Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: Split TCSC

191 Investigation of Split TCSC on Kanpur-Ballabhgarh Transmission System

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, D. Vijayakumar, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the single TCSC and proposed split TCSC on transmission system where India’s first TCSC project is installed in Kanpur - Ballabhgarh (KB) line to ensure the fine tuning of line reactance by proposed split TCSC in place of existing KB TCSC. A three phase KB transmission system is developed in MATLAB/Simulink (SimPowerSystems) for

  1. without any compensation,
  2. with fixed capacitor (FC),
  3. with FC + existing KB TCSC and
  4. with FC + proposed split TCSC

The KB system is analyzed for a step variation of load and performance of the system is investigated with a closed loop reactance control method.

Keywords: Single TCSC, Split TCSC, TCSC Reactance characteristic curve, Power flow analysis, Sensitivity analysis.

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190 An Efficient Approach for Optimal Placement of TCSC in Double Auction Power Market

Authors: Prashant Kumar Tiwari, Yog Raj Sood

Abstract:

This paper proposes an investment cost recovery based efficient and fast sequential optimization approach to optimal allocation of thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) in competitive power market. The optimization technique has been used with an objective to maximizing the social welfare and minimizing the device installation cost by suitable location and rating of TCSC in the system. The effectiveness of proposed approach for location of TCSC has been compared with some existing methods of TCSC placement, in terms of its impact on social welfare, TCSC investment recovery and optimal generation as well as load patterns. The results have been obtained on modified IEEE 14-bus system.

Keywords: Double auction market, Investment cost recovery, Optimal location, Social welfare, TCSC

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189 Behavioral Study of TCSC Device – A MATLAB/Simulink Implementation

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

A basic conceptual study of TCSC device on Simulink is a teaching aid and helps in understanding the rudiments of the topic. This paper thus stems out from basics of TCSC device and analyzes the impedance characteristics and associated single & multi resonance conditions. The Impedance characteristics curve is drawn for different values of inductance in MATLAB using M-files. The study is also helpful in estimating the appropriate inductance and capacitance values which have influence on multi resonance point in TCSC device. The capacitor voltage, line current, thyristor current and capacitor current waveforms are discussed briefly as simulation results. Simulink model of TCSC device is given and corresponding waveforms are analyzed. The subsidiary topics e.g. power oscillation damping, SSR mitigation and transient stability is also brought out.

Keywords: TCSC device, Impedance characteristics, Resonance point, Simulink model

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188 Genetically Optimized TCSC Controller for Transient Stability Improvement

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N.P.Padhy, R.N.Patel

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure for modeling and tuning the parameters of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) controller in a multi-machine power system to improve transient stability. First a simple transfer function model of TCSC controller for stability improvement is developed and the parameters of the proposed controller are optimally tuned. Genetic algorithm (GA) is employed for the optimization of the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization problem implemented in a simulation environment. By minimizing an objective function in which the oscillatory rotor angle deviations of the generators are involved, transient stability performance of the system is improved. The proposed TCSC controller is tested on a multi-machine system and the simulation results are presented. The nonlinear simulation results validate the effectiveness of proposed approach for transient stability improvement in a multimachine power system installed with a TCSC. The simulation results also show that the proposed TCSC controller is also effective in damping low frequency oscillations.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, TCSC, transient stability, multimachinepower system.

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187 A Global Condition for the Triviality of an Almost Split Quaternionic Structure on Split Complex Manifolds

Authors: Erhan Ata, Yusuf Yaylı

Abstract:

Let M be an almost split quaternionic manifold on which its almost split quaternionic structure is defined by a three dimensional subbundle V of ( T M) T (M) * Ôèù and {F,G,H} be a local basis for V . Suppose that the (global) (1, 2) tensor field defined[V ,V ]is defined by [V,V ] = [F,F]+[G,G] + [H,H], where [,] denotes the Nijenhuis bracket. In ref. [7], for the almost split-hypercomplex structureH = J α,α =1,2,3, and the Obata connection ÔêçH vanishes if and only if H is split-hypercomplex. In this study, we give a prof, in particular, prove that if either M is a split quaternionic Kaehler manifold, or if M is a splitcomplex manifold with almost split-complex structure F , then the vanishing [V ,V ] is equivalent to that of all the Nijenhuis brackets of {F,G,H}. It follows that the bundle V is trivial if and only if [V ,V ] = 0 .

