Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1763

Search results for: Human leukocyte antigens

1763 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

Abstract:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing.

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1762 Characterization of Liver Leukocyte Infiltrates and Features of Cytokine Profile under Viral Hepatitis-Induced Immunosuppression

Authors: Olga V. Lebedinskaya, Irina N. Kabanovskaya, Anna S. Lasareva, Nelly K. Akhmatova, Anatoliy P. Godovalov, Andrey V. Horinko, Mikhail V. Kiselevsky

Abstract:

The nature, prevalence, cellular composition of leukocyte infiltrates and immunohistochemical characteristics of their constituent cells in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C were investigated. It was found that the area of distribution and cellular composition of infiltrates depended on the virus type and process activity. The expediency of immunohistochemical study using leukocyte infiltrates from liver biopsies of patients with viral hepatitis aimed at clarifying diagnosis, making prognosis, and choice of optimal treatment with elements of immune correction is emphasized.

Keywords: Viral hepatitis, leukocyte infiltration, immunohistochemical characteristics, immunosupression.

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1761 Leukocyte Detection Using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows

Authors: Lina, Arlends Chris, Bagus Mulyawan, Agus B. Dharmawan

Abstract:

Blood cell analysis plays a significant role in the diagnosis of human health. As an alternative to the traditional technique conducted by laboratory technicians, this paper presents an automatic white blood cell (leukocyte) detection system using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows. The advantage of this method is to present a detection technique of white blood cells that are robust to imperfect shapes of blood cells with various image qualities. The input for this application is images from a microscope-slide translation video. The preprocessing stage is performed by stitching the input images. First, the overlapping parts of the images are determined, then stitching and blending processes of two input images are performed. Next, the Color Overlapping Windows is performed for white blood cell detection which consists of color filtering, window candidate checking, window marking, finds window overlaps, and window cropping processes. Experimental results show that this method could achieve an average of 82.12% detection accuracy of the leukocyte images.

Keywords: Color overlapping windows, image stitching, leukocyte detection.

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1760 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv3873, peptides, vaccine

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1759 On a Negative Relation between Bacterial Taxis and Turing Pattern Formation

Authors: A. Elragig, S. Townley, H. Dreiwi

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a bacteria-leukocyte model with bacteria chemotaxsis. We assume that bacteria develop a tactic defence mechanism as a response to Leukocyte phagocytosis. We explore the effect of this tactic motion on Turing space in two parameter spaces. A fine tuning of bacterial chemotaxis shows a significant effect on developing a non-uniform steady state.

Keywords: Chemotaxis-diffusion driven instability, bacterial chemotaxis.

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1758 Graves’ Disease and Its Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes

Authors: Yuhong Lu

Abstract:

Graves’ Disease (GD), an autoimmune health condition caused by the over reactiveness of the thyroid, affects about 1 in 200 people worldwide. GD is not caused by one specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or gene mutation, but rather determined by multiple factors, each differing from each other. Malfunction of the genes in Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) family tend to play a major role in autoimmune diseases, but other genes, such as LOC101929163, have functions that still remain ambiguous. Currently, little studies were done to study GD, resulting in inconclusive results. This study serves not only to introduce background knowledge about GD, but also to organize and pinpoint the major SNPs and genes that are potentially related to the occurrence of GD in humans. Collected from multiple sources from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) Central, the potential SNPs related to the causes of GD are included in this study. This study has located the genes that are related to those SNPs and closely examines a selected sample. Using the data from this study, scientists will then be able to focus on the most expressed genes in GD patients and develop a treatment for GD.

Keywords: CTLA4, Graves’ Disease, HLA, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP.

