Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1273

Search results for: Stress Corrosion Crack

1273 Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Studies in Ni-Cr-Mn Steel

Authors: Chinnaiah Madduri, Raghu V. Prakash

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of a Ni-Cr-Mn steel commonly used in marine applications. The effect of mechanical variables such as frequency and load ratio on fatigue crack growth rate at various stages has been studied using compact tension (C(T)) specimens along the rolling direction of steel plate under 3.5% saturated NaCl aqueous environment. The significance of crack closure on corrosion fatigue, and the validity of Elber-s empirical linear crack closure model with the ASTM compliance offset method have been examined. Fatigue crack growth rate is higher and threshold stress intensities are lower in aqueous environment compared to the lab air conditions. It is also observed that the crack growth rate increases at lower frequencies. The higher stress ratio promotes the crack growth. The effect of oxidization and corrosion pit formation is very less as the stress ratio is increased. It is observed that as stress ratios are increased, the Elber-s crack closure model agrees well with the crack closure estimated by the ASTM compliance offset method for tests conducted at 5Hz frequency compared to tests conducted at 1Hz in corrosive environment.

Keywords: Corrosion fatigue, oxide induced crack closure, Elber's crack closure, ASTM compliance offset method.

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1272 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: Stress Corrosion Crack, Direct Assessment, Disbondment, Transgranular SCC, Compressor Station.

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1271 The Investigation of Crack's Parameters on the V-Notch using Photoelasticity Method

Authors: M. Saravani, M. Azizi,

Abstract:

The V-notches are most possible case for initiation of cracks in parts. The specifications of cracks on the tip of the notch will be influenced via opening angle, tip radius and depth of V-notch. In this study, the effects of V-notch-s opening angle on stress intensity factor and T-stress of crack on the notch has been investigated. The experiment has been done in different opening angles and various crack length in mode (I) loading using Photoelasticity method. The results illustrate that while angle increases in constant crack-s length, SIF and T-stress will decrease. Beside, the effect of V-notch angle in short crack is more than long crack. These V-notch affects are negligible by increasing the length of crack, and the crack-s behavior can be considered as a single-edge crack specimen. Finally, the results have been evaluated with numerical finite element analysis and good agreement was obvious.

Keywords: Photoelasticity, Stress intensity factor, T-stress, V-notch.

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1270 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, LOM, ASTM E647.

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1269 Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation through Residual Stress Field

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack initiation and propagation in notched plate under constant amplitude loading through tensile residual stress field of 2024 T351 Al-alloy plate were investigated. Residual stress field was generated by plastic deformation using finite element method (FEM) where isotropic hardening in Von Mises model was applied. Simulation of fatigue behavior was made on AFGROW code. It was shown that the fatigue crack initiation and propagation were affected by level of residual stress filed. In this investigation, the presence of tensile residual stresses at notch (hole) reduces considerably the total fatigue life. It was shown that the decreasing in stress reduces the fatigue crack growth rates.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, Al-alloy.

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1268 Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

Authors: A. R. Shahani, E. Mahdavi, M. Amidpour

Abstract:

Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

Keywords: Embrittlement, Fracture mechanics, Hydrogen diffusion, Stress intensity factor.

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1267 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui, N. Benachour

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack growth behavior of aeronautical aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was studied. Effects of various loading and geometrical parameters are studied such as stress ratio, amplitude loading, etc. The fatigue crack growth with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when NASGRO model is used. The effect of the stress ratio is highlighted, where one notices a shift of the curves of crack growth. The comparative study between two orientations L-T and T-L on fatigue behavior are presented and shows the variation on the fatigue life. L-T orientation presents a good fatigue crack growth resistance. Effects of crack closure are shown in Paris domain and that no crack closure phenomenons are present at high stress intensity factor.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, orientation effect, crack closure, aluminum alloy.

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1266 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh

Abstract:

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny- Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: Penny-shaped crack, Stress intensity factor, Fracture mechanics, Ritz method.

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1265 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor (SIF), Crack orientation, Glass/Epoxy, natural Frequencies, X-FEM.

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1264 Composite Patch Repair of Central Crack Growth in Aluminium Alloy Plate

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this work, repaired crack in 6061- T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its seize vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly we repair various cracks with composite patch (carbon/ epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: Composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress.

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1263 The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development

Authors: Osama A. Terfas

Abstract:

The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.

Keywords: biaxial load, crack shape, fracture toughness, surface crack, uniaxial load.

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1262 Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdusalam A. Alaktiwi

Abstract:

Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing scenarios.

Keywords: Bending, ductile tearing, fracture toughness, stress triaxiality, tension.

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1261 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Stainless Steel 304L

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour

Abstract:

Stainless steel has been employed in many engineering applications ranging from pharmaceutical equipment to piping in the nuclear reactors and storage to chemical products. In this attempt, simulation of fatigue crack growth based on experimental results of austenitic stainless steel 304L was presented using AFGROW code when NASGRO mode laws adopted. Double through crack at hole specimen is used in this investigation under constant amplitude loading. Effect of mean stress is highlighted. Results show that fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and fatigue life were affected by maximum applied load and dimension of hole. An equivalent of Paris law for this material was estimated.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, stainless steel, mean stress, amplitudeloading.

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1260 Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors from Near Crack Tip Field

Authors: Zhuang He, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

All current experimental methods for determination of stress intensity factors are based on the assumption that the state of stress near the crack tip is plane stress. Therefore, these methods rely on strain and displacement measurements made outside the near crack tip region affected by the three-dimensional effects or by process zone. In this paper, we develop and validate an experimental procedure for the evaluation of stress intensity factors from the measurements of the out-of-plane displacements in the surface area controlled by 3D effects. The evaluation of stress intensity factors is possible when the process zone is sufficiently small, and the displacement field generated by the 3D effects is fully encapsulated by K-dominance region.

Keywords: Digital image correlation, stress intensity factors, three-dimensional effects, transverse displacement.

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1259 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminium Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir

Abstract:

This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems.

Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: Aluminium alloys, plate, crack, failure.

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1258 Modelling, Simulation and Validation of Plastic Zone Size during Deformation of Mild Steel

Authors: S. O. Adeosun, E. I. Akpan, S. A. Balogun, O. O. Taiwo

Abstract:

A model to predict the plastic zone size for material under plane stress condition has been developed and verified experimentally. The developed model is a function of crack size, crack angle and material property (dislocation density). Simulation and validation results show that the model developed show good agreement with experimental results. Samples of low carbon steel (0.035%C) with included surface crack angles of 45o, 50o, 60o, 70o and 90o and crack depths of 2mm and 4mm were subjected to low strain rate between 0.48 x 10-3 s-1 – 2.38 x 10-3 s-1. The mechanical properties studied were ductility, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, yield strain, stress at fracture and fracture toughness. The experimental study shows that strain rate has no appreciable effect on the size of plastic zone while crack depth and crack angle plays an imperative role in determining the size of the plastic zone of mild steel materials.

Keywords: Applied stress, crack angle, crack size, material property, plastic zone size, strain rate.

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1257 An Adaptive Dynamic Fracture for 3D Fatigue Crack Growth Using X-FEM

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, A. Basta, D. Belmiloud, H. Kebi

Abstract:

In recent years, a new numerical method has been developed, the extended finite element method (X-FEM). The objective of this work is to exploit the (X-FEM) for the treatment of the fracture mechanics problems on 3D geometries, where we showed the ability of this method to simulate the fatigue crack growth into two cases: edge and central crack. In the results we compared the six first natural frequencies of mode shapes uncracking with the cracking initiation in the structure, and showed the stress intensity factor (SIF) evolution function as crack size propagation into structure, the analytical validation of (SIF) is presented. For to evidence the aspects of this method, all result is compared between FEA and X-FEM.

Keywords: 3D fatigue crack growth, FEA, natural frequencies, stress intensity factor (SIF), X-FEM.

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1256 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is the studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e. with a single overload, overload band… etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: Fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, Al-alloys.

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1255 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: Laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis.

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1254 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys “Effect of Heat Treatment Condition”

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 Al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress. 

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, Al-Alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state.

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1253 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupledfield in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: Compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element.

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1252 Effect of Welding Processes on Fatigue Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joints

Authors: T.S.Balasubramanian, V.Balasubramanian, M.A.Muthumanikkam

Abstract:

This paper reports the fatigue crack growth behaviour of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and laser beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Centre cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behaviour. A 100kN servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine was used under constant amplitude uniaxial tensile load (stress ratio of 0.1 and frequency of 10 Hz). Crack growth curves were plotted and crack growth parameters (exponent and intercept) were evaluated. Critical and threshold stress intensity factor ranges were also evaluated. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of welds was correlated with mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of welds. Of the three joints, the joint fabricated by laser beam welding exhibited higher fatigue crack growth resistance due to the presence of fine lamellar microstructure in the weld metal.

Keywords: Fatigue, Non ferrous metals and alloys, welding

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1251 Stress Ratio and Notch Effect on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in 2024 Al-alloy

Authors: N. Benachour, A. Hadjoui, M. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

This study reports an empirical investigation of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in 2024 T351 aluminium alloy using constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was used and in stable propagation stage NASGRO model was applied. In this investigation, the flat plate of double through crack at hole is used. Based on experimental results (AFGROW Database), effect of stress ratio, R, is highlights on fatigue initiation life (FIL) and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). The increasing of dimension of hole characterizing the notch effect decrease the fatigue life.

Keywords: Fatigue crack growth, initiation life, Al-Alloy, stressratio, notch effect

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1250 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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1249 Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium

Authors: Nidhal Jamia, Sami El-Borgi

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.

Keywords: Functionally graded piezoelectric material, mixed-mode crack, non-local theory, Schmidt method.

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1248 Numerical Solution for Elliptical Crack with Developing Cusps Subject to Shear Loading

Authors: Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long, Koo Lee Feng, Zainidin K. Eshkuvatov, A. A. Khaldjigitov

Abstract:

This paper study the behavior of the solution at the crack edges for an elliptical crack with developing cusps, Ω in the plane elasticity subjected to shear loading. The problem of finding the resulting shear stress can be formulated as a hypersingular integral equation over Ω and it is then transformed into a similar equation over a circular region, D, using conformal mapping. An appropriate collocation points are chosen on the region D to reduce the hypersingular integral equation into a system of linear equations with (2N+1)(N+1) unknown coefficients, which will later be used in the determination of shear stress intensity factors and maximum shear stress intensity. Numerical solution for the considered problem are compared with the existing asymptotic solution, and displayed graphically. Our results give a very good agreement to the existing asymptotic solutions.

Keywords: Elliptical crack, stress intensity factors, hyper singular integral equation, shear loading, conformal mapping.

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1247 Method of Moments for Analysis of Multiple Crack Interaction in an Isotropic Elastic Solid

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng, Jianping Ding

Abstract:

The problem of N cracks interaction in an isotropic elastic solid is decomposed into a subproblem of a homogeneous solid without crack and N subproblems with each having a single crack subjected to unknown tractions on the two crack faces. The unknown tractions, namely pseudo tractions on each crack are expanded into polynomials with unknown coefficients, which have to be determined by the consistency condition, i.e. by the equivalence of the original multiple cracks interaction problem and the superposition of the N+1 subproblems. In this paper, Kachanov-s approach of average tractions is extended into the method of moments to approximately impose the consistence condition. Hence Kachanov-s method can be viewed as the zero-order method of moments. Numerical results of the stress intensity factors are presented for interactions of two collinear cracks, three collinear cracks, two parallel cracks, and three parallel cracks. As the order of moment increases, the accuracy of the method of moments improves.

Keywords: Crack interaction, stress intensity factor, multiplecracks, method of moments.

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1246 Hydrogen Embrittlement in a Coupled Mass Diffusion with Stress near a Blunting Crack Tip for AISI 4135 Pressure Vessel

Authors: H. Dehghan, E. Mahdavi, M. M. Heyhat

Abstract:

In pressure vessels contain hydrogen, the role of hydrogen will be important because of hydrogen cracking problem. It is difficult to predict what is happened in metallurgical field spite of a lot of studies have been searched. The main role in controlling the mass diffusion as driving force is related to stress. In this study, finite element analysis is implemented to estimate material-s behavior associated with hydrogen embrittlement. For this purpose, one model of a pressure vessel is introduced that it has definite boundary and initial conditions. In fact, finite element is employed to solve the sequentially coupled mass diffusion with stress near a crack front in a pressure vessel. Modeling simulation intergrarnular fracture of AISI 4135 steel due to hydrogen is investigated. So, distribution of hydrogen and stress are obtained and they indicate that their maximum amounts occur near the crack front. This phenomenon is happened exactly the region between elastic and plastic field. Therefore, hydrogen is highly mobile and can diffuse through crystal lattice so that this zone is potential to trap high volume of hydrogen. Consequently, crack growth and fast fracture will be happened.

Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor, Mass Diffusion, FEM, Pressure Vessel

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1245 Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Shine U P, EMS Nair

Abstract:

Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment. Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth equation are investigated.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture mechanics, fatigue testing machine

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1244 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: Crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft.

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