Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 637

Search results for: Akshaya Kumar Verma

637 Decolorization and COD Reduction Efficiency of Magnesium over Iron based Salt for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater Containing Diazo and Anthraquinone Dyes

Authors: Akshaya Kumar Verma, Puspendu Bhunia*, Rajesh Roshan Dash

Abstract:

Magnesium chloride, though cost wise roughly same as of ferrous sulphate, is less commonly used coagulant in comparison to the ferrous sulphate for the treatment of wastewater. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as iron based salt and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as magnesium based salt in terms of decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency of textile wastewater. The coagulants were evaluated for synthetic textile wastewater containing two diazo dyes namely Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Congo Red (CR) and one anthraquinone dye as Disperse Blue 3 (DB3), in seven possible equi-ratio combinations. Other chemical constituents that are normally released from different textile processing units were also added to replicate a practical scenario. From this study, MgCl2/Lime was found to be a superior coagulant system as compared to FeSO4.7H2O/Lime, FeSO4.7H2O/NaOH and MgCl2/NaOH.

Keywords: Coagulation, Color removal, Magnesium chloride, Textile wastewater

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636 Industrial Production and Clinical Application of L-Asparaginase: A Chemotherapeutic Agent

Authors: Soni Yadav, Sitansu Kumar Verma, Jitendra Singh, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

This article comprises detail information about L-asparaginase, encompassing topic such as various sources of L-asparaginase, mechanism and properties of L-asparaginase. Also describe the production, cultivation and purification of L-asparaginase along with information about the application of L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase catalyzes the conversion reaction to convert asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is a nutritional requirement for both normal and tumor cell. Present scenario has found that L-asparaginase has been found to be a best anti tumor or antileukemic agent. In the recent years this enzyme gained application in the field of clinical research pharmacologic and food industry. It has been characterized based on the enzyme assay principle hydrolyzing L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It has been observed that eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi have a potential for L-asparaginase production. L-asparaginase has been and is still one of the most lengthily studied therapeutic enzymes by scientist and researchers worldwide.

Keywords: L-asparaginase, antitumor, solid state fermentation, chemotherapeutic.

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635 Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets

Authors: M. Jegannath, V. Akshaya, B. Arunkumar, G. Lakshmi Soundharya, V. Thenmozhi, S. Varun, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

For scarf inlet design, the primary variable of interest is the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of scarf inlets, inlet design, modern aircraft inlets, subsonic scarf inlet.

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634 Rate of Convergence for Generalized Baskakov-Durrmeyer Operators

Authors: Durvesh Kumar Verma, P. N. Agrawal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we consider the generalized form of Baskakov Durrmeyer operators to study the rate of convergence, in simultaneous approximation for functions having derivatives of bounded variation.

Keywords: Bounded variation, Baskakov-Durrmeyer operators, simultaneous approximation, rate of convergence.

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633 Computer Countenanced Diagnosis of Skin Nodule Detection and Histogram Augmentation: Extracting System for Skin Cancer

Authors: S. Zith Dey Babu, S. Kour, S. Verma, C. Verma, V. Pathania, A. Agrawal, V. Chaudhary, A. Manoj Puthur, R. Goyal, A. Pal, T. Danti Dey, A. Kumar, K. Wadhwa, O. Ved

Abstract:

Background: Skin cancer is now is the buzzing button in the field of medical science. The cyst's pandemic is drastically calibrating the body and well-being of the global village. Methods: The extracted image of the skin tumor cannot be used in one way for diagnosis. The stored image contains anarchies like the center. This approach will locate the forepart of an extracted appearance of skin. Partitioning image models has been presented to sort out the disturbance in the picture. Results: After completing partitioning, feature extraction has been formed by using genetic algorithm and finally, classification can be performed between the trained and test data to evaluate a large scale of an image that helps the doctors for the right prediction. To bring the improvisation of the existing system, we have set our objectives with an analysis. The efficiency of the natural selection process and the enriching histogram is essential in that respect. To reduce the false-positive rate or output, GA is performed with its accuracy. Conclusions: The objective of this task is to bring improvisation of effectiveness. GA is accomplishing its task with perfection to bring down the invalid-positive rate or outcome. The paper's mergeable portion conflicts with the composition of deep learning and medical image processing, which provides superior accuracy. Proportional types of handling create the reusability without any errors.