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1757 Human Pose Estimation using Active Shape Models

Authors: Changhyuk Jang, Keechul Jung

Abstract:

Human pose estimation can be executed using Active Shape Models. The existing techniques for applying to human-body research using Active Shape Models, such as human detection, primarily take the form of silhouette of human body. This technique is not able to estimate accurately for human pose to concern two arms and legs, as the silhouette of human body represents the shape as out of round. To solve this problem, we applied the human body model as stick-figure, “skeleton". The skeleton model of human body can give consideration to various shapes of human pose. To obtain effective estimation result, we applied background subtraction and deformed matching algorithm of primary Active Shape Models in the fitting process. The images which were used to make the model were 600 human bodies, and the model has 17 landmark points which indicate body junction and key features of human pose. The maximum iteration for the fitting process was 30 times and the execution time was less than .03 sec.

Keywords: Active shape models, skeleton, pose estimation.

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1756 Human Capacity Building in Manufacturing Sector: A Factor to Industrial Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Ckikaodili Virginia Ugwu

Abstract:

Human ability is a major source of constraint to manufacturing industries in Nigeria. This paper therefore, discusses the importance of human influences on manufacturing and consequently to industrialization and National development. In this paper, the development of manufacturing was anchored on two main factors; Infrastructural Capacity Development (ICD) and Human Capacity Development (HCD). However, a wider view was given to the HCD and the various contemporary human capacity issues militating against manufacturing in Nigeria. It went further to discuss various ways of acquiring and upgrading workers’ skills and finally, suggestions were made on how to tackle the onerous human capacity issues in manufacturing.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Human, Capacity, Development, Innovation.

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1755 Robust Human Rights Governance: Developing International Criteria

Authors: Helen P. Greatrex

Abstract:

Many states are now committed to implementing international human rights standards domestically. In terms of practical governance, how might effectiveness be measured? A facevalue answer can be found in domestic laws and institutions relating to human rights. However, this article provides two further tools to help states assess their status on the spectrum of robust to fragile human rights governance. The first recognises that each state has its own 'human rights history' and the ideal end stage is robust human rights governance, and the second is developing criteria to assess robustness. Although a New Zealand case study is used to illustrate these tools, the widespread adoption of human rights standards by many states inevitably means that the issues are relevant to other countries. This is even though there will always be varying degrees of similarity-difference in constitutional background and developed or emerging human rights systems.

Keywords: robust human rights governance, fragile states.

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1754 The Current State of Human Gait Simulator Development

Authors: V. Musalimov, I. Stepanov, Y. Monahov, A. Safonov

Abstract:

This report examines the current state of human gait simulator development based on the human hip joint model. This unit will create a database of human gait types, useful for setting up and calibrating Mechano devices, as well as the creation of new systems of rehabilitation, exoskeletons and walking robots. The system has many opportunities to configure the dimensions and stiffness, while maintaining relative simplicity.

Keywords: Hip joint, human gait, physiotherapy, simulation.

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1753 Human Factors Issues and Measures in Advanced NPPs

Authors: Jun Su Ha

Abstract:

Various advanced technologies will be adopted in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs) of advanced Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which is thought to increase operators’ performance. However, potential human factors issues coupled with digital technologies might be troublesome. Human factors issues in ACRs are identified and strategies (or countermeasures) for evaluating and analyzing each of issues are addressed in this study.

 

Keywords: Advanced control room, human factor issues, human performance, human error, nuclear power plant.

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1752 Human-s Anthropological Appearance in Abai Kunanbayev-s Works

Authors: Zh. D. Dadebayev, M.T. Kozhakanova, I.K.Azimbayeva

Abstract:

The issue of human anthropology took an important role in the last epochs and still hasn-t lost its importance. Scientists of different countries were interested in investigating the appearance of human being and the idea of life after death. While writing this article we noticed that scientists who made research in this issue, despite of the different countries and different epochs in which they lived, had similarities in their opinions. In given article we wrote great Kazakh poet AbaiKunanbayev-s philosophical view to the problem of human anthropology.

