Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: Jing Yang

427 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

Abstract:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing.

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426 Low Frequency Multiple Divider Using Resonant Model

Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Chih Yu Lee, Jing Yi Wang, Mei Zhen Xue, Chia Yueh Wu

Abstract:

A well-defined frequency multiple dividing (FMD) circuit using a resonant model is presented in this research. The basic component of a frequency multiple divider as used in a resonant model is established by compositing a well-defined resonant effect of negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics which possesses a wider operational region and high operational current at a bias voltage of about 1.15 V. The resonant model is then applied in the frequency dividing circuit with the above division ratio (RD) of 200 at the signal input of middle frequency. The division ratio also exists at the input of a low frequency signal.

Keywords: Divider, frequency, resonant model.

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425 Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The Ising ferromagnet, consisting of magnetic spins, is the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The Ising ferromagnet has played a central role in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena. Also, the Ising ferromagnet explains the gas-liquid phase transitions accurately. In particular, the Ising ferromagnet in a nonzero magnetic field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising ferromagnet in an external magnetic field. In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising ferromagnet with that of the square-lattice Ising ferromagnet in an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Ising ferromagnet, Magnetic field, Partition function zeros, Yang-Lee edge singularity.

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424 Automated Feature Points Management for Video Mosaic Construction

Authors: Jing Li, Quan Pan, Stan. Z. Li, Tao Yang

Abstract:

A novel algorithm for construct a seamless video mosaic of the entire panorama continuously by automatically analyzing and managing feature points, including management of quantity and quality, from the sequence is presented. Since a video contains significant redundancy, so that not all consecutive video images are required to create a mosaic. Only some key images need to be selected. Meanwhile, feature-based methods for mosaicing rely on correction of feature points? correspondence deeply, and if the key images have large frame interval, the mosaic will often be interrupted by the scarcity of corresponding feature points. A unique character of the method is its ability to handle all the problems above in video mosaicing. Experiments have been performed under various conditions, the results show that our method could achieve fast and accurate video mosaic construction. Keywords?video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

Keywords: Video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

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423 A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function

Authors: Zhihua Yang, Lihua Yang

Abstract:

This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.

Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Hilbert-Huang transform(HHT), Intrinsic Mode Function(IMF).

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422 Design of Reconfigurable Supernumerary Robotic Limb Based on Differential Actuated Joints

Authors: Qinghua Zhang, Yanhe Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Yeqin Yang, Hongwei Jing, Guoan Zhang, Jie Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a wearable reconfigurable supernumerary robotic limb with differential actuated joints, which is lightweight, compact and comfortable for the wearers. Compared to the existing supernumerary robotic limbs which mostly adopted series structure with large movement space but poor carrying capacity, a prototype with the series-parallel configuration to better adapt to different task requirements has been developed in this design. To achieve a compact structure, two kinds of cable-driven mechanical structures based on guide pulleys and differential actuated joints were designed. Moreover, two different tension devices were also designed to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the cable-driven transmission. The proposed device also employed self-designed bearings which greatly simplified the structure and reduced the cost.

Keywords: Cable-driven, differential actuated joints, reconfigurable, supernumerary robotic limb.

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421 A Text Clustering System based on k-means Type Subspace Clustering and Ontology

Authors: Liping Jing, Michael K. Ng, Xinhua Yang, Joshua Zhexue Huang

Abstract:

This paper presents a text clustering system developed based on a k-means type subspace clustering algorithm to cluster large, high dimensional and sparse text data. In this algorithm, a new step is added in the k-means clustering process to automatically calculate the weights of keywords in each cluster so that the important words of a cluster can be identified by the weight values. For understanding and interpretation of clustering results, a few keywords that can best represent the semantic topic are extracted from each cluster. Two methods are used to extract the representative words. The candidate words are first selected according to their weights calculated by our new algorithm. Then, the candidates are fed to the WordNet to identify the set of noun words and consolidate the synonymy and hyponymy words. Experimental results have shown that the clustering algorithm is superior to the other subspace clustering algorithms, such as PROCLUS and HARP and kmeans type algorithm, e.g., Bisecting-KMeans. Furthermore, the word extraction method is effective in selection of the words to represent the topics of the clusters.

Keywords: Subspace Clustering, Text Mining, Feature Weighting, Cluster Interpretation, Ontology

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420 The Application of the Queuing Theory in the Traffic Flow of Intersection

Authors: Shuguo Yang, Xiaoyan Yang

Abstract:

It is practically significant to research the traffic flow of intersection because the capacity of intersection affects the efficiency of highway network directly. This paper analyzes the traffic conditions of an intersection in certain urban by the methods of queuing theory and statistical experiment, sets up a corresponding mathematical model and compares it with the actual values. The result shows that queuing theory is applied in the study of intersection traffic flow and it can provide references for the other similar designs.

Keywords: Intersection, Queuing theory, Statistical experiment, System metrics.

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419 Highly Flexible Modularized Sensor Platform

Authors: Kai-Chao Yang, Chun-Ming Huang, Chih-Chiao Yang, Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract:

Sensors have been used in various kinds of academic fields and applications. In this article, we propose the idea of modularized sensors that combine multiple sensor modules into a unique sensor. We divide a sensor into several units according to functionalities. Each unit has different sensor modules, which share the same type of connectors and can be serially and arbitrarily connected each other. A user can combine different sensor modules into a sensor platform according to requirements. Compared with current modularized sensors, the proposed sensor platform is highly flexible and reusable. We have implemented the prototype of the proposed sensor platform, and the experimental results show the proposed platform can work correctly.

Keywords: Sensor device, sensor fusion.

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418 A Nonconforming Mixed Finite Element Method for Semilinear Pseudo-Hyperbolic Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Jingbo Yang, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonconforming mixed finite element method is studied for semilinear pseudo-hyperbolic partial integrodifferential equations. By use of the interpolation technique instead of the generalized elliptic projection, the optimal error estimates of the corresponding unknown function are given.

Keywords: Pseudo-hyperbolic partial integro-differential equations, Nonconforming mixed element method, Semilinear, Error estimates.

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417 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors.

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416 The Multi-objective Optimization for the SLS Process Parameters Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yang Laixia, Deng Jun, Li Dichen, Bai Yang

Abstract:

The forming process parameters of Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) directly affect the forming efficiency and forming quality. Therefore, to determine reasonable process parameters is particularly important. In this paper, the weight of each target of the forming quality and efficiency is firstly calculated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. And then the size of each target is measured by orthogonal experiment. Finally, the sum of the product of each target with the weight is compared to the process parameters in each group and obtained the optimal molding process parameters.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Multi-objective optimization, Orthogonal test, Selective Laser Sintering

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415 Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Chen-Ming Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.

Keywords: LTE-A, Relay, TDD, Power Saving.

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414 A Study of RSCMAC Enhanced GPS Dynamic Positioning

Authors: Ching-Tsan Chiang, Sheng-Jie Yang, Jing-Kai Huang

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to develop and apply the RSCMAC to enhance the dynamic accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS devices provide services of accurate positioning, speed detection and highly precise time standard for over 98% area on the earth. The overall operation of Global Positioning System includes 24 GPS satellites in space; signal transmission that includes 2 frequency carrier waves (Link 1 and Link 2) and 2 sets random telegraphic codes (C/A code and P code), on-earth monitoring stations or client GPS receivers. Only 4 satellites utilization, the client position and its elevation can be detected rapidly. The more receivable satellites, the more accurate position can be decoded. Currently, the standard positioning accuracy of the simplified GPS receiver is greatly increased, but due to affected by the error of satellite clock, the troposphere delay and the ionosphere delay, current measurement accuracy is in the level of 5~15m. In increasing the dynamic GPS positioning accuracy, most researchers mainly use inertial navigation system (INS) and installation of other sensors or maps for the assistance. This research utilizes the RSCMAC advantages of fast learning, learning convergence assurance, solving capability of time-related dynamic system problems with the static positioning calibration structure to improve and increase the GPS dynamic accuracy. The increasing of GPS dynamic positioning accuracy can be achieved by using RSCMAC system with GPS receivers collecting dynamic error data for the error prediction and follows by using the predicted error to correct the GPS dynamic positioning data. The ultimate purpose of this research is to improve the dynamic positioning error of cheap GPS receivers and the economic benefits will be enhanced while the accuracy is increased.

Keywords: Dynamic Error, GPS, Prediction, RSCMAC.

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413 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li

Abstract:

This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: Skew cyclic code, gray map, automophism, cyclic code.

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412 Using Data Mining Methodology to Build the Predictive Model of Gold Passbook Price

Authors: Chien-Hui Yang, Che-Yang Lin, Ya-Chen Hsu

Abstract:

Gold passbook is an investing tool that is especially suitable for investors to do small investment in the solid gold. The gold passbook has the lower risk than other ways investing in gold, but its price is still affected by gold price. However, there are many factors can cause influences on gold price. Therefore, building a model to predict the price of gold passbook can both reduce the risk of investment and increase the benefits. This study investigates the important factors that influence the gold passbook price, and utilize the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) to build the predictive model. This method can not only obtain the significant variables but also perform well in prediction. Finally, the significant variables of gold passbook price, which can be predicted by GMDH, are US dollar exchange rate, international petroleum price, unemployment rate, whole sale price index, rediscount rate, foreign exchange reserves, misery index, prosperity coincident index and industrial index.

Keywords: Gold price, Gold passbook price, Group Method ofData Handling (GMDH), Regression.

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411 Stiffness Modeling of 3-PRS Mechanism

Authors: Xiaohui Han, Yuhan Wang, Jing Shi

Abstract:

This paper proposed a stiffness analysis method for a 3-PRS mechanism for welding thick aluminum plate using FSW technology. In the molding process, elastic deformation of lead-screws and links are taken into account. This method is based on the virtual work principle. Through a survey of the commonly used stiffness performance indices, the minimum and maximum eigenvalues of the stiffness matrix are used to evaluate the stiffness of the 3-PRS mechanism. Furthermore, A FEA model has been constructed to verify the method. Finally, we redefined the workspace using the stiffness analysis method.

Keywords: 3-PRS, parallel mechanism, stiffness analysis, workspace.

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410 Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Wei-Hau Du, Pau-Choo Chang, Jar-Ferr Yang, Pi-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.

Keywords: Color moments, visual thing recognition system, SIFT, color SIFT.

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409 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

Abstract:

Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: Remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded linux system, image processing.

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408 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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407 Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area

Authors: Chia Lin Chan, Yi Ju Yang, Chih Chin Yang

Abstract:

Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall frequency of one hour rainfall duration is more than 100-year frequency which exceeds the flood detention standard of 20-year frequency for the flood detention pond, the flood peak duration of flood detention pond is 1.7 hours at most even though the flood detention pond with maximum drainage potential about 15.0 m3/s of pumping system is constructed. If the rainfall peak current is more than maximum drainage potential, the flood peak duration of flood detention pond is about 1.9 hours at most. The flood detention pond is the key factor of stable drainage control and flood prevention. The critical factors of flood disaster is not only rainfall mass, but also rainfall frequency of heavy storm in different rainfall duration and flood detention frequency of flood detention system.

Keywords: Rainfall frequency, Rainfall duration, Rainfallintensity, Flood detention capability

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406 Semiconvergence of Alternating Iterative Methods for Singular Linear Systems

Authors: Jing Wu

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss semiconvergence of the alternating iterative methods for solving singular systems. The semiconvergence theories for the alternating methods are established when the coefficient matrix is a singular matrix. Furthermore, the corresponding comparison theorems are obtained.

Keywords: Alternating iterative method, Semiconvergence, Singular matrix.

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405 Weighted Harmonic Arnoldi Method for Large Interior Eigenproblems

Authors: Zhengsheng Wang, Jing Qi, Chuntao Liu, Yuanjun Li

Abstract:

The harmonic Arnoldi method can be used to find interior eigenpairs of large matrices. However, it has been shown that this method may converge erratically and even may fail to do so. In this paper, we present a new method for computing interior eigenpairs of large nonsymmetric matrices, which is called weighted harmonic Arnoldi method. The implementation of the method has been tested by numerical examples, the results show that the method converges fast and works with high accuracy.

Keywords: Harmonic Arnoldi method, weighted harmonic Arnoldi method, eigenpair, interior eigenproblem, non symmetric matrix.

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404 Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules

Authors: Songlin Yang, Ying Ge

Abstract:

This paper shows that some properties of the decision rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.

Keywords: set, Decision table, Decision rule, coverage factor.

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403 Design and Application of NFC-Based Identity and Access Management in Cloud Services

Authors: Shin-Jer Yang, Kai-Tai Yang

Abstract:

In response to a changing world and the fast growth of the Internet, more and more enterprises are replacing web-based services with cloud-based ones. Multi-tenancy technology is becoming more important especially with Software as a Service (SaaS). This in turn leads to a greater focus on the application of Identity and Access Management (IAM). Conventional Near-Field Communication (NFC) based verification relies on a computer browser and a card reader to access an NFC tag. This type of verification does not support mobile device login and user-based access management functions. This study designs an NFC-based third-party cloud identity and access management scheme (NFC-IAM) addressing this shortcoming. Data from simulation tests analyzed with Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) suggest that the NFC-IAM not only takes less time in identity identification but also cuts time by 80% in terms of two-factor authentication and improves verification accuracy to 99.9% or better. In functional performance analyses, NFC-IAM performed better in salability and portability. The NFC-IAM App (Application Software) and back-end system to be developed and deployed in mobile device are to support IAM features and also offers users a more user-friendly experience and stronger security protection. In the future, our NFC-IAM can be employed to different environments including identification for mobile payment systems, permission management for remote equipment monitoring, among other applications.

Keywords: Cloud service, multi-tenancy, NFC, IAM, mobile device.

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402 Proximal Parallel Alternating Direction Method for Monotone Structured Variational Inequalities

Authors: Min Sun, Jing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the alternating direction method, which is one of the most effective methods for solving structured variational inequalities(VI). In fact, we propose a proximal parallel alternating direction method which only needs to solve two strongly monotone sub-VI problems at each iteration. Convergence of the new method is proved under mild assumptions. We also present some preliminary numerical results, which indicate that the new method is quite efficient.

Keywords: structured variational inequalities, proximal point method, global convergence

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401 Travel Time Model for Cylinder Type Parking System

Authors: Jing Zhang, Jie Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we mainly analyze an automated parking system where the storage and retrieval requests are performed by a tower crane. In this parking system, the S/R crane which is located at the middle of the bottom of the cylinder parking area can rotate in both clockwise and counterclockwise and three kinds of movements can be done simultaneously. We develop some mathematical travel time models for the single command cycle under the random storage assignment using the characteristics of this system. Finally, we compare these travel models with discrete case and it is shown that these travel models display a good satisfactory performance.

Keywords: Parking system, travel time model, tower crane.

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400 Experimental and Numerical Study of The Shock-Accelerated Elliptic Heavy Gas Cylinders

Authors: Jing S. Bai, Li Y. Zou, Tao Wang, Kun Liu, Wen B. Huang, Jin H. Liu, Ping Li, Duo W. Tan, CangL. Liu

Abstract:

We studied the evolution of elliptic heavy SF6 gas cylinder surrounded by air when accelerated by a planar Mach 1.25 shock. A multiple dynamics imaging technology has been used to obtain one image of the experimental initial conditions and five images of the time evolution of elliptic cylinder. We compared the width and height of the circular and two kinds of elliptic gas cylinders, and analyzed the vortex strength of the elliptic ones. Simulations are in very good agreement with the experiments, but due to the different initial gas cylinder shapes, a certain difference of the initial density peak and distribution exists between the circular and elliptic gas cylinders, and the latter initial state is more sensitive and more inenarrable.

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabeticalorder, separated by commas.

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399 Some New Inequalities for Eigenvalues of the Hadamard Product and the Fan Product of Matrices

Authors: Jing Li, Guang Zhou

Abstract:

Let A and B be nonnegative matrices. A new upper bound on the spectral radius ρ(A◦B) is obtained. Meanwhile, a new lower bound on the smallest eigenvalue q(AB) for the Fan product, and a new lower bound on the minimum eigenvalue q(B ◦A−1) for the Hadamard product of B and A−1 of two nonsingular M-matrices A and B are given. Some results of comparison are also given in theory. To illustrate our results, numerical examples are considered.

Keywords: Hadamard product, Fan product; nonnegative matrix, M-matrix, Spectral radius, Minimum eigenvalue, 1-path cover.

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398 The Flashbulb Memory of the Positive and Negative Events: Wenchuan Earthquake and Acceptance to College

Authors: Aiping Liu, Xiaoping Ying, Jing Luo

Abstract:

53 college students answered questions regarding the circumstances in which they first heard about the news of Wenchuan earthquake or the news of their acceptance to college which took place approximately one year ago, and answered again two years later. The number of details recalled about their circumstances for both events was high and didn-t decline two years later. However, consistency in reported details over two years was low. Participants were more likely to construct central (e.g., Where were you?) than peripheral information (What were you wearing?), and the confidence of the central information was higher than peripheral information, which indicated that they constructed more when they were more confident.

Keywords: flashbulb memory, consistency, reconstructive error, confidence

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