Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: RANS.

42 The Importance of 3D Mesh Generation for Large Eddy Simulation of Gas – Solid Turbulent Flows in a Fluidized Beds

Authors: G. González-Silva, E. M. Matos, W. P. Martignoni, M. Mori

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to show a procedure for mesh generation in a fluidized bed using large eddy simulations (LES) of a filtered two-fluid model. The experimental data were obtained by [1] in a laboratory fluidized bed. Results show that it is possible to use mesh with less cells as compared to RANS turbulence model with granular kinetic theory flow (KTGF). Also, the numerical results validate the experimental data near wall of the bed, which cannot be predicted by RANS.model.

Keywords: LES, Mesh, Gas-Solid, Fluidized bed

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41 RANS Simulation of Viscous Flow around Hull of Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, F. Behrouzi, A. Tarmizi

Abstract:

The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.

Keywords: RANS Simulation, Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle, Viscous Flow Structure.

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40 Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller

Authors: K. Boumediene, S. E. Belhenniche

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.

Keywords: propeller flow, CFD simulation, hydrodynamic performance, RANS

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39 Hybrid RANS-LES Simulation of In-Cylinder Air Flow for Different Engine Speeds at Fixed Intake Flow Pressure

Authors: L. V. Fui, A. Ulugbek, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

The in-cylinder flow and mixture formations are significant in view of today’s increasing concern on environmental issues and stringent emission regulations. In this paper, the numerical simulations of a SI engine at different engine speeds (2000-5000 rpm) at fixed intake flow pressure of 1 bar are studied using the AVL FIRE software. The simulation results show that when the engine speed at fixed intake flow pressure is increased, the volumetric efficiency of the engine decreases. This is due to a richer fuel conditions near the engine cylinder wall when engine speed is increased. Significant effects of impingement are also noted on the upper and side walls of the engine cylinder. These variations in mixture formation before ignition could affect the thermodynamics efficiency and specific fuel consumption that would lead to a reduced engine performance.

Keywords: AVL FIRE, fuel mass, IC engine, LES, RANS, turbulent intensity.

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38 Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction

Authors: Mikhail Gritskevich, Sebastian Hohenstein

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.

Keywords: Discrete holes film cooling, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes, Reynolds stress tensor anisotropy, turbulent heat transfer.

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37 Detached-Eddy Simulation of Vortex Generator Jet Using Chimera Grids

Authors: Saqib Mahmood, Rolf Radespiel

Abstract:

This paper aims at numerically analysing the effect of an active flow control (AFC) by a vortex generator jet (VGJ) submerged in a boundary layer via Chimera Grids and Detached- Eddy Simulation (DES). The performance of DES results are judged against Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and compared with the experiments that showed an unsteady vortex motion downstream of VGJ. Experimental results showed that the mechanism of embedding logitudinal vortex structure in the main stream flow is quite effective in increasing the near wall momentum of separated aircraft wing. In order to simulate such a flow configuration together with the VGJ, an efficient numerical approach is required. This requirement is fulfilled by performing the DES simulation over the flat plate using the DLR TAU Code. The DES predictions identify the vortex region via smooth hybrid length scale and predict the unsteady vortex motion observed in the experiments. The DES results also showed that the sufficient grid refinement in the vortex region resolves the turbulent scales downstream of the VGJ, the spatial vortex core postion and nondimensional momentum coefficient RVx .

Keywords: VGJ, Chimera Grid, DES, RANS.

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36 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao

Abstract:

Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k-ε models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k-ε model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: Mixed convection, Lid-driven cavity, Turbulent flow, RANS model, URANS model, Large eddy simulation.

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35 Comparison of Detached Eddy Simulations with Turbulence Modeling

Authors: Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Prof. Yan Chao, Mukkarum Husain

Abstract:

Flow field around hypersonic vehicles is very complex and difficult to simulate. The boundary layers are squeezed between shock layer and body surface. Resolution of boundary layer, shock wave and turbulent regions where the flow field has high values is difficult of capture. Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a modification of a RANS model in which the model switches to a subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for LES calculations. Regions near solid body boundaries and where the turbulent length scale is less than the maximum grid dimension are assigned the RANS mode of solution. As the turbulent length scale exceeds the grid dimension, the regions are solved using the LES mode. Therefore the grid resolution is not as demanding as pure LES, thereby considerably cutting down the cost of the computation. In this research study hypersonic flow is simulated at Mach 8 and different angle of attacks to resolve the proper boundary layers and discontinuities. The flow is also simulated in the long wake regions. Mesh is little different than RANS simulations and it is made dense near the boundary layers and in the wake regions to resolve it properly. Hypersonic blunt cone cylinder body with frustrum at angle 5o and 10 o are simulated and there aerodynamics study is performed to calculate aerodynamics characteristics of different geometries. The results and then compared with experimental as well as with some turbulence model (SA Model). The results achieved with DES simulation have very good resolution as well as have excellent agreement with experimental and available data. Unsteady simulations are performed for DES calculations by using duel time stepping method or implicit time stepping. The simulations are performed at Mach number 8 and angle of attack from 0o to 10o for all these cases. The results and resolutions for DES model found much better than SA turbulence model.