Keywords: Computer-aided system, detection, image segmentation, morphology.

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632 Effect of a Multiple Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tube

Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Praveen Saraswat

Abstract:

The development of double stenosis in an artery can have serious consequences and can disrupt the normal functioning of the circulatory system. It has been realized that various hydrodynamics effects (i.e. wall shear, pressure distribution etc.) play important role in the development of this disease. Generally in the literature, the cross-section of the artery is assumed to be uniform with a single stenosis. However, in real situation the multiple stenosis develops in series along the length of artery whose cross-section varies slowly. Therefore, the flow of blood is laminar through a small diameter artery with axisymmetric identical double stenosis in series.

Keywords: Wall shear, multiple stenosis, artery.

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631 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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630 Interrelationships between Physicochemical Water Pollution Indicators: A Case Study of River Pandu

Authors: Sunita Verma , Divya Tiwari, Ajay Verma

Abstract:

Water samples were collected from river Pandu at six stations where human and animal activities were high. Composite samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) , pH values during dry and wet seasons as well as the harmattan period. The total data points were used to establish relationships between the parameters and data were also subjected to statistical analysis and expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) at a level of significance of p<0.05. Regression analysis was carried out to establish relationships if any between studied parameters and relationships in form of scatter plots were obtained between DO/BOD, COD/DO, BOD/COD, COD/pH, BOD/pH and DO/pH. The high to moderate correlation coefficient observed, R2 ranged from 0.68 to 0.15 between these parameters.

Keywords: BOD, DO, COD, pH, Regression analysis.

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629 Web–Based Tools and Databases for Micro-RNA Analysis: A Review

Authors: Sitansu Kumar Verma, Soni Yadav, Jitendra Singh, Shraddha, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of approximately 22 nucleotide long non coding RNAs which play critical role in different biological processes. The mature microRNA is usually 19–27 nucleotides long and is derived from a bigger precursor that folds into a flawed stem-loop structure. Mature micro RNAs are involved in many cellular processes that encompass development, proliferation, stress response, apoptosis, and fat metabolism by gene regulation. Resent finding reveals that certain viruses encode their own miRNA that processed by cellular RNAi machinery. In recent research indicate that cellular microRNA can target the genetic material of invading viruses. Cellular microRNA can be used in the virus life cycle; either to up regulate or down regulate viral gene expression Computational tools use in miRNA target prediction has been changing drastically in recent years. Many of the methods have been made available on the web and can be used by experimental researcher and scientist without expert knowledge of bioinformatics. With the development and ease of use of genomic technologies and computational tools in the field of microRNA biology has superior tremendously over the previous decade. This review attempts to give an overview over the genome wide approaches that have allow for the discovery of new miRNAs and development of new miRNA target prediction tools and databases.

Keywords: MicroRNAs, computational tools, gene regulation, databases, RNAi.

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628 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Piush Verma, Yaduvir Singh

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.

Keywords: AHP, AODV, Cryptography, EA, MANET, Optimized output.

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627 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.

Keywords: Transient, Convection, MHD, Viscous, Porous.

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626 Color Image Segmentation and Multi-Level Thresholding by Maximization of Conditional Entropy

Authors: R.Sukesh Kumar, Abhisek Verma, Jasprit Singh

Abstract:

In this work a novel approach for color image segmentation using higher order entropy as a textural feature for determination of thresholds over a two dimensional image histogram is discussed. A similar approach is applied to achieve multi-level thresholding in both grayscale and color images. The paper discusses two methods of color image segmentation using RGB space as the standard processing space. The threshold for segmentation is decided by the maximization of conditional entropy in the two dimensional histogram of the color image separated into three grayscale images of R, G and B. The features are first developed independently for the three ( R, G, B ) spaces, and combined to get different color component segmentation. By considering local maxima instead of the maximum of conditional entropy yields multiple thresholds for the same image which forms the basis for multilevel thresholding.