Keywords: Almost split - hypercomplex structure, Almost split quaternionic structure, Almost split quaternion Kaehler manifold, Obata connection.

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186 Active Power Flow Control Using A TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC.

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185 Optimal Supplementary Damping Controller Design for TCSC Employing RCGA

Authors: S. Panda, S. C. Swain, A. K. Baliarsingh, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Optimal supplementary damping controller design for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is presented in this paper. For the proposed controller design, a multi-objective fitness function consisting of both damping factors and real part of system electromachanical eigenvalue is used and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed for the optimal supplementary controller parameters. The performance of the designed supplementary TCSC-based damping controller is tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions with parameter variations. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and also with the TCSC-based supplementary controller when the controller parameters are not optimized to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances.

Keywords: Power System Oscillations, Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC), Damping Controller, Power System Stabilizer.

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184 Fault Zone Detection on Advanced Series Compensated Transmission Line using Discrete Wavelet Transform and SVM

Authors: Renju Gangadharan, G. N. Pillai, Indra Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper a novel method for finding the fault zone on a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) incorporated transmission line is presented. The method makes use of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), used in the classification mode to distinguish between the zones, before or after the TCSC. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is made to prepare the features which would be given as the input to the SVM. This method was tested on a 400 kV, 50 Hz, 300 Km transmission line and the results were highly accurate.

Keywords: Flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), thyristorcontrolled series-capacitor (TCSC), discrete wavelet transforms(DWT), support vector machine (SVM).

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183 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC

Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir

Abstract:

Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.

Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.

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182 Coordinated Design of TCSC Controller and PSS Employing Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N. P. Padhy

Abstract:

This paper investigates the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique for coordinated design of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)-based controller to enhance the power system stability. The design problem of PSS and TCSC-based controllers is formulated as a time domain based optimization problem. PSO algorithm is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. To compare the capability of PSS and TCSC-based controller, both are designed independently first and then in a coordinated manner for individual and coordinated application. The proposed controllers are tested on a weakly connected power system. The eigenvalue analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the coordinated design approach over individual design. The simulation results show that the proposed controllers are effective in damping low frequency oscillations resulting from various small disturbances like change in mechanical power input and reference voltage setting.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Phillips-Heffron model, power system stability, PSS, TCSC.

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181 MATLAB/SIMULINK Based Model of Single- Machine Infinite-Bus with TCSC for Stability Studies and Tuning Employing GA

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, Narayana Prasad Padhy

Abstract:

With constraints on data availability and for study of power system stability it is adequate to model the synchronous generator with field circuit and one equivalent damper on q-axis known as the model 1.1. This paper presents a systematic procedure for modelling and simulation of a single-machine infinite-bus power system installed with a thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) where the synchronous generator is represented by model 1.1, so that impact of TCSC on power system stability can be more reasonably evaluated. The model of the example power system is developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK which can be can be used for teaching the power system stability phenomena, and also for research works especially to develop generator controllers using advanced technologies. Further, the parameters of the TCSC controller are optimized using genetic algorithm. The non-linear simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, MATLAB/SIMULINK, modelling and simulation, power system stability, single-machineinfinite-bus power system, thyristor controlled series compensator.