Keywords: Detached eddy simulation, dual time stepping, hypersonic flow, turbulence modeling

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34 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu

Abstract:

Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: Aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, RANS.

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33 Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Han Kim

Abstract:

In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Multi-Body Dynamics (CMBD), Reynolds-averageNavier-Stokes (RANS), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), FiniteElement Method (FEM)

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32 Design of Experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics Used to Optimize Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Marine Propeller

Authors: Rohit Suryawanshi

Abstract:

In this study, the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ANSYS-Fluent, has been used to optimize the marine propeller with the design of experiment (DOE) method. At the initial stage, different propeller parameters ware selected for the three different levels. The four characteristics factors are: no. of the blade, camber value, pitch delta & chord at the hub. Then, CAD modelling is performed by considering the selected factor and level. In this investigation, a total of 9 test models are simulated with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The standard, realizable

Keywords: Marine propeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics, optimization, DOE, propeller thrust.

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31 Numerical Flow Simulation around HSP Propeller in Open Water and behind a Vessel Wake Using RANS CFD Code

Authors: Kadda Boumediene, Mohamed Bouzit

Abstract:

The prediction of the flow around marine propellers and vessel hulls propeller interaction is one of the challenges of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD has emerged as a potential tool in recent years and has promising applications. The objective of the current study is to predict the hydrodynamic performances of HSP marine propeller in open water and behind a vessel. The unsteady 3-D flow was modeled numerically along with respectively the K-ω standard and K-ω SST turbulence models for steady and unsteady cases. The hydrodynamic performances such us a torque and thrust coefficients and efficiency show good agreement with the experiment results.

Keywords: Seiun Maru propeller, steady, unsteady, CFD, HSP.

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30 Computational Investigation of the Combined Effects of Yaw, Rotation and Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamics of an Isolated Wheel

Authors: T. D. Kothalawala, A. Gatto, L. Wrobel

Abstract:

An exploratory computational investigation using RANS & URANS was carried out to understand the aerodynamics around an isolatedsingle rotating wheel with decreasing ground proximity. The wheel was initially modeled in free air conditions, then with decreasing ground proximity and increased yaw angle with rotational speeds. Three speeds of rotation were applied to the wheel so that the effect of different angular velocities can be investigated. In addition to rotation, three different yaw angles were applied to the rotating wheel in order to understand how these two variables combined affect the aerodynamic flow field around the wheel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, Ground Proximity, Landing Gear, Wheel, Rotation, Yaw.

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29 Flow Characteristics Impeller Change of an Axial Turbo Fan

Authors: Young-Kyun Kim, Tae-Gu Lee, Jin-Huek Hur, Sung-Jae Moon, Jae-Heon Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, three dimensional flow characteristic was presented by a revision of an impeller of an axial turbo fan for improving the airflow rate and the static pressure. TO consider an incompressible steady three-dimensional flow, the RANS equations are used as the governing equations, and the standard k-ε turbulence model is chosen. The pitch angles of 44°, 54°, 59°, and 64° are implemented for the numerical model. The numerical results show that airflow rates of each pitch angle are 1,175 CMH, 1,270 CMH, 1,340 CMH, and 800 CMH, respectively. The difference of the static pressure at impeller inlet and outlet are 120 Pa, 214 Pa, 242 Pa, and 60 Pa according to respective pitch angles. It means that the 59° of the impeller pitch angle is optimal to improve the airflow rate and the static pressure.

Keywords: Axial turbo fan, Impeller, Blade, Pitch angle.

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28 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Drag Reduction on a Circular Cylinder

Authors: A.O. Ladjedel, B.T.Yahiaoui, C.L.Adjlout, D.O.Imine

Abstract:

In the present paper; an experimental and numerical investigations of drag reduction on a grooved circular cylinder have been performed. The experiments were carried out in closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel (TE44); the pressure distribution on the cylinder was conducted using a TE44DPS differential pressure scanner and the drag forces were measured using the TE81 balance. The display unit is linked to a computer, loaded with DATASLIM software for data analysis and logging of result. The numerical study was performed using the code ANSYS FLUENT solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The k-ε and k- ω SST models were tested. The results obtained from the experimental and numerical investigations have showed a reduction in the drag when using longitudinal grooves namely 2 and 6 on the cylinder.