Keywords: conditional entropy, multi-level thresholding, segmentation, two dimensional image histogram

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625 Comparison of Frequency Converter Outages: A Case Study on the Swedish TPS System

Authors: Y. A. Mahmood, A. Ahmadi, R. Karim, U. Kumar, A.K. Verma, N. Fransson

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper isunavailability of the two main types of conveSwedish traction power supply (TPS) system, i.e.static converter. The number of outages and the ouused to analyze and compare the unavailability oconverters. The mean cumulative function (MCF)analyze the number of outages and the unavailabthe forced outage rate (FOR) concept has been uoutage rates. The study shows that the outagesfailure occur at a constant rate by calendar timconverter stations, while very few stations havedecreasing rate. It has also been found that the stata higher number of outages and a higher outage ratcompared to the rotary converter types. The resultsthat combining the number of outages and the fgives a better view of the converters performasupport for the maintenance decision. In fact, usingdoes not reflect reality. Comparing these two indein identifying the areas where extra resources are maintenance planning and where improvementsoutage in the TPS system.KeywordsFrequency Converter, Forced OuCumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, ESystems.

Keywords: Frequency Converter, Forced Outage Rate, Mean Cumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, Electrified Railway Systems.

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624 Conceptual Design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop for Indian TBM R&D Experiments

Authors: B. K. Yadav, A. Gandhi, A. K. Verma, T. S. Rao, A. Saraswat, E. R. Kumar, M. Sarkar, K. N. Vyas

Abstract:

This paper deals with the conceptual design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop (EHCL) for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) and its related thermal hydraulic experiments. Indian TBM team is developing Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (IN-LLCB) TBM to be tested in ITER. The TBM box structure is cooled by high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (300-500C) helium gas.

The first wall of TBM made of complex channel geometry having several parallel channels carrying helium gas for efficient heat extraction. Several mock-ups of these channels need to be tested before finalizing the TBM first wall design and fabrication. Besides the individual testing of such mock-ups of breeding blanket, the testing of Pb-Li to helium heat exchanger, the operational experience of helium loop and understanding of the behavior of high pressure and high temperature system components are very essential for final development of Helium Cooling System for LLCB TBM in ITER. The main requirements and characteristics of the EHCL and its conceptual design are presented in this paper.

Keywords: DEMO, EHCL, ITER, LLCB TBM.

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623 Probabilistic Modeling of Network-induced Delays in Networked Control Systems

Authors: Manoj Kumar, A.K. Verma, A. Srividya

Abstract:

Time varying network induced delays in networked control systems (NCS) are known for degrading control system-s quality of performance (QoP) and causing stability problems. In literature, a control method employing modeling of communication delays as probability distribution, proves to be a better method. This paper focuses on modeling of network induced delays as probability distribution. CAN and MIL-STD-1553B are extensively used to carry periodic control and monitoring data in networked control systems. In literature, methods to estimate only the worst-case delays for these networks are available. In this paper probabilistic network delay model for CAN and MIL-STD-1553B networks are given. A systematic method to estimate values to model parameters from network parameters is given. A method to predict network delay in next cycle based on the present network delay is presented. Effect of active network redundancy and redundancy at node level on network delay and system response-time is also analyzed.

Keywords: NCS (networked control system), delay analysis, response-time distribution, worst-case delay, CAN, MIL-STD-1553B, redundancy

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622 Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review

Authors: Shrey Sharma, Gunjan Kumar Verma

Abstract:

High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.

Keywords: Resistivity, inversion, optimization.

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621 Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System

Authors: Om Prakash Verma, Rajesh Singla, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temperature tracking capability, else the process is disturbed.

To overcome above difficulties intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), are proposed in this paper. The Fuzzy controller is designed to work with knowledge in the form of linguistic control rules. But the translation of these linguistic rules into the framework of fuzzy set theory depends on the choice of certain parameters, for which no formal method is known. To design ANFIS, Fuzzy-Inference-System is combined with learning capability of Neural-Network.