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180 Accurate Fault Classification and Section Identification Scheme in TCSC Compensated Transmission Line using SVM

Authors: Pushkar Tripathi, Abhishek Sharma, G. N. Pillai, Indira Gupta

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for the protection of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) line using Support Vector Machine (SVM). One SVM is trained for fault classification and another for section identification. This method use three phase current measurement that results in better speed and accuracy than other SVM based methods which used single phase current measurement. This makes it suitable for real-time protection. The method was tested on 10,000 data instances with a very wide variation in system conditions such as compensation level, source impedance, location of fault, fault inception angle, load angle at source bus and fault resistance. The proposed method requires only local current measurement.

Keywords: Fault Classification, Section Identification, Feature Selection, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)

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179 Curvature of Almost Split Quaternion Kaehler Manifolds

Authors: Erhan Ata, H. Hilmi Hacisalihoğlu, Yusuf Yayli

Abstract:

In this work some characterizations of semi Riemannian curvature tensor on almost split quaternion Kaehler manifolds and some characterizations of Ricci tensor on almost split quaternion Kaehler manifolds are given.

Keywords: Almost split quaternion Kaehler manifold, Riemann curvature, Ricci curvature.

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178 Computation of Global Voltage Stability Margin in a Practical Power Network Incorporating FACTS in the OPF Frame Work

Authors: P. Nagendra, S. Halder nee Dey, S. Paul, T. Datta

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to assess the voltage stability status combined with optimal power flow technique using an instantaneous two-bus equivalent model of power system incorporating static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) controllers. There by, a generalized global voltage stability indicator being developed has been applied to a robust practical Indian Eastern Grid 203-bus system. Simulation results have proved that the proposed methodology is promising to assess voltage stability of any power system at any operating point in global scenario. Voltage stability augmentation with the application of SVC at the weakest bus and TCSC at critical line connected to the weakest bus is compared with the system having no compensation. In the proposed network equivalent model the generators have been modeled more accurately considering economic criteria.

Keywords: Equivalent two-bus model, global voltage security indicator, optimal power flow, SVC, TCSC.

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177 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).

Keywords: Unconstrained vector quantization, Linear predictiveCoding, Split vector quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Line Spectral Frequencies.

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176 Fuzzy Controller Design for TCSC to Improve Power Oscillations Damping

Authors: M Nayeripour, H. Khorsand, A. Roosta, T. Niknam, E. Azad

Abstract:

Series compensators have been used for many years, to increase the stability and load ability of transmission line. They compensate retarded or advanced volt drop of transmission lines by placing advanced or retarded voltage in series with them to compensate the effective reactance, which cause to increase load ability of transmission lines. In this paper, two method of fuzzy controller, based on power reference tracking and impedance reference tracking have been developed on TCSC controller in order to increase load ability and improving power oscillation damping of system. In these methods, fire angle of thyristors are determined directly through the special Rule-bases with the error and change of error as the inputs. The simulation results of two area four- machines power system show the good performance of power oscillation damping in system. Comparison of this method with classical PI controller shows the increasing speed of system response in power oscillation damping.

Keywords: TCSC, Two area network, Fuzzy controller, Power oscillation damping.

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175 Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization of Narrowband Speech Signals

Authors: M. Satya Sai Ram, P. Siddaiah, M. Madhavi Latha

Abstract:

Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ), which is a hybrid of Multi, switched, split vector quantization techniques. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of MSSVQ are compared to split vector quantization (SVQ), multi stage vector quantization(MSVQ) and switched split vector quantization (SSVQ) techniques. It has been proved from results that MSSVQ has better spectral distortion performance, lower computational complexity and lower memory requirements when compared to all the above mentioned product code vector quantization techniques. Computational complexity is measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements is measured in (floats).

Keywords: Linear predictive Coding, Multi stage vectorquantization, Switched Split vector quantization, Split vectorquantization, Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF).

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174 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: Impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode.