Keywords: anthropology, concept, human, nature

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1751 A Unified Robust Algorithm for Detection of Human and Non-human Object in Intelligent Safety Application

Authors: M A Hannan, A. Hussain, S. A. Samad, K. A. Ishak, A. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a general trainable framework for fast and robust upright human face and non-human object detection and verification in static images. To enhance the performance of the detection process, the technique we develop is based on the combination of fast neural network (FNN) and classical neural network (CNN). In FNN, a useful correlation is exploited to sustain high level of detection accuracy between input image and the weight of the hidden neurons. This is to enable the use of Fourier transform that significantly speed up the time detection. The combination of CNN is responsible to verify the face region. A bootstrap algorithm is used to collect non human object, which adds the false detection to the training process of the human and non-human object. Experimental results on test images with both simple and complex background demonstrate that the proposed method has obtained high detection rate and low false positive rate in detecting both human face and non-human object.

Keywords: Algorithm, detection of human and non-human object, FNN, CNN, Image training.

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1750 Bio-mechanical Analysis of Human Joints and Extension of the Study to Robot

Authors: S. Parasuraman, Ler Shiaw Pei

Abstract:

In this paper, the bio-mechanical analysis of human joints is carried out and the study is extended to the robot manipulator. This study will first focus on the kinematics of human arm which include the movement of each joint in shoulder, wrist, elbow and finger complexes. Those analyses are then extended to the design of a human robot manipulator. A simulator is built for Direct Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics of human arm. In the simulation of Direct Kinematics, the human joint angles can be inserted, while the position and orientation of each finger tips (end-effector) are shown. Inverse Kinematics does the reverse of the Direct Kinematics. Based on previous materials obtained from kinematics analysis, the human manipulator joints can be designed to follow prescribed position trajectories.

Keywords: Kinematics, Human Joints, Robotics, Robot Dynamics, Manipulators.

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1749 Human Interactive E-learning Systems using Head Posture Images

Authors: Yucel Ugurlu

Abstract:

This paper explains a novel approach to human interactive e-learning systems using head posture images. Students- face and hair information are used to identify a human presence and estimate the gaze direction. We then define the human-computer interaction level and test the definition using ten students and seventy different posture images. The experimental results show that head posture images provide adequate information for increasing human-computer interaction in e-learning systems.

Keywords: E-learning, image segmentation, human-presence, gaze-direction, human-computer interaction, LabVIEW

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1748 Learning Human-Like Color Categorization through Interaction

Authors: Rinaldo Christian Tanumara, Ming Xie, Chi Kit Au

Abstract:

Human perceives color in categories, which may be identified using color name such as red, blue, etc. The categorization is unique for each human being. However despite the individual differences, the categorization is shared among members in society. This allows communication among them, especially when using color name. Sociable robot, to live coexist with human and become part of human society, must also have the shared color categorization, which can be achieved through learning. Many works have been done to enable computer, as brain of robot, to learn color categorization. Most of them rely on modeling of human color perception and mathematical complexities. Differently, in this work, the computer learns color categorization through interaction with humans. This work aims at developing the innate ability of the computer to learn the human-like color categorization. It focuses on the representation of color categorization and how it is built and developed without much mathematical complexity.

Keywords: Color categorization, color learning, machinelearning, color naming.

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1747 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based On Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: Human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring.

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1746 Human Action Recognition System Based on Silhouette

Authors: S. Maheswari, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

Human action is recognized directly from the video sequences. The objective of this work is to recognize various human actions like run, jump, walk etc. Human action recognition requires some prior knowledge about actions namely, the motion estimation, foreground and background estimation. Region of interest (ROI) is extracted to identify the human in the frame. Then, optical flow technique is used to extract the motion vectors. Using the extracted features similarity measure based classification is done to recognize the action. From experimentations upon the Weizmann database, it is found that the proposed method offers a high accuracy.

Keywords: Background subtraction, human silhouette, optical flow, classification.