Keywords: Circular cylinder, Drag, grooves, pressure distribution

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27 Numerical Evaluation of the Contribution of Inertial and Aerodynamic Forces on VAWT Blade Loading

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of the contribution of both inertial and aerodynamic forces on the blade loads of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is presented. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations - based on full RANS unsteady calculations - is proposed for a three-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0021 airfoil. For each analyzed angular velocity, the combined effect of pressure and viscous forces acting on every rotor blade are compared to the corresponding centrifugal forces, due to the revolution of the turbine, thus achieving a preliminary estimation of the correlation between overall rotor efficiency and structural blade loads.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, aerodynamic forces, inertial loadings.

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26 Simulating Pathogen Transport with in a Naturally Ventilated Hospital Ward

Authors: C. A. Gilkeson, C. J. Noakes, P. A. Sleigh, M. A. I. Khan, M. A. Camargo-Valero

Abstract:

Understanding how airborne pathogens are transported through hospital wards is essential for determining the infection risk to patients and healthcare workers. This study utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to explore possible pathogen transport within a six-bed partitioned Nightingalestyle hospital ward. Grid independence of a ward model was addressed using the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) from solutions obtained using three fullystructured grids. Pathogens were simulated using source terms in conjunction with a scalar transport equation and a RANS turbulence model. Errors were found to be less than 4% in the calculation of air velocities but an average of 13% was seen in the scalar field. A parametric study of variations in the pathogen release point illustrated that its distribution is strongly influenced by the local velocity field and the degree of air mixing present.

Keywords: Natural, Ventilation, Pathogen, Transport

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25 Numerical Evaluation of the Aerodynamic Efficiency of the Stevens and Jolly Vertical- Axis Windmill (1895)

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the unsteady flow around an American 19th century vertical-axis windmill: the Stevens & Jolly rotor, patented on April 16, 1895. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (t-RANS) equations: a full campaign of numerical simulation has been performed using the k-ω SST turbulence model. Flow field characteristics have been investigated for several values of tip speed ratio and for a constant unperturbed free-stream wind velocity of 6 m/s, enabling the study of some unsteady flow phenomena in the rotor wake. Finally, the global power generated from the windmill has been determined for each simulated angular velocity, allowing the calculation of the rotor power-curve.

Keywords: CFD, vertical-axis rotor, windmill.

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24 CFD Effect of the Tidal Grating in Opposite Directions

Authors: N. M. Thao, I. Dolguntseva, M. Leijon

Abstract:

Flow blockages referring to the increase in flow are being considered as a vital equipment for marine current energy conversion. However, the shape of these devices will result in extracted energy under the operation. The present work investigates the effect of two configurations of a grating, convergent and divergent that located upstream, to the water flow velocity. The flow characteristics are studied by Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation by using the ANSYS Fluent solver for these specified arrangements of the grating. The results indicate that distinguished characteristics of flow velocity between “convergent” and “divergent” grating placements is up to 10% in confined conditions. Furthermore, the velocity in case of convergent grating is higher than that of divergent grating.

Keywords: Marine current energy, marine current energy converter, turbine grating, RANS simulation, water flow velocity.

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23 Investigation on Fluid Flow Characteristics of the Orifice in Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, Byung-Soo Shin, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

The present paper represents a methodology for investigating flow characteristics near orifice plate by using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. The flow characteristics near orifice plate which is located in the auxiliary feedwater system were modeled via three different levels of grid and four different types of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with proper near-wall treatment. The results from CFD code were compared with experimental data in terms of differential pressure through the orifice plate. In this preliminary study, the Realizable k-ε and the Reynolds stress models with enhanced wall treatment were suitable to analyze flow characteristics near orifice plate, and the results had a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Auxiliary Feedwater, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Orifice, Nuclear Power Plant

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22 The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics

Authors: P. Lauk, K. E. Seegel, T. Tähemaa

Abstract:

The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.

Keywords: L/D ratio, miniflaps, mini-TED, supercritical airfoil.