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173 Small Signal Stability Assessment Employing PSO Based TCSC Controller with Comparison to GA Based Design

Authors: D. Mondal, A. Chakrabarti, A. Sengupta

Abstract:

This paper aims to select the optimal location and setting parameters of TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator) controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to mitigate small signal oscillations in a multimachine power system. Though Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are prime choice in this issue, installation of FACTS device has been suggested here in order to achieve appreciable damping of system oscillations. However, performance of any FACTS devices highly depends upon its parameters and suitable location in the power network. In this paper PSO as well as GA based techniques are used separately and compared their performances to investigate this problem. The results of small signal stability analysis have been represented employing eigenvalue as well as time domain response in face of two common power system disturbances e.g., varying load and transmission line outage. It has been revealed that the PSO based TCSC controller is more effective than GA based controller even during critical loading condition.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Small Signal Stability, Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator.

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172 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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171 Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm for TCSC-based Controller Design

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N. P. Padhy

Abstract:

Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique have attracted considerable attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques. Since the two approaches are supposed to find a solution to a given objective function but employ different strategies and computational effort, it is appropriate to compare their performance. This paper presents the application and performance comparison of PSO and GA optimization techniques, for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)-based controller design. The design objective is to enhance the power system stability. The design problem of the FACTS-based controller is formulated as an optimization problem and both the PSO and GA optimization techniques are employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The performance of both optimization techniques in terms of computational time and convergence rate is compared. Further, the optimized controllers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances, and their performance is compared with the conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS). The eigenvalue analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented and compared to show the effectiveness of both the techniques in designing a TCSC-based controller, to enhance power system stability.

Keywords: Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator, geneticalgorithm; particle swarm optimization; Phillips-Heffron model;power system stability.

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170 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang

Abstract:

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: Hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control.

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169 Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices for ATC Enhancement Using Bees Algorithm

Authors: R.Mohamad Idris, A.Khairuddin, M.W.Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel method using Bees Algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal allocation of FACTS devices for maximizing the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of power transactions between source and sink areas in the deregulated power system. The algorithm simultaneously searches the FACTS location, FACTS parameters and FACTS types. Two types of FACTS are simulated in this study namely Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and Static Var Compensator (SVC). A Repeated Power Flow with FACTS devices including ATC is used to evaluate the feasible ATC value within real and reactive power generation limits, line thermal limits, voltage limits and FACTS operation limits. An IEEE30 bus system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm as an optimization tool to enhance ATC. A Genetic Algorithm technique is used for validation purposes. The results clearly indicate that the introduction of FACTS devices in a right combination of location and parameters could enhance ATC and Bees Algorithm can be efficiently used for this kind of nonlinear integer optimization.

Keywords: ATC, Bees Algorithm, TCSC, SVC

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168 Multi-objective Optimization with Fuzzy Based Ranking for TCSC Supplementary Controller to Improve Rotor Angle and Voltage Stability

Authors: S. Panda, S. C. Swain, A. K. Baliarsingh, A. K. Mohanty, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Many real-world optimization problems involve multiple conflicting objectives and the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve the problems has attracted much attention recently. This paper investigates the application of multi-objective optimization technique for the design of a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)-based controller to enhance the performance of a power system. The design objective is to improve both rotor angle stability and system voltage profile. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) based solution technique is applied to generate a Pareto set of global optimal solutions to the given multi-objective optimisation problem. Further, a fuzzy-based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto solution set. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimisation, thyristor controlled series compensator, power system stability, genetic algorithm, pareto solution set, fuzzy ranking.