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1745 Human Resource Development Strategy in Automotive Industry (Eco-Car) for ASEAN Hub

Authors: Phichak Phutrakhul

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study concepts and strategies of human resource development in the automotive manufacturers and to articulate the proposals against the government about the human resource development for automotive industry. In the present study, qualitative study was an in-depth interview in which the qualitative data were collected from the executive or the executive of human resource division from five automotive companies - Toyota Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Nissan Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and Suzuki Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Qualitative data analysis was performed by using inter-coder agreement technique. The research findings were as follows: The external factors included the current conditions of the automotive industry, government’s policy related to the automotive industry, technology, labor market and human resource development systems of the country. The internal factors included management, productive management, organizational strategies, leadership, organizational culture and philosophy of human resource development. These factors were affected to the different concept of human resources development -the traditional human resource development and the strategies of human resource development. The organization focuses on human resources as intellectual capital and uses the strategies of human resource development in all development processes. The strategies of human resource development will enhance the ability of human resources in the organization and the country.

Keywords: Human Resource Development Strategy, Automotive industry, Eco-Cars, ASEAN.

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1744 Geometric Operators in the Selection of Human Resources

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

We study the possibility of using geometric operators in the selection of human resources. We develop three new methods that use the ordered weighted geometric (OWG) operator in different indexes used for the selection of human resources. The objective of these models is to manipulate the neutrality of the old methods so the decision maker is able to select human resources according to his particular attitude. In order to develop these models, first a short revision of the OWG operator is developed. Second, we briefly explain the general process for the selection of human resources. Then, we develop the three new indexes. They will use the OWG operator in the Hamming distance, in the adequacy coefficient and in the index of maximum and minimum level. Finally, an illustrative example about the new approach is given.

Keywords: OWG operator, decision making, human resources, Hamming distance.

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1743 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: Diversity, human-machine-system, human-robot-collaboration, simulation.

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1742 A Video-Based Observation and Analysis Method to Assess Human Movement and Behaviour in Crowded Areas

Authors: Shahrol Mohamaddan, Keith Case, Ana Sakura Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Human movement in the real world provides important information for developing human behaviour models and simulations. However, it is difficult to assess ‘real’ human behaviour since there is no established method available. As part of the AUNTSUE (Accessibility and User Needs in Transport – Sustainable Urban Environments) project, this research aimed to propose a method to assess human movement and behaviour in crowded areas. The method is based on the three major steps of video recording, conceptual behavior modelling and video analysis. The focus is on individual human movement and behaviour in normal situations (panic situations are not considered) and the interactions between individuals in localized areas. Emphasis is placed on gaining knowledge of characteristics of human movement and behaviour in the real world that can be modelled in the virtual environment.

Keywords: Video observation, Human movement, Behaviour, Crowds, Ergonomics, AUNT-SUE

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1741 Human Body Configuration using Bayesian Model

Authors: Rui. Zhang, Yiming. Pi

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for human Body configuration based on the Silhouette. We propose to address this problem under the Bayesian framework. We use an effective Model based MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) method to solve the configuration problem, in which the best configuration could be defined as MAP (maximize a posteriori probability) in Bayesian model. This model based MCMC utilizes the human body model to drive the MCMC sampling from the solution space. It converses the original high dimension space into a restricted sub-space constructed by the human model and uses a hybrid sampling algorithm. We choose an explicit human model and carefully select the likelihood functions to represent the best configuration solution. The experiments show that this method could get an accurate configuration and timesaving for different human from multi-views.

Keywords: Bayesian framework, MCMC, model based, human body configuration.

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1740 Communication and Human Resource Management and its Compliance with Culture

Authors: D. Charvatova, C.G. van der Veer

Abstract:

According to the conception of personnel management, human resource management requires efficient use of human resources. This is ensured by various activities directed towards the area of management. Among these activities there are for example the recruitment of employees, development, strengthening of relations, mutual inspiring, implementation of correct working processes and systems used by individuals or groups.

Keywords: Communication, company, customers, employees, human resource management, manager, organizational structure, personnel management, strategic management.

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1739 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman

Abstract:

The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: Fiber scaffold, copper ions, hydroxyapatite, hardness, in vitro, mechanical properties.

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1738 A Moving Human-Object Detection for Video Access Monitoring

Authors: Won-Ho Kim, Nuwan Sanjeewa Rajasooriya

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple moving human detection method is proposed for video surveillance system or access monitoring system. The frame difference and noise threshold are used for initial detection of a moving human-object, and simple labeling method is applied for final human-object segmentation. The simulated results show that the applied algorithm is fast to detect the moving human-objects by performing 95% of correct detection rate. The proposed algorithm has confirmed that can be used as an intelligent video access monitoring system.

Keywords: Moving human-object detection, Video access monitoring, Image processing.

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1737 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: M. Yoneda

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2fw, 3fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: Simplified method, Human walking vertical force, Higher component, Pedestrian bridge vibration.

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1736 Swine Flu Transmission Model in Risk and Non-Risk Human Population

Authors: P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

The Swine flu outbreak in humans is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that derives in part from human influenza, avian influenza, and two separated strains of swine influenza. It can be transmitted from human to human. A mathematical model for the transmission of Swine flu is developed in which the human populations are divided into two classes, the risk and non-risk human classes. Each class is separated into susceptible, exposed, infectious, quarantine and recovered sub-classes. In this paper, we formulate the dynamical model of Swine flu transmission and the repetitive contacts between the people are also considered. We analyze the behavior for the transmission of this disease. The Threshold condition of this disease is found and numerical results are shown to confirm our theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Steady state, Swine flu, threshold condition.

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1735 Defining Human Resources “Bundles” and Its’ Correlation with Companies’ Financial Performances

Authors: Ivana Tadić, Snježana Pivac

Abstract:

Although human resources are recognized as the crucial companies’ resources and their positive influence on companies’ performances has been confirmed through different researches, scientists are still debating it. In order to contribute this debate, this paper firstly discusses the most important human resource management elements and practices and its influence on companies’ success. Afterwards it defines human resource “bundles” – interrelated and internally consistent human resource practices, complementary to each other, or the most important human resource practices and elements regarding Croatian companies and its human resource management activities. Finally, the paper provides empirical results; more precisely it reveals the relation of the level of development of human resource management function (“bundles”) and companies’ financial performances (using profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, solvency ratios and a group of additional ratios related to employees’ indicators).

Keywords: Companies’ performances, human resource bundles, multivariate statistical analysis.

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1734 Evaluation of Newly Developed Dot-ELISA Test for Identification of Naja-naja sumantrana and Calloselasma rhodostoma Venom Antigens

Authors: A.S. Sikarwar, S. Ambu, T .H. Wong

Abstract:

Snake bite cases in Malaysia most often involve the species Naja-naja and Calloselasma rhodostoma. In keeping with the need for a rapid snake venom detection kit in a clinical setting, plate and dot-ELISA test for the venoms of Naja-naja sumatrana, Calloselasma rhodostoma and the cobra venom fraction V antigen was developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and further used to prepare the reagents for the dot-ELISA test kit which was tested in mice, rabbit and virtual human models. The newly developed dot- ELISA kit was able to detect a minimum venom concentration of 244ng/ml with cross reactivity of one antibody type. The dot-ELISA system was sensitive and specific for all three snake venom types in all tested animal models. The lowest minimum venom concentration detectable was in the rabbit model, 244ng/ml of the cobra venom fraction V antigen. The highest minimum venom concentration was in mice, 1953ng/ml against a multitude of venoms. The developed dot-ELISA system for the detection of three snake venom types was successful with a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 97.9%.

Keywords: ELISA, Venom, SVDK, Naja-naja sumatrana , Calloselasma rhodostoma.

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