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21 Effect of Blade Number on a Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Darreius Wind Turbine

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a mean for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CDF analysis have been performed on a straight-bladed Darreius-type rotor. After describing the computational model, a complete campaign of simulations based on full RANS unsteady calculations is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, blade number

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20 Numerical Study of Vortex Formation inside a Stirred Tank

Authors: Divya Rajavathsavai, Akhilesh Khapre, Basudeb Munshi

Abstract:

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of stirred tank with the air-water interface are carried out in the presence of different types of the impeller and with or without baffles. A multiple reference frame (MRF) approach with the volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the air-water interface. The RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations with k-ε turbulence model are solved to predict the flow behavior of water and air phase which are treated as a different phases. The predicted results have shown that the VOF method is able to capture the interface in the unbaffled tank. While, the VOF method is showing an unfeasible results in the baffled tank with high rotational impeller speed. For continuous stirred tank, the air-water interface is disturbed by the inflow and the level of water is also increased with time.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, stirred tank, airwater interface, multiple reference frame, volume of fluid, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

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19 Numerical Analysis and Sensitivity Study of Non-Premixed Combustion Using LES

Authors: J. Dumrongsak, A. M. Savill

Abstract:

Non-premixed turbulent combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been carried out in a simplified methanefuelled coaxial jet combustor employing Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of LES in modelling non-premixed combustion using a commercial software, FLUENT, and investigate the effects of the grid density and chemistry models employed on the accuracy of the simulation results. A comparison has also been made between LES and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions. For LES grid sensitivity test, 2.3 and 6.2 million cell grids are employed with the equilibrium model. The chemistry model sensitivity analysis is achieved by comparing the simulation results from the equilibrium chemistry and steady flamelet models. The predictions of the mixture fraction, axial velocity, species mass fraction and temperature by LES are in good agreement with the experimental data. The LES results are similar for the two chemistry models but influenced considerably by the grid resolution in the inner flame and near-wall regions.

Keywords: Coaxial jet, reacting LES, non-premixed combustion, turbulent flow.

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18 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside a diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. The Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. The Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with the mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real size nozzle was simulated and it was found that among the different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

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17 CFD Analysis of Natural Ventilation Behaviour in Four Sided Wind Catcher

Authors: M. Hossein Ghadiri, Mohd Farid Mohamed, N. Lukman N. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Wind catchers are traditional natural ventilation systems attached to buildings in order to ventilate the indoor air. The most common type of wind catcher is four sided one which is capable to catch wind in all directions. CFD simulation is the perfect way to evaluate the wind catcher performance. The accuracy of CFD results is the issue of concern, so sensitivity analyses is crucial to find out the effect of different settings of CFD on results. This paper presents a series of 3D steady RANS simulations for a generic isolated four-sided wind catcher attached to a room subjected to wind direction ranging from 0º to 180º with an interval of 45º. The CFD simulations are validated with detailed wind tunnel experiments. The influence of an extensive range of computational parameters is explored in this paper, including the resolution of the computational grid, the size of the computational domain and the turbulence model. This study found that CFD simulation is a reliable method for wind catcher study, but it is less accurate in prediction of models with non perpendicular wind directions.

Keywords: Wind catcher, CFD, natural ventilation, sensitivity study.

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16 Numerical Analysis of the Performance of a Shrouded Vertical-Axis Water Turbine based on the NACA 0025 Blade Profile

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a five-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis water turbine, based on the NACA 0025 blade profile, for both bare and shrouded configurations. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Also the effect of a NACA-shaped central hydrofoil has been investigated, with the aim of evaluating the impact of a solid blockage on the performance of the shrouded rotor configuration. The beneficial effect of the shroud on rotor overall performances has clearly been evidenced, while the adoption of the central hydrofoil has proved to be detrimental, being the resulting flow slow down (due to the presence of the obstacle) much higher with respect to the flow acceleration (due to the solid blockage effect).

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, shroud, NACA 0025

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15 An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds

Authors: Z. Saleh, E. J. Avital, T. Korakianitis

Abstract:

The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow and thus increase the turbine efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip leakage flow, transonic flow.

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14 Numerical Analysis of the Performance of the DU91-W2-250 Airfoil for Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Application

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, G. Grandi, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a three-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine based on the DU91-W2-250 airfoil. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Rotor performances have been compared with the results of a previous work based on the use of the NACA 0021 airfoil. Both the power coefficient and the torque coefficient have been determined as a function of the tip speed ratio. The flow field around rotor blades has also been analyzed. As a final result, the performance of the DU airfoil based rotor appears to be lower than the one based on the NACA 0021 blade section. This behavior could be due to the higher stall characteristics of the NACA profile, being the separation zone at the trailing edge more extended for the DU airfoil.

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis wind turbine, DU91-W2-250, NACA 0021

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13 Proposal of a Means for Reducing the Torque Variation on a Vertical-Axis Water Turbine by Increasing the Blade Number

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a means for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CFD analyses have been performed on a straight-bladed Darrieus-type rotor. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations, based on full RANS unsteady calculations, is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architectures, characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the three analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: Vertical-Axis Water Turbine, rotor solidity, CFD, NACA 0025

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