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167 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Networks Using a Combination of Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a combination approach of two heuristic-based algorithms: genetic algorithm and tabu search is proposed. It has been developed to obtain the least cost based on the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network. The proposed combination algorithm has been applied to solve the three well-known water distribution networks taken from the literature. The development of the combination of these two heuristic-based algorithms for optimization is aimed at enhancing their strengths and compensating their weaknesses. Tabu search is rather systematic and deterministic that uses adaptive memory in search process, while genetic algorithm is probabilistic and stochastic optimization technique in which the solution space is explored by generating candidate solutions. Split-pipe design may not be realistic in practice but in optimization purpose, optimal solutions are always achieved with split-pipe design. The solutions obtained in this study have proved that the least cost solutions obtained from the split-pipe design are always better than those obtained from the single pipe design. The results obtained from the combination approach show its ability and effectiveness to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The solutions obtained are very satisfactory and high quality in which the solutions of two networks are found to be the lowest-cost solutions yet presented in the literature. The concept of combination approach proposed in this study is expected to contribute some useful benefits in diverse problems.

Keywords: GAs, Heuristics, Looped network, Least-cost design, Pipe network, Optimization, TS

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166 A Simple Low-Cost 2-D Optical Measurement System for Linear Guideways

Authors: Wen-Yuh Jywe, Bor-Jeng Lin, Jing-Chung Shen, Jeng-Dao Lee, Hsueh-Liang Huang, Tung-Hsien Hsieh

Abstract:

In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway.

The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.

Keywords: 2-D measurement, linear guideway, motion errors, running straightness.

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165 Optimal Location of Multi Type Facts Devices for Multiple Contingencies Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: S. Sutha, N. Kamaraj

Abstract:

In deregulated operating regime power system security is an issue that needs due thoughtfulness from researchers in the horizon of unbundling of generation and transmission. Electric power systems are exposed to various contingencies. Network contingencies often contribute to overloading of branches, violation of voltages and also leading to problems of security/stability. To maintain the security of the systems, it is desirable to estimate the effect of contingencies and pertinent control measurement can be taken on to improve the system security. This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal location of multi type FACTS devices in a power system in order to eliminate or alleviate the line over loads. The optimizations are performed on the parameters, namely the location of the devices, their types, their settings and installation cost of FACTS devices for single and multiple contingencies. TCSC, SVC and UPFC are considered and modeled for steady state analysis. The selection of UPFC and TCSC suitable location uses the criteria on the basis of improved system security. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested for IEEE 6 bus and IEEE 30 bus test systems.

Keywords: Contingency Severity Index, Particle Swarm Optimization, Performance Index, Static Security Assessment.

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164 Gravitino Dark Matter in (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 m-Split SUSY

Authors: Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra

Abstract:

In the context of large volume Big Divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 μ-Split SUSY [1], after an explicit identification of first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate by explicitly calculating the decay life times of gravitino (LSP) to be greater than age of universe and lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs (the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino) to the LSP (the gravitino) to be very small to respect BBN constraints. Interested in non-thermal production mechanism of gravitino, we evaluate the relic abundance of gravitino LSP in terms of that of the co-NLSP-s by evaluating their (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a potential Dark Matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

Keywords: Split Supersymmetry, Large Volume Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's, Dark Matter, (N)LSP decays, relic abundance.

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163 PSS with Multiple FACTS Controllers Coordinated Design and Real-Time Implementation Using Advanced Adaptive PSO

Authors: Rajendraprasad Narne, P. C. Panda

Abstract:

In this article, coordinated tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) with static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in multi-machine power system is proposed. The design of proposed coordinated damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem and the controller gains are optimized instantaneously using advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization (AAPSO). The objective function is framed with the inter-area speed deviations of the generators and it is minimized using AAPSO to improve the dynamic stability of power system under severe disturbance. The proposed coordinated controller performance is evaluated under a wide range of system operating conditions with three-phase fault disturbance. Using time domain simulations the damping characteristics of proposed controller is compared with individually tuned PSS, SVC and TCSC controllers. Finally, the real-time simulations are carried out in Opal-RT hardware simulator to synchronize the proposed controller performance in the real world.

Keywords: Advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization, Coordinated design, Power system stabilizer, Real-time implementation, static var compensator, Thyristor controlled series capacitor.

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162 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: Monopole antenna, fractal, metamaterial, waterlily shape, split ring resonator, multiband.

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