Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: multi-class.

22 Enhanced Performance for Support Vector Machines as Multiclass Classifiers in Steel Surface Defect Detection

Authors: Ehsan Amid, Sina Rezaei Aghdam, Hamidreza Amindavar

Abstract:

Steel surface defect detection is essentially one of pattern recognition problems. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are known as one of the most proper classifiers in this application. In this paper, we introduce a more accurate classification method by using SVMs as our final classifier of the inspection system. In this scheme, multiclass classification task is performed based on the "one-againstone" method and different kernels are utilized for each pair of the classes in multiclass classification of the different defects. In the proposed system, a decision tree is employed in the first stage for two-class classification of the steel surfaces to "defect" and "non-defect", in order to decrease the time complexity. Based on the experimental results, generated from over one thousand images, the proposed multiclass classification scheme is more accurate than the conventional methods and the overall system yields a sufficient performance which can meet the requirements in steel manufacturing.

Keywords: Steel Surface Defect Detection, Support Vector Machines, Kernel Methods.

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21 Multiclass Support Vector Machines for Environmental Sounds Classification Using log-Gabor Filters

Authors: S. Souli, Z. Lachiri

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a robust environmental sound classification approach, based on spectrograms features driven from log-Gabor filters. This approach includes two methods. In the first methods, the spectrograms are passed through an appropriate log-Gabor filter banks and the outputs are averaged and underwent an optimal feature selection procedure based on a mutual information criteria. The second method uses the same steps but applied only to three patches extracted from each spectrogram.

To investigate the accuracy of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments using a large database containing 10 environmental sound classes. The classification results based on Multiclass Support Vector Machines show that the second method is the most efficient with an average classification accuracy of 89.62 %.

Keywords: Environmental sounds, Log-Gabor filters, Spectrogram, SVM Multiclass, Visual features.

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20 Corporate Credit Rating using Multiclass Classification Models with order Information

Authors: Hyunchul Ahn, Kyoung-Jae Kim

Abstract:

Corporate credit rating prediction using statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques has been one of the attractive research topics in the literature. In recent years, multiclass classification models such as artificial neural network (ANN) or multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) have become a very appealing machine learning approaches due to their good performance. However, most of them have only focused on classifying samples into nominal categories, thus the unique characteristic of the credit rating - ordinality - has been seldom considered in their approaches. This study proposes new types of ANN and MSVM classifiers, which are named OMANN and OMSVM respectively. OMANN and OMSVM are designed to extend binary ANN or SVM classifiers by applying ordinal pairwise partitioning (OPP) strategy. These models can handle ordinal multiple classes efficiently and effectively. To validate the usefulness of these two models, we applied them to the real-world bond rating case. We compared the results of our models to those of conventional approaches. The experimental results showed that our proposed models improve classification accuracy in comparison to typical multiclass classification techniques with the reduced computation resource.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Corporate credit rating, Support vector machines, Ordinal pairwise partitioning

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19 Lithofacies Classification from Well Log Data Using Neural Networks, Interval Neutrosophic Sets and Quantification of Uncertainty

Authors: Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung, Kok Wai Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel approach to the question of lithofacies classification based on an assessment of the uncertainty in the classification results. The proposed approach has multiple neural networks (NN), and interval neutrosophic sets (INS) are used to classify the input well log data into outputs of multiple classes of lithofacies. A pair of n-class neural networks are used to predict n-degree of truth memberships and n-degree of false memberships. Indeterminacy memberships or uncertainties in the predictions are estimated using a multidimensional interpolation method. These three memberships form the INS used to support the confidence in results of multiclass classification. Based on the experimental data, our approach improves the classification performance as compared to an existing technique applied only to the truth membership. In addition, our approach has the capability to provide a measure of uncertainty in the problem of multiclass classification.

Keywords: Multiclass classification, feed-forward backpropagation neural network, interval neutrosophic sets, uncertainty.

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18 Multiclass Support Vector Machines with Simultaneous Multi-Factors Optimization for Corporate Credit Ratings

Authors: Hyunchul Ahn, William X. S. Wong

Abstract:

Corporate credit rating prediction is one of the most important topics, which has been studied by researchers in the last decade. Over the last decade, researchers are pushing the limit to enhance the exactness of the corporate credit rating prediction model by applying several data-driven tools including statistical and artificial intelligence methods. Among them, multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) has been widely applied due to its good predictability. However, heuristics, for example, parameters of a kernel function, appropriate feature and instance subset, has become the main reason for the critics on MSVM, as they have dictate the MSVM architectural variables. This study presents a hybrid MSVM model that is intended to optimize all the parameter such as feature selection, instance selection, and kernel parameter. Our model adopts genetic algorithm (GA) to simultaneously optimize multiple heterogeneous design factors of MSVM.

Keywords: Corporate credit rating prediction, feature selection, genetic algorithms, instance selection, multiclass support vector machines.

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17 Evaluation of Classification Algorithms for Road Environment Detection

Authors: T. Anbu, K. Aravind Kumar

Abstract:

The road environment information is needed accurately for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D city modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) produces dense point clouds from huge areas efficiently from which the road and its environment can be modeled in detail. Objects such as buildings, cars and trees are an important part of road environments. Different methods have been developed for detection of above such objects, but still there is a lack of accuracy due to the problems of illumination, environmental changes, and multiple objects with same features. In this work the comparison between different classifiers such as Multiclass SVM, kNN and Multiclass LDA for the road environment detection is analyzed. Finally the classification accuracy for kNN with LBP feature improved the classification accuracy as 93.3% than the other classifiers.

Keywords: Classifiers, feature extraction, mobile-based laser scanning, object location estimation.

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16 Variational EM Inference Algorithm for Gaussian Process Classification Model with Multiclass and Its Application to Human Action Classification

Authors: Wanhyun Cho, Soonja Kang, Sangkyoon Kim, Soonyoung Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the variational EM inference algorithm for the multi-class Gaussian process classification model that can be used in the field of human behavior recognition. This algorithm can drive simultaneously both a posterior distribution of a latent function and estimators of hyper-parameters in a Gaussian process classification model with multiclass. Our algorithm is based on the Laplace approximation (LA) technique and variational EM framework. This is performed in two steps: called expectation and maximization steps. First, in the expectation step, using the Bayesian formula and LA technique, we derive approximately the posterior distribution of the latent function indicating the possibility that each observation belongs to a certain class in the Gaussian process classification model. Second, in the maximization step, using a derived posterior distribution of latent function, we compute the maximum likelihood estimator for hyper-parameters of a covariance matrix necessary to define prior distribution for latent function. These two steps iteratively repeat until a convergence condition satisfies. Moreover, we apply the proposed algorithm with human action classification problem using a public database, namely, the KTH human action data set. Experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm shows good performance on this data set.

Keywords: Bayesian rule, Gaussian process classification model with multiclass, Gaussian process prior, human action classification, laplace approximation, variational EM algorithm.

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15 Binary Classification Tree with Tuned Observation-based Clustering

Authors: Maythapolnun Athimethphat, Boontarika Lerteerawong

Abstract:

There are several approaches for handling multiclass classification. Aside from one-against-one (OAO) and one-against-all (OAA), hierarchical classification technique is also commonly used. A binary classification tree is a hierarchical classification structure that breaks down a k-class problem into binary sub-problems, each solved by a binary classifier. In each node, a set of classes is divided into two subsets. A good class partition should be able to group similar classes together. Many algorithms measure similarity in term of distance between class centroids. Classes are grouped together by a clustering algorithm when distances between their centroids are small. In this paper, we present a binary classification tree with tuned observation-based clustering (BCT-TOB) that finds a class partition by performing clustering on observations instead of class centroids. A merging step is introduced to merge any insignificant class split. The experiment shows that performance of BCT-TOB is comparable to other algorithms.

Keywords: multiclass classification, hierarchical classification, binary classification tree, clustering, observation-based clustering

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14 Prediction Modeling of Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Prodromal Stages from Multimodal Data with Missing Values

Authors: M. Aghili, S. Tabarestani, C. Freytes, M. Shojaie, M. Cabrerizo, A. Barreto, N. Rishe, R. E. Curiel, D. Loewenstein, R. Duara, M. Adjouadi

Abstract:

A major challenge in medical studies, especially those that are longitudinal, is the problem of missing measurements which hinders the effective application of many machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, recent Alzheimer's Disease studies have focused on the delineation of Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI) and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI) from cognitively normal controls (CN) which is essential for developing effective and early treatment methods. To address the aforementioned challenges, this paper explores the potential of using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm in handling missing values in multiclass classification. We seek a generalized classification scheme where all prodromal stages of the disease are considered simultaneously in the classification and decision-making processes. Given the large number of subjects (1631) included in this study and in the presence of almost 28% missing values, we investigated the performance of XGBoost on the classification of the four classes of AD, NC, EMCI, and LMCI. Using 10-fold cross validation technique, XGBoost is shown to outperform other state-of-the-art classification algorithms by 3% in terms of accuracy and F-score. Our model achieved an accuracy of 80.52%, a precision of 80.62% and recall of 80.51%, supporting the more natural and promising multiclass classification.

Keywords: eXtreme Gradient Boosting, missing data, Alzheimer disease, early mild cognitive impairment, late mild cognitive impairment, multiclass classification, ADNI, support vector machine, random forest.

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13 Application of KL Divergence for Estimation of Each Metabolic Pathway Genes

Authors: Shohei Maruyama, Yasuo Matsuyama, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Development of a method to estimate gene functions is an important task in bioinformatics. One of the approaches for the annotation is the identification of the metabolic pathway that genes are involved in. Since gene expression data reflect various intracellular phenomena, those data are considered to be related with genes’ functions. However, it has been difficult to estimate the gene function with high accuracy. It is considered that the low accuracy of the estimation is caused by the difficulty of accurately measuring a gene expression. Even though they are measured under the same condition, the gene expressions will vary usually. In this study, we proposed a feature extraction method focusing on the variability of gene expressions to estimate the genes' metabolic pathway accurately. First, we estimated the distribution of each gene expression from replicate data. Next, we calculated the similarity between all gene pairs by KL divergence, which is a method for calculating the similarity between distributions. Finally, we utilized the similarity vectors as feature vectors and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway. To evaluate our developed method, we applied the method to budding yeast and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the seven metabolic pathways. As a result, the accuracy that calculated by our developed method was higher than the one that calculated from the raw gene expression data. Thus, our developed method combined with KL divergence is useful for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway.

Keywords: Metabolic pathways, gene expression data, microarray, Kullback–Leibler divergence, KL divergence, support vector machines, SVM, machine learning.

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12 Optimization and GIS-Based Intelligent Decision Support System for Urban Transportation Systems Analysis

Authors: Mohamad K. Hasan, Hameed Al-Qaheri

Abstract:

Optimization plays an important role in most real world applications that support decision makers to take the right decision regarding the strategic directions and operations of the system they manage. Solutions for traffic management and traffic congestion problems are considered major problems that most decision making authorities for cities around the world are looking for. This review paper gives a full description of the traffic problem as part of the transportation planning process and present a view as a framework of urban transportation system analysis where the core of the system is a transportation network equilibrium model that is based on optimization techniques and that can also be used for evaluating an alternative solution or a combination of alternative solutions for the traffic congestion. Different transportation network equilibrium models are reviewed from the sequential approach to the multiclass combining trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment and departure time model. A GIS-Based intelligent decision support system framework for urban transportation system analysis is suggested for implementation where the selection of optimized alternative solutions, single or packages, will be based on an intelligent agent rather than human being which would lead to reduction in time, cost and the elimination of the difficulty, by human being, for finding the best solution to the traffic congestion problem.

Keywords: Multiclass simultaneous transportation equilibrium models, transportation planning, urban transportation systems analysis, intelligent decision support system.

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11 A Dataset of Program Educational Objectives Mapped to ABET Outcomes: Data Cleansing, Exploratory Data Analysis and Modeling

Authors: Addin Osman, Anwar Ali Yahya, Mohammed Basit Kamal

Abstract:

Datasets or collections are becoming important assets by themselves and now they can be accepted as a primary intellectual output of a research. The quality and usage of the datasets depend mainly on the context under which they have been collected, processed, analyzed, validated, and interpreted. This paper aims to present a collection of program educational objectives mapped to student’s outcomes collected from self-study reports prepared by 32 engineering programs accredited by ABET. The manual mapping (classification) of this data is a notoriously tedious, time consuming process. In addition, it requires experts in the area, which are mostly not available. It has been shown the operational settings under which the collection has been produced. The collection has been cleansed, preprocessed, some features have been selected and preliminary exploratory data analysis has been performed so as to illustrate the properties and usefulness of the collection. At the end, the collection has been benchmarked using nine of the most widely used supervised multiclass classification techniques (Binary Relevance, Label Powerset, Classifier Chains, Pruned Sets, Random k-label sets, Ensemble of Classifier Chains, Ensemble of Pruned Sets, Multi-Label k-Nearest Neighbors and Back-Propagation Multi-Label Learning). The techniques have been compared to each other using five well-known measurements (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, Micro-F, Macro-F, and Macro-F). The Ensemble of Classifier Chains and Ensemble of Pruned Sets have achieved encouraging performance compared to other experimented multi-label classification methods. The Classifier Chains method has shown the worst performance. To recap, the benchmark has achieved promising results by utilizing preliminary exploratory data analysis performed on the collection, proposing new trends for research and providing a baseline for future studies.

Keywords: Benchmark collection, program educational objectives, student outcomes, ABET, Accreditation, machine learning, supervised multiclass classification, text mining.

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10 Equivalent Transformation for Heterogeneous Traffic Cellular Automata

Authors: Shih-Ching Lo

Abstract:

Understanding driving behavior is a complicated researching topic. To describe accurate speed, flow and density of a multiclass users traffic flow, an adequate model is needed. In this study, we propose the concept of standard passenger car equivalent (SPCE) instead of passenger car equivalent (PCE) to estimate the influence of heavy vehicles and slow cars. Traffic cellular automata model is employed to calibrate and validate the results. According to the simulated results, the SPCE transformations present good accuracy.

Keywords: traffic flow, passenger car equivalent, cellular automata

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9 Building a Scalable Telemetry Based Multiclass Predictive Maintenance Model in R

Authors: Jaya Mathew

Abstract:

Many organizations are faced with the challenge of how to analyze and build Machine Learning models using their sensitive telemetry data. In this paper, we discuss how users can leverage the power of R without having to move their big data around as well as a cloud based solution for organizations willing to host their data in the cloud. By using ScaleR technology to benefit from parallelization and remote computing or R Services on premise or in the cloud, users can leverage the power of R at scale without having to move their data around.

Keywords: Predictive maintenance, machine learning, big data, cloud, on premise SQL, R.

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8 Decomposition Method for Neural Multiclass Classification Problem

Authors: H. El Ayech, A. Trabelsi

Abstract:

In this article we are going to discuss the improvement of the multi classes- classification problem using multi layer Perceptron. The considered approach consists in breaking down the n-class problem into two-classes- subproblems. The training of each two-class subproblem is made independently; as for the phase of test, we are going to confront a vector that we want to classify to all two classes- models, the elected class will be the strongest one that won-t lose any competition with the other classes. Rates of recognition gotten with the multi class-s approach by two-class-s decomposition are clearly better that those gotten by the simple multi class-s approach.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, letter-recognition, Multi class Classification, Multi Layer Perceptron.

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7 Indonesian News Classification using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Dewi Y. Liliana, Agung Hardianto, M. Ridok

Abstract:

Digital news with a variety topics is abundant on the internet. The problem is to classify news based on its appropriate category to facilitate user to find relevant news rapidly. Classifier engine is used to split any news automatically into the respective category. This research employs Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify Indonesian news. SVM is a robust method to classify binary classes. The core processing of SVM is in the formation of an optimum separating plane to separate the different classes. For multiclass problem, a mechanism called one against one is used to combine the binary classification result. Documents were taken from the Indonesian digital news site, www.kompas.com. The experiment showed a promising result with the accuracy rate of 85%. This system is feasible to be implemented on Indonesian news classification.