It is analyzed that ANFIS is best suitable for adaptive temperature control of above system. As compared to PID and FLC, ANFIS produces a stable control signal. It has much better temperature tracking capability with almost zero overshoot and minimum absolute error.

Keywords: PID Controller, FLC, ANFIS, Non-Linear Control System, Water-Bath System, MATLAB-7.

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620 Implementation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Maximizing Net Present Value

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

The applicability of Net Present Value (NPV) in an investment project is becoming more and more popular in the field of engineering economics. The classical NPV methodology involves only the precise and accurate data of the investment project. In the present communication, we give a new mathematical model for NPV which uses the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. The proposed model is based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, which may be known as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Net Present Value (IFNPV). The model has been applied to an example and the results are presented.

Keywords: Net Present Value, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set, Investment Projects.

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619 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye

Abstract:

The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains

Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.

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618 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arbind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The Integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: Normal and tangential force, Microstretch, thermoelastic, The Integral transform technique.

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617 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar

Abstract:

The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.

Keywords: Information Entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential.

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616 Architecture of Speech-based Registration System

Authors: Mayank Kumar, D B Mahesh Kumar, Ashwin S Kumar, N K Srinath

Abstract:

In this era of technology, fueled by the pervasive usage of the internet, security is a prime concern. The number of new attacks by the so-called “bots", which are automated programs, is increasing at an alarming rate. They are most likely to attack online registration systems. Technology, called “CAPTCHA" (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) do exist, which can differentiate between automated programs and humans and prevent replay attacks. Traditionally CAPTCHA-s have been implemented with the challenge involved in recognizing textual images and reproducing the same. We propose an approach where the visual challenge has to be read out from which randomly selected keywords are used to verify the correctness of spoken text and in turn detect the presence of human. This is supplemented with a speaker recognition system which can identify the speaker also. Thus, this framework fulfills both the objectives – it can determine whether the user is a human or not and if it is a human, it can verify its identity.

Keywords: CAPTCHA, automatic speech recognition, keyword spotting.

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615 Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Sunil Gupta, Harsh Kumar Verma, AL Sangal

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks can be used to measure and monitor many challenging problems and typically involve in monitoring, tracking and controlling areas such as battlefield monitoring, object tracking, habitat monitoring and home sentry systems. However, wireless sensor networks pose unique security challenges including forgery of sensor data, eavesdropping, denial of service attacks, and the physical compromise of sensor nodes. Node in a sensor networks may be vanished due to power exhaustion or malicious attacks. To expand the life span of the sensor network, a new node deployment is needed. In military scenarios, intruder may directly organize malicious nodes or manipulate existing nodes to set up malicious new nodes through many kinds of attacks. To avoid malicious nodes from joining the sensor network, a security is required in the design of sensor network protocols. In this paper, we proposed a security framework to provide a complete security solution against the known attacks in wireless sensor networks. Our framework accomplishes node authentication for new nodes with recognition of a malicious node. When deployed as a framework, a high degree of security is reachable compared with the conventional sensor network security solutions. A proposed framework can protect against most of the notorious attacks in sensor networks, and attain better computation and communication performance. This is different from conventional authentication methods based on the node identity. It includes identity of nodes and the node security time stamp into the authentication procedure. Hence security protocols not only see the identity of each node but also distinguish between new nodes and old nodes.

Keywords: Authentication, Key management, Wireless Sensornetwork, Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).

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614 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.

Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.

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613 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.

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612 Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band

Authors: Dileep Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, Varun Narayan Mishra, Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma, Prashant Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10 GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250 incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector regression analysis was used to approximate the function described by the input output relationship between the scattering coefficient and corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986 and 0.9214 respectively at HHpolarization. At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 3.6186, 0.9373 and 0.9428 respectively.

Keywords: Bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE.

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611 On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, exponential entropy, exponential fuzzy entropy.

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610 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model.

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609 Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth

Authors: Tarun Kumar Naiya, Biswajit Singha, Ashim Kumar Bhattacharya, Sudip Kumar Das

Abstract:

Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature. 

Keywords: Fuller's earth, Pseudo second order, Mass Transfer co-efficient, Langmuir

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608 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, Pressure Vessel, Saddle, Support.

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