Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8147

Search results for: Pipeline system

8147 Characteristics Analysis of Thermal Resistance of Cryogenic Pipeline in Vacuum Environment

Authors: Wang Zijuan, Ding Wenjing, Liu Ran

Abstract:

If an unsteady heat transfer or heat impulse happens in part of the cryogenic pipeline system of large space environment simulation equipment while running in vacuum environment, it will lead to abnormal flow of the cryogenic fluid in the pipeline. When the situation gets worse, the cryogenic fluid in the pipeline will have phase change and a gas block which results in the malfunction of the cryogenic pipeline system. Referring to the structural parameter of a typical cryogenic pipeline system and the basic equation, an analytical model and a calculation model for cryogenic pipeline system can be built. The various factors which influence the thermal resistance of a cryogenic pipeline system can be analyzed and calculated by using the qualitative analysis relation deduced for thermal resistance of pipeline. The research conclusion could provide theoretical support for the design and operation of a cryogenic pipeline system

Keywords: pipeline, vacuum, vapor quality

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8146 Recent Developments in Speed Control System of Pipeline PIGs for Deepwater Pipeline Applications

Authors: Mohamad Azmi Haniffa, Fakhruldin Mohd Hashim

Abstract:

Pipeline infrastructures normally represent high cost of investment and the pipeline must be free from risks that could cause environmental hazard and potential threats to personnel safety. Pipeline integrity such monitoring and management become very crucial to provide unimpeded transportation and avoiding unnecessary production deferment. Thus proper cleaning and inspection is the key to safe and reliable pipeline operation and plays an important role in pipeline integrity management program and has become a standard industry procedure. In view of this, understanding the motion (dynamic behavior), prediction and control of the PIG speed is important in executing pigging operation as it offers significant benefits, such as estimating PIG arrival time at receiving station, planning for suitable pigging operation, and improves efficiency of pigging tasks. The objective of this paper is to review recent developments in speed control system of pipeline PIGs. The review carried out would serve as an industrial application in a form of quick reference of recent developments in pipeline PIG speed control system, and further initiate others to add-in/update the list in the future leading to knowledge based data, and would attract active interest of others to share their view points.

Keywords: Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG), In Line Inspection Tools (ILI), PIG motion, PIG speed control system

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8145 Supervisory Fuzzy Learning Control for Underwater Target Tracking

Authors: C.Kia, M.R.Arshad, A.H.Adom, P.A.Wilson

Abstract:

This paper presents recent work on the improvement of the robotics vision based control strategy for underwater pipeline tracking system. The study focuses on developing image processing algorithms and a fuzzy inference system for the analysis of the terrain. The main goal is to implement the supervisory fuzzy learning control technique to reduce the errors on navigation decision due to the pipeline occlusion problem. The system developed is capable of interpreting underwater images containing occluded pipeline, seabed and other unwanted noise. The algorithm proposed in previous work does not explore the cooperation between fuzzy controllers, knowledge and learnt data to improve the outputs for underwater pipeline tracking. Computer simulations and prototype simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The system accuracy level has also been discussed.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Underwater target tracking, Autonomous underwater vehicles, Artificial intelligence, Simulations, Robot navigation, Vision system.

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8144 Development of a Pipeline Monitoring System by Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Joo Hyun Jung, Yong-Gwan Won

Abstract:

To explore pipelines is one of various bio-mimetic robot applications. The robot may work in common buildings such as between ceilings and ducts, in addition to complicated and massive pipeline systems of large industrial plants. The bio-mimetic robot finds any troubled area or malfunction and then reports its data. Importantly, it can not only prepare for but also react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. The pipeline monitoring tasks require special types of mobile robots. For an effective movement along a pipeline, the movement of the robot will be similar to that of insects or crawling animals. During its movement along the pipelines, a pipeline monitoring robot has an important task of finding the shapes of the approaching path on the pipes. In this paper we propose an effective solution to the pipeline pattern recognition, based on the fuzzy classification rules for the measured IR distance data.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Pipepattern recognition.

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8143 Effect of Corrosion on Hydrocarbon Pipelines

Authors: Madjid Meriem-Benziane, Hamou Zahloul

Abstract:

The demand of hydrocarbons has increased the construction of pipelines and the protection of the physical and mechanical integrity of the already existing infrastructure. Corrosion is the main reason of failures in the pipeline and it is mostly produced by acid (HCOOCH3). In this basis, a CFD code was used, in order to study the corrosion of internal wall of hydrocarbons pipeline. In this situation, the corrosion phenomenon shows a growing deposit, which causes defect damages (welding or fabrication) at diverse positions along the pipeline. The solution of the pipeline corrosion is based on the diminution of the Naphthenic acid.

Keywords: Pipeline, corrosion, Naphthenic acid (NA), CFD.

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8142 Dynamic Performances of Tubular Linear Induction Motor for Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System

Authors: Wisuwat Plodpradista

Abstract:

Tubular linear induction motor (TLIM) can be used as a capsule pump in a large pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. Parametric performance evaluation of the designed 1-meter diameter PCP-TLIM system yields encouraging results for practical implementation. The capsule thrust and speed inside the TLIM pump can be calculated from the combination of the PCP fluid mechanics and the TLIM equations. The TLIM equivalent circuits derived from those of the conventional three-phase induction motor are used as a model to predict the static test results of a small-scale PCP-TLIM system. In this paper, additional dynamic tests are performed on the same small-scale PCP-TLIM system with two capsules of different diameters. The behaviors of the capsule inside the pump are observed and analyzed. The dynamic performances from the dynamic tests are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the TLIM equivalent circuit model.

Keywords: Pneumatic capsule pipeline, Tubular linear induction motor

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8141 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

Abstract:

Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: Pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline.

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8140 Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints

Authors: Sara Mohtashami, Habib Rajabi Mashhadi

Abstract:

With the growth of electricity generation from gas energy gas pipeline reliability can substantially impact the electric generation. A physical disruption to pipeline or to a compressor station can interrupt the flow of gas or reduce the pressure and lead to loss of multiple gas-fired electric generators, which could dramatically reduce the supplied power and threaten the power system security. Gas pressure drops during peak loading time on pipeline system, is a common problem in network with no enough transportation capacity which limits gas transportation and causes many problem for thermal domain power systems in supplying their demand. For a feasible generation scheduling planning in networks with no sufficient gas transportation capacity, it is required to consider gas pipeline constraints in solving the optimization problem and evaluate the impacts of gas consumption in power plants on gas pipelines operating condition. This paper studies about operating of gas fired power plants in critical conditions when the demand of gas and electricity peak together. An integrated model of gas and electric model is used to consider the gas pipeline constraints in the economic dispatch problem of gas-fueled thermal generator units.

Keywords:

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8139 RASPE – Risk Advisory Smart System for Pipeline Projects in Egypt

Authors: Nael Y. Zabel, Maged E. Georgy, Moheeb E. Ibrahim

Abstract:

A knowledge-based expert system with the acronym RASPE is developed as an application tool to help decision makers in construction companies make informed decisions about managing risks in pipeline construction projects. Choosing to use expert systems from all available artificial intelligence techniques is due to the fact that an expert system is more suited to representing a domain’s knowledge and the reasoning behind domain-specific decisions. The knowledge-based expert system can capture the knowledge in the form of conditional rules which represent various project scenarios and potential risk mitigation/response actions. The built knowledge in RASPE is utilized through the underlying inference engine that allows the firing of rules relevant to a project scenario into consideration. Paper provides an overview of the knowledge acquisition process and goes about describing the knowledge structure which is divided up into four major modules. The paper shows one module in full detail for illustration purposes and concludes with insightful remarks.

Keywords: Expert System, Knowledge Management, Pipeline Projects, Risk Mismanagement.

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8138 Development of Vibration Sensor with Wide Frequency Range Based on Condenser Microphone -Estimation System for Flow Rate in Water Pipes-

Authors: Hironori Kakuta, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

Water leakage is a serious problem in the maintenance of a waterworks facility. Monitoring the water flow rate is one way to locate leakage. However, conventional flowmeters such as the wet-type flowmeter and the clamp-on type ultrasonic flowmeter require additional construction for their installation and are therefore quite expensive. This paper proposes a novel estimation system for the flow rate in a water pipeline, which employs a vibration sensor. This assembly can be attached to any water pipeline without the need for additional high-cost construction. The vibration sensor is designed based on a condenser microphone. This sensor detects vibration caused by water flowing through a pipeline. It is possible to estimate the water flow rate by measuring the amplitude of the output signal from the vibration sensor. We confirmed the validity of the proposed sensing system experimentally.

Keywords: Condenser microphone, Flow rate estimation, Piping vibration, Water pipe.

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8137 Controlling Transient Flow in Pipeline Systems by Desurging Tank with Automatic Air Control

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

Desurging tank with automatic air control “DTAAC” is a water hammer protection device, operates either an open or closed surge tank according to the water level inside the surge tank, with the volume of air trapped in the filling phase, this protection device has the advantages of its easy maintenance, and does not need to run any external energy source (air compressor). A computer program has been developed based on the characteristic method to simulate flow transient phenomena in pressurized water pipeline systems, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occurring in this phenomena. The developed model applied to a simple main water pipeline system: pump combined with DTAAC connected to a reservoir.  The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover; using the DTAAC reduces the unfavorable effects of the transients.

Keywords: DTAAC, Flow transient, Numerical model, Pipeline system, Protection devices.

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8136 An Automatic Pipeline Monitoring System Based on PCA and SVM

Authors: C. Wan, A. Mita

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel system for monitoring the health of underground pipelines. Some of these pipelines transport dangerous contents and any damage incurred might have catastrophic consequences. However, most of these damage are unintentional and usually a result of surrounding construction activities. In order to prevent these potential damages, monitoring systems are indispensable. This paper focuses on acoustically recognizing road cutters since they prelude most construction activities in modern cities. Acoustic recognition can be easily achieved by installing a distributed computing sensor network along the pipelines and using smart sensors to “listen" for potential threat; if there is a real threat, raise some form of alarm. For efficient pipeline monitoring, a novel monitoring approach is proposed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was studied and applied. Eigenvalues were regarded as the special signature that could characterize a sound sample, and were thus used for the feature vector for sound recognition. The denoising ability of PCA could make it robust to noise interference. One class SVM was used for classifier. On-site experiment results show that the proposed PCA and SVM based acoustic recognition system will be very effective with a low tendency for raising false alarms.

Keywords: One class SVM, pipeline monitoring system, principal component analysis, sound recognition, third party damage.

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8135 Pipelines Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Seong-Joon Baek, Bae-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Recently there has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the behaviors of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One of various bio-mimetic robot applications is to explore pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. Special types of mobile robots are necessary for the pipeline monitoring tasks. In order to move effectively along a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of insects or crawling animals. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependent on periodical offline monitoring. This paper proposes a monitoring system that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Mobile and active monitoring.

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8134 Comparative Study on Status and Development of Transient Flow Analysis Including Simple Surge Tank

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Transient analysis is important and one of the more challenging and complicated flow problem in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient can produce large pressure forces and rapid fluid acceleration into a water pipeline system, these disturbances may result in device failures, system fatigue or pipe ruptures, and even the dirty water intrusion. Several methods have been introduced and used to analyze transient flow, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic method. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the simple surge tank ”open surge tank” reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Elastic method, Flow transient, Open surge tank, Pipeline, Protection devices, Numerical model, Rigid column method.

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8133 Design of High-speed Modified Booth Multipliers Operating at GHz Ranges

Authors: Soojin Kim, Kyeongsoon Cho

Abstract:

This paper describes the pipeline architecture of high-speed modified Booth multipliers. The proposed multiplier circuits are based on the modified Booth algorithm and the pipeline technique which are the most widely used to accelerate the multiplication speed. In order to implement the optimally pipelined multipliers, many kinds of experiments have been conducted. The speed of the multipliers is greatly improved by properly deciding the number of pipeline stages and the positions for the pipeline registers to be inserted. We described the proposed modified Booth multiplier circuits in Verilog HDL and synthesized the gate-level circuits using 0.13um standard cell library. The resultant multiplier circuits show better performance than others. Since the proposed multipliers operate at GHz ranges, they can be used in the systems requiring very high performance.

Keywords: multiplier, pipeline, high-speed, modified Boothalgorithm.

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8132 UML Modeling for Instruction Pipeline Design

Authors: Vipin Saxena, Deepa Raj

Abstract:

Unified Modeling language (UML) is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of the research problem. In the present paper, UML model is designed for the Instruction pipeline which is used for the evaluation of the instructions of software programs. The class and sequence diagrams are designed & performance is evaluated for instructions of a sample program through a case study.

Keywords: UML, Instruction Pipeline, Class Diagram &Sequence Diagram.

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8131 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: Stress Corrosion Crack, Direct Assessment, Disbondment, Transgranular SCC, Compressor Station.

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8130 On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

Authors: T. Davitashvili, G. Gubelidze

Abstract:

In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detection of the damaged section and then leak localization in this section special functions and equations have been constructed. Some results of calculations for compound pipelines having two, four and five sections are presented. Also a method and formula for the leak localization in the simple inclined section of the main gas pipeline are suggested. Some results of numerical calculations defining localization of gas escape for the inclined pipeline are presented.

Keywords: Branched and inclined gas pipelines, leak detection, mathematical modeling.

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8129 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behavior of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: Orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis.

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8128 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Natural surfactant, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity.

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8127 A Practical Solution of a Plant Pipes Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Bae-Ho Lee, Ji-Sung Lee

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the shape of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One bio-mimetic robot serves the purpose of exploring pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. In order to move effectively inside a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of a lizard. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependant on periodical offline monitoring. This paper provides the Monitoring System that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Mobileand active monitoring.

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8126 Improving the Performances of the nMPRA Architecture by Implementing Specific Functions in Hardware

Authors: Ionel Zagan, Vasile Gheorghita Gaitan

Abstract:

Minimizing the response time to asynchronous events in a real-time system is an important factor in increasing the speed of response and an interesting concept in designing equipment fast enough for the most demanding applications. The present article will present the results regarding the validation of the nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture) architecture using the FPGA Virtex-7 circuit. The nMPRA concept is a hardware processor with the scheduler implemented at the processor level; this is done without affecting a possible bus communication, as is the case with the other CPU solutions. The implementation of static or dynamic scheduling operations in hardware and the improvement of handling interrupts and events by the real-time executive described in the present article represent a key solution for eliminating the overhead of the operating system functions. The nMPRA processor is capable of executing a preemptive scheduling, using various algorithms without a software scheduler. Therefore, we have also presented various scheduling methods and algorithms used in scheduling the real-time tasks.

Keywords: nMPRA architecture, pipeline processor, preemptive scheduling, real-time system.

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8125 Pressure Capacity Reduction of X52 Pipeline Steel Damaged by a Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion

Authors: S. M. Kazerouni Sangi, Y. Gholipour

Abstract:

Steel made pipelines with different diameters are used for transmitting oil and gas which in many cases are buried in soil under the sea bed or immersed in sea water. External corrosion of pipes is an important form of deterioration due to the aggressive environment of sea water. Corrosion normally results in pits. Hence, using the finite element method, namely ABAQUS software, this paper estimates the amount of pressure capacity reduction of a pipecontaining a semi-elliptical pitting corrosion and the rate of corrosion during the pipeline life of 25 years.

Keywords: Petroleum Transmission, Pipeline, PressureCapacity, Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion.

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8124 Fault Detection of Pipeline in Water Distribution Network System

Authors: Shin Je Lee, Go Bong Choi, Jeong Cheol Seo, Jong Min Lee, Gibaek Lee

Abstract:

Water pipe network is installed underground and once equipped, it is difficult to recognize the state of pipes when the leak or burst happens. Accordingly, post management is often delayed after the fault occurs. Therefore, the systematic fault management system of water pipe network is required to prevent the accident and minimize the loss. In this work, we develop online fault detection system of water pipe network using data of pipes such as flow rate or pressure. The transient model describing water flow in pipelines is presented and simulated using MATLAB. The fault situations such as the leak or burst can be also simulated and flow rate or pressure data when the fault happens are collected. Faults are detected using statistical methods of fast Fourier transform and discrete wavelet transform, and they are compared to find which method shows the better fault detection performance.

Keywords: fault detection, water pipeline model, fast Fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform.

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8123 A Review of Genetic Algorithm Optimization: Operations and Applications to Water Pipeline Systems

Authors: I. Abuiziah, N. Shakarneh

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a powerful technique for solving optimization problems. It follows the idea of survival of the fittest - Better and better solutions evolve from previous generations until a near optimal solution is obtained. GA uses the main three operations, the selection, crossover and mutation to produce new generations from the old ones. GA has been widely used to solve optimization problems in many applications such as traveling salesman problem, airport traffic control, information retrieval (IR), reactive power optimization, job shop scheduling, and hydraulics systems such as water pipeline systems. In water pipeline systems we need to achieve some goals optimally such as minimum cost of construction, minimum length of pipes and diameters, and the place of protection devices. GA shows high performance over the other optimization techniques, moreover, it is easy to implement and use. Also, it searches a limited number of solutions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, optimization, pipeline systems, selection, cross over.

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8122 Simulating Flow Transients in Conveying Pipeline Systems by Rigid Column and Full Elastic Methods: Pump Combined with Air Chamber

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar, A. A. Saber

Abstract:

In water pipeline systems, the flow control is an integrated part of the operation, for instance, opening and closing the valves, starting and stopping the pumps, when these operations very quickly performed, they shall cause the hydraulic transient phenomena, which may cause pump and, valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic methods. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to protect the pipeline systems from damaging due to the gain pressure which occur in the transient state. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Flow transient, Pipeline, Air chamber, Numerical model, Protection devices, Elastic method, Rigid column method.

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8121 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: Vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance.

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8120 Photogrammetric Survey on the Natural Gas Pipeline Projects of Iran-Turkey- Europe (ITE)

Authors: Ferruh Yildiz

Abstract:

The ITE Project is a project that has 1800 km length and across the Turkey's land through east to west. The project of pipeline enters geographically from Iran to Doğubayazit (Turkey) in the east, exits to Greece from Ipsala province of Turkey in the west. This project is the one of the international projects in such scale that provides the natural gas of Iran and Caspian Sea through the European continent. In this investigation, some information will be given about the methods used to verify the direction of the pipeline and the technical properties of the results obtained. The cost of project itself entirely depends on the direction of the pipeline which would be as short as possible and the specifications of the land cover. Production standards of 1/2000 scaled digital orthophoto and vectoral maps as a results of the use of map production materials and methods (such as high resolution satellite images, and digital aerial images captured from digital aerial cameras), will also be given in this report. According to Turkish national map production standards, TM ((Transversal Mercator, 3 degree) projection is used for large scale map and UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator, 6 degree) is used for small scale map production standards. Some information is also given about the projection used in the ITE natural gas pipeline project.

Keywords: Digital Image Processing, Natural Gas Pipe Line, Photogrammetry.

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8119 Cost Optimized CO2 Pipeline Transportation Grid: A Case Study from Italian Industries

Authors: P Bumb, U Desideri, F Quattrocchi, L Arcioni

Abstract:

This paper presents the feasibility study of CO2 sequestration from the sources to the sinks in the prospective of Italian Industries. CO2 produced at these sources captured, compressed to supercritical pressures, transported via pipelines and stored in underground geologic formations such as depleted oil and natural gas reservoirs, un-minable coal seams and deep saline aquifers. In this work, we present the optimized pipeline infrastructure for the CO2 with appropriate constraints to find lower cost system by the use of nonlinear optimization software LINGO 11.0. This study was conducted on CO2 transportation complex network of Italian Industries, to find minimum cost network for transporting the CO2 from sources to the sinks.

Keywords: CCS, CO2, ECBM, EU, NAP, LINGO, UNMIG.

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8118 Wireless Sensor Networks for Long Distance Pipeline Monitoring

Authors: Augustine C. Azubogu, Victor E. Idigo, Schola U. Nnebe, Obinna S. Oguejiofor, Simon E.

Abstract:

The main goal of this seminal paper is to introduce the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in long distance infrastructure monitoring (in particular in pipeline infrastructure monitoring) – one of the on-going research projects by the Wireless Communication Research Group at the department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The current sensor network architectures for monitoring long distance pipeline infrastructures are previewed. These are wired sensor networks, RF wireless sensor networks, integrated wired and wireless sensor networks. The reliability of these architectures is discussed. Three reliability factors are used to compare the architectures in terms of network connectivity, continuity of power supply for the network, and the maintainability of the network. The constraints and challenges of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and protecting long distance pipeline infrastructure are discussed.

Keywords: Connectivity, maintainability, reliability, wireless sensor networks.

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