Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 159

Search results for: Pak Chung Sham

159 Salicylhydroxamic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Candida albicans

Authors: Shu-Ying Marissa Pang, Stephen Tristram, Simon Brown

Abstract:

Candida spp. are common and aggressive pathogens. Because of the growing resistance of Candida spp. to current antifungals, novel targets, found in Candida spp. but not in humans or other flora, have to be identified. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is one such possibility. This enzyme is insensitive to cyanide, but is sensitive to compounds such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), disulfiram and n-alkyl gallates. The growth Candida albicans was inhibited by SHAM (Ki = 9-15 mM) and cyanide (Ki = 2-4 mM), albeit to differing extents. The rate of O2 uptake was inhibited by less than 10% by 25 mM SHAM and by about 90% by 250 μM KCN. Although SHAM substantially inhibited the growth of C. albicans, it is unlikely that the inhibition of AOX was the cause. Salicylhydroxamic acid is used therapeutically in the treatment of urinary tract infections and urolithiasis, but it also has some potential in the treatment of C. albicans infection.

Keywords: alternative oxidase, Candida albicans, growth, respiration, salicylhydroxamic acid.

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158 Inhibition of the Growth of Pathogenic Candida spp. by Salicylhydroxamic Acid

Authors: Shu-Ying Marissa Pang, Stephen Tristram, Simon Brown

Abstract:

Candida spp. are common and aggressive pathogens. Because of the growing resistance of Candida spp. to current antifungals, novel targets, found in Candida spp. but not in humans or other flora, have to be identified. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is one such possibility. This enzyme is insensitive to cyanide, but is sensitive to compounds such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), disulfiram and n-alkyl gallates. The growth each of six Candida spp. was inhibited significantly by ~13 mM SHAM or 2 mM cyanide, albeit to differing extents. In C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis the rate of O2 uptake was inhibited by 18-36% by 25 mM SHAM, but this had little or no effect on C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii or C. parapsilosis. Although SHAM substantially inhibited the growth of Candida spp., it is unlikely that the inhibition of AOX was the cause. Salicylhydroxamic acid is used therapeutically in the treatment of urinary tract infections and urolithiasis, but it also has some potential in the treatment of Candida spp. infection.

Keywords: alternative oxidase, Candida spp., growth, respiration, salicylhydroxamic acid.

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157 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

Abstract:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing.

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156 The Balance between the Two Characters of the Night: A Study on the Nightscape of Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po

Authors: Lei Danyang, Lu Jialiang

Abstract:

As nightlife is getting richer in urban area, urban nightscape has become an increasingly important part of the urban landscape. Understanding urban nightscape from the perspec­tive of pedestrian perception is very important to improve the livability and walkability of a city. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nightscapes of two different urban forms. The research methods are literature investigation and field investigation. From analyzing the lighting, sensory ex­perience, and night activities, this research studies the two streets, Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po. Results revealed that the two streets are on the two extremes of the two characters of the night and a better balance needs to be found between them. Because of the different land usage and stakeholders, the two streets should play different roles in the nightscape, so their balance points are also different. On the one hand, Pei Ho Street, which has a strong commercial atmos­phere, should not only retain its vitality and diversity but also ensure its function of relaxation at night; on the other hand, in Yen Chow Street West, it is necessary to develop its potential of reconnecting people with the darkness of the night while ensur­ing its safety. These findings may not only provide policymak­ers with information to help them improve the nightscape and livability of the Sham Shui Po area but also help bridge the gap between research and design. In the future, more attention should be paid to pedestrian preference and nightscape perception of vulnerable groups.

Keywords: Hong Kong, pedestrian perception, Sham Shui Po, urban form, urban nightscape.

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155 Dextran/Poly(L-histidine) Graft Copolymer for pH-Responsive Drug Delivery

Authors: Dae Hwan Kang, Young-IL Jeong, Chung-Wook Chung

Abstract:

pH-sensitive drug targeting using nanoparticles for cancer chemotherapy have been spotlighted in recent decades. Graft copolymer composed of poly (L-histidine) (PHS) and dextran (DexPHS) was synthesized and pH-sensitive nanoparticles were fabricated for pH-responsive drug delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). Nanoparticles of DexPHS showed pH-sensitive changes in particle sizes and drug release behavior, i.e. particle sizes and drug release rate were increased at acidic pH, indicating that DexPHS nanoparticles have pH-sensitive drug delivery potentials. Antitumor activity of DOX-incorporated DexPHS nanoparticles were studied using CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results indicated that fluorescence intensity was higher at acidic pH than basic pH. These results indicated that DexPHS nanoparticles have pH-responsive drug targeting.

Keywords: pH-sensitive polymer, nanoparticles, block copolymer, poly (L-histidine).

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154 Optical Properties of WO3-NiO Complementary Electrochromic Devices

Authors: Chih-Ming Wang, Chih-Yu Wen, Ying-Chung Chen, Chun-Chieh Wang, Chien-Chung Hsu, Jui-Yang Chang, Jyun-Min Lin

Abstract:

In this study, we developed a complementary electrochromic device consisting of WO3 and NiO films fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtered. The electrochromic properties of WO3 and NiO films were investigated using cyclic voltammograms (CV), performed on WO3 and NiO films immersed in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC). Optical and electrochemical of the films, as a function of coloration–bleaching cycle, were characterized using an UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and cyclic voltammetry (CV). After investigating the properties of WO3 film, NiO film, and complementary electrochromic devices, we concluded that this device provides good reversibility, low power consumption of -2.5 V in color state, high variation of transmittance of 58.96%, changes in optical density of 0.81 and good memory effect under open-circuit conditions. In addition, electrochromic component penetration rate can be retained below 20% within 24h, showing preferred memory features; however, component coloring and bleaching response time are about 33s.

Keywords: Complementary electrochromic device, Rf-magnetron sputtered, Transmittance, Memory effect, Optical density change

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153 Constraint Active Contour Model with Application to Automated Three-Dimensional Airway Wall Segmentation

Authors: Kuo-Lung Lor, Chi-Hsuan Tsou, Yeun-Chung Chang, Chung-Ming Chen

Abstract:

For evaluating the severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), one is interested in inspecting the airway wall thickening due to inflammation. Although airway segmentations have being well developed to reconstruct in high order, airway wall segmentation remains a challenge task. While tackling such problem as a multi-surface segmentation, the interrelation within surfaces needs to be considered. We propose a new method for three-dimensional airway wall segmentation using spring structural active contour model. The method incorporates the gravitational field of the image and repelling force field of the inner lumen as the soft constraint and the geometric spring structure of active contour as the hard constraint to approximate a three-dimensional coupled surface readily for thickness measurements. The results show the preservation of topology constraints of coupled surfaces. In conclusion, our springy, soft-tissue-like structure ensures the globally optimal solution and waives the shortness following by the inevitable improper inner surface constraint.

Keywords: active contour model, airway wall, COPD, geometric spring structure

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152 Optimum Design of an 8x8 Optical Switch with Thermal Compensated Mechanisms

Authors: Tien-Tung Chung, Chin-Te Lin, Chung-Yun Lee, Kuang-Chao Fan, Shou-Heng Chen

Abstract:

This paper studies the optimum design for reducing optical loss of an 8x8 mechanical type optical switch due to the temperature change. The 8x8 optical switch is composed of a base, 8 input fibers, 8 output fibers, 3 fixed mirrors and 17 movable mirrors. First, an innovative switch configuration is proposed with thermal-compensated design. Most mechanical type optical switches have a disadvantage that their precision and accuracy are influenced by the ambient temperature. Therefore, the thermal-compensated design is to deal with this situation by using materials with different thermal expansion coefficients (α). Second, a parametric modeling program is developed to generate solid models for finite element analysis, and the thermal and structural behaviors of the switch are analyzed. Finally, an integrated optimum design program, combining Autodesk Inventor Professional software, finite element analysis software, and genetic algorithms, is developed for improving the thermal behaviors that the optical loss of the switch is reduced. By changing design parameters of the switch in the integrated design program, the final optimum design that satisfies the design constraints and specifications can be found.

Keywords: Optical switch, finite element analysis, thermal-compensated design, optimum design.

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151 Histopathological and Morphological Defects in the Mice Prenatally Exposed to Low EMF

Authors: Y. Rosli, A. Husna AH, M. Nurhayati

Abstract:

This research was carried out to determine the possible effects of low electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the developing mice fetuses. Pregnant mice were exposed to EMF exposure at 0mT (sham) and 1.2 mT for six hours per session, carried out on gestation day 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15. Samples from the stillborn offspring were observed for morphological defects. The heart didn-t show progressive cellular damage, the lungs were congested and emphysemics. The bones were in advance stage of hypertrophy. Spectrums of morphological defects were observed over 70% of the surviving offspring. These results indicate that even at lower exposure to low EMF, is enough to induce morphological defects in prenatal mice.

Keywords: bone hypertrophy, EMF, low electromagnetic field.

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150 A Decomposition Method for the Bipartite Separability of Bell Diagonal States

Authors: Wei-Chih Su, Kuan-Peng Chen, Ming-Chung Tsai, Zheng-Yao Su

Abstract:

A new decomposition form is introduced in this report to establish a criterion for the bi-partite separability of Bell diagonal states. A such criterion takes a quadratic inequality of the coefficients of a given Bell diagonal states and can be derived via a simple algorithmic calculation of its invariants. In addition, the criterion can be extended to a quantum system of higher dimension.

Keywords: decomposition, bipartite separability, Bell diagonal states.

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149 Production of As Isotopes in the Interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV Protons

Authors: Yong H. Chung, Eun J. Han, Seil Lee, Sun Y. Park, Eun H. Yoon, Eun J. Cho, Jang H. Lee, Young J. Chu, Jang H. Ha, Jongseo Chai, Yu S. Kim, Min Y. Lee, Hyeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Cross sections of As radionuclides in the interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV protons have been deduced by off-line y-ray spectroscopy to find optimal reaction channels leading to radiotracers for positron emission tomography. The experimental results were compared with the previous results and those estimated by the compound nucleus reaction model.

Keywords: Compound nucleus reaction model, off-line g-ray spectroscopy, radionuclide.

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148 Combustion Characteristics of Syngas and Natural Gas in Micro-pilot Ignited Dual-fuel Engine

Authors: Ulugbek Azimov, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Sharul Sham Dol

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the combustion in a pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine, fueled with different types of gaseous fuels under various equivalence ratios. It is found that if certain operating conditions are maintained, conventional dual-fuel engine combustion mode can be transformed to the combustion mode with the two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion was called the PREMIER (PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region) combustion. During PREMIER combustion, initially, the combustion progresses as the premixed flame propagation and then, due to the mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, the transition occurs with the rapid increase in the heat release rate.

Keywords: Combustion, dual-fuel engine, end-gas autoignition, PREMIER.

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147 Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector

Authors: Jaheon Gu, Wooyong Chung, Mijung Koo, Seonbok Lee, Gyoutae Park, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.

Keywords: Ammonia, detector, gas safety, portable.

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146 Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4

Authors: Kyu-Yeul Wang, Sang-Seol Lee, Jea-Yeon Song, Jea-Young Choi, Seong-Seob Shin, Dong-Sun Kim, Duck-Jin Chung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.

Keywords: FEC, IEEE 802.15.4, JPEG2000, low-MAC.

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145 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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144 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: Laser, Partial Vibration, Osteoporosis, in vivo micro-CT, mice.

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143 Application of ESA in the CAVE Mode Authentication

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

This paper proposes the authentication method using ESA algorithm instead of using CAVE algorithm in the CDMA mobile communication systems including IS-95 and CDMA2000 1x. And, we analyze to apply ESA mechanism on behalf of CAVE mechanism without the change of message format and air interface in the existing CDMA systems. If ESA algorithm can be used as the substitution of CAVE algorithm, security strength of authentication algorithm is intensified without protocol change. An algorithm replacement proposed in this paper is not to change an authentication mechanism, but to configure input of ESA algorithm and to produce output. Therefore, our proposal can be the compatible to the existing systems.

Keywords: ESA, CAVE, CDMA, authentication, mobilecommunication.

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142 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: Android malware detection, software-defined network.

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141 A Study of the Lighting Control System for a Daylit Office

Authors: Chih-Jian Hu, Chung-Chih Cheng, Hsiao-Yuan Wu., Nien-Tzu Chao

Abstract:

Increasing user comfort and reducing operation costs have always been primary objectives of lighting control strategies in a building. This paper proposes an architecture of the lighting control system for a daylit office. The system consists of the lighting controller, A/D & D/A converter, dimmable LED lights, and the lighting management software. Verification tests are conducted using the proposed system specialized for the interior lighting of a open-plan office. The results showed the proposed architecture of the lighting system would improve the overall system reliability, lower the system cost, and provide ease of installation and maintenance.

Keywords: control, dimming, LED, lighting.

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140 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao

Abstract:

A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.

Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome Spinors

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139 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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138 Reliable Face Alignment Using Two-Stage AAM

Authors: Sunho Ki, Daehwan Kim, Seongwon Cho, Sun-Tae Chung, Jaemin Kim, Yun-Kwang Hong, Chang Joon Park, Dongmin Kwon, Minhee Kang, Yusung Kim, Younghan Yoon

Abstract:

AAM (active appearance model) has been successfully applied to face and facial feature localization. However, its performance is sensitive to initial parameter values. In this paper, we propose a two-stage AAM for robust face alignment, which first fits an inner face-AAM model to the inner facial feature points of the face and then localizes the whole face and facial features by optimizing the whole face-AAM model parameters. Experiments show that the proposed face alignment method using two-stage AAM is more reliable to the background and the head pose than the standard AAM-based face alignment method.

Keywords: AAM, Face Alignment, Feature Extraction, PCA

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137 A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET

Authors: Ho-Yeon Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Jun-Ho Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services, VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks

Keywords: Vehicle communication, VANET, Cellular network

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136 A Method for Improving the Embedded Runge Kutta Fehlberg 4(5)

Authors: Sunyoung Bu, Wonkyu Chung, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a method for improving the embedded Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg4(5) method. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. These solution and error are obtained by solving an initial value problem whose solution has the information of the error at each integration step. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. For the assessment of the effectiveness, EULR problem is numerically solved.

Keywords: Embedded Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, Initial value problem.

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135 Recursive Algorithms for Image Segmentation Based on a Discriminant Criterion

Authors: Bing-Fei Wu, Yen-Lin Chen, Chung-Cheng Chiu

Abstract:

In this study, a new criterion for determining the number of classes an image should be segmented is proposed. This criterion is based on discriminant analysis for measuring the separability among the segmented classes of pixels. Based on the new discriminant criterion, two algorithms for recursively segmenting the image into determined number of classes are proposed. The proposed methods can automatically and correctly segment objects with various illuminations into separated images for further processing. Experiments on the extraction of text strings from complex document images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.1

Keywords: image segmentation, multilevel thresholding, clustering, discriminant analysis

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134 Task Planning for Service Robots with Limited Feedback

Authors: Chung-Woon Park, Jungwoo Lee, Jong-Tae Lim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel limited feedback scheme for task planning with service robots. Instead of sending the full service robot state information for the task planning, the proposed scheme send the best-M indices of service robots with a indicator. With the indicator, the proposed scheme significantly reduces the communication overhead for task planning as well as mitigates the system performance degradation in terms of the utility. In addition, we analyze the system performance of the proposed scheme and compare the proposed scheme with the other schemes.

Keywords: Task Planning, Service Robots, Limited Feedback, Scheduling

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133 The Possibility to Resolve the Security Problems through the LTE in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Sun-Hee Han, Hun-Jung Lim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) can provide communications between vehicles or infrastructures. It provides the convenience of driving and the secure driving to reduce accidents. In VANET, the security is more important because it is closely related to accidents. Additionally, VANET raises a privacy issue because it can track the location of vehicles and users- identity when a security mechanism is provided. In this paper, we analyze the problem of an existing solution for security requirements required in VANET, and resolve the problem of the existing method when a key management mechanism is provided for the security operation in VANET. Therefore, we show suitability of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) in VANET for the solution of this problem.

Keywords: VANET, Privacy, Security, LTE

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132 Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Yanghon Chung, Nyunbae Park, Sangyong Park

Abstract:

South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.

Keywords: Green car, greenhouse gas, LEAP model, road transport sector.

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131 Generalized Chebyshev Collocation Method

Authors: Junghan Kim, Wonkyu Chung, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a generalized Chebyshev collocation method (GCCM) based on the generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff systems. For employing a technique of the embedded Runge-Kutta method used in explicit schemes, the property of the generalized Chebyshev polynomials is used, in which the nodes for the higher degree polynomial are overlapped with those for the lower degree polynomial. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself, which provides the efficiency of the computational cost. For the assessment of the effectiveness, numerical results obtained by the proposed method and the Radau IIA are presented and compared.

Keywords: Generalized Chebyshev Collocation method, Generalized Chebyshev Polynomial, Initial value problem.

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130 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing, forming, set and reset voltages, XPS.

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