered for the long-term guaranteed supply of water for agricultural, commercial, domestic and industrial purposes. Seawater is an alternative source of water for human consumption, because seawater can be desalinated and supplied in large quantities to a very high quality. While seawater desalination is a promising option, the technology requires a large amount of energy which is typically generated from fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels emits greenhouse gases (GHG) and, is implicated in climate change. In addition to environmental emissions from electricity generation for desalination, greenhouse gases are emitted in the production of chemicals and membranes for water treatment. Since Australia is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, it is important to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from desalinated water production. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to determine the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of 1 gigalitre (GL) of water from the new plant. In this LCA analysis, a new desalination plant that will be installed in Bunbury, Western Australia, and known as Southern Seawater Desalinization Plant (SSDP), was taken as a case study. The system boundary of the LCA mainly consists of three stages: seawater extraction, treatment and delivery. The analysis found that the equivalent of 3,890 tonnes of CO2 could be emitted from the production of 1 GL of desalinated water. This LCA analysis has also identified that the reverse osmosis process would cause the most significant greenhouse emissions as a result of the electricity used if this is generated from fossil fuels
Keywords: Desalinization, Greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3801
3 Gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris for Development of Laminated Panels
Authors: Daisy Biswas, Samar Kanti Bose, M. Mozaffar Hossain
Abstract:The development of value added composite products from bamboo with the application of gluing technology can play a vital role in economic development and also in forest resource conservation of any country. In this study, the gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris, two locally grown bamboo species of Bangladesh was assessed. As the culm wall thickness of bamboos decreases from bottom to top, a culm portion of up to 5.4 m and 3.6 m were used from the base of B. balcooa and B. vulgaris, respectively, to get rectangular strips of uniform thickness. The color of the B. vulgaris strips was yellowish brown and that of B. balcooa was reddish brown. The strips were treated in borax-boric, bleaching and carbonization for extending the service life of the laminates. The preservative treatments changed the color of the strips. Borax–boric acid treated strips were reddish brown. When bleached with hydrogen peroxide, the color of the strips turned into whitish yellow. Carbonization produced dark brownish strips having coffee flavor. Chemical constituents for untreated and treated strips were determined. B. vulgaris was more acidic than B. balcooa. Then the treated strips were used to develop three-layered bamboo laminated panel. Urea formaldehyde (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) were used as binder. The shear strength and abrasive resistance of the panel were evaluated. It was found that the shear strength of the UF-panel was higher than the PVA-panel for all treatments. Between the species, gluability of B. vulgaris was better and in some cases better than hardwood species. The abrasive resistance of B. balcooa is slightly higher than B. vulgaris; however, the latter was preferred as it showed well gluability. The panels could be used as structural panel, floor tiles, flat pack furniture component, and wall panel etc. However, further research on durability and creep behavior of the product in service condition is warranted.
Keywords: Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa vulgaris, polyvinyl acetate, urea formaldehyde.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 994
2 Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal
Authors: Chanchal Biswas, Anrin Bhattacharyya, Gopes Chandra Das, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey
Abstract:Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.
Keywords: Alternative ironmaking, coal devolatisation, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1369
1 Supplementation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during in vitro Maturation of Porcine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Subsequent Developmental Competence after Parthenogenesis and in vitro Fertilization
Authors: D. Biswas, Sang H. Hyun
Abstract:In mammalian reproductive tract, the oviduct secretes huge number of growth factors and cytokines that create an optimal micro-environment for the initial stages of preimplantation embryos. Secretion of these growth factors is stage-specific. Among them, VEGF is a potent mitogen for vascular endothelium and stimulates vascular permeability. Apart from angiogenesis, VEGF in the oviduct may be involved in regulating the oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental process during embryo production in vitro. In experiment 1, to evaluate the effect of VEGF during IVM of porcine COC and subsequent developmental ability after PA and SCNT. The results from these experiments indicated that maturation rates among the different VEGF concentrations were not significant different. In experiment 2, total intracellular GSH concentrations of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). In experiment 3, the blastocyst formation rates and total cell number per blastocyst after parthenogenesis of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). Similarly, in experiment 4, the blastocyst formation rate and total cell number per blastocyst after SCNT and IVF of oocytes matured with VEGF (5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of oocytes matured without VEGF group. In experiment 5, at 10 hour after the onset of IVF, pronuclear formation rate was evaluated. Monospermy was significantly higher in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control, and polyspermy and sperm penetration per oocyte were significantly higher in the control group than in the VEGFmatured oocytes. Supplementation with VEGF during IVM significantly improved male pronuclear formation as compared with the control. In experiment 6, type III cortical granule distribution in oocytes was more common in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control. In conclusion, the present study suggested that supplementation of VEGF during IVM may enhance the developmental potential of porcine in vitro embryos through increase of the intracellular GSH level, higher MPN formation and increased fertilization rate as a consequence of an improved cytoplasmic maturation.
Keywords: angiogenesis, GSH, monospermy, VEGFProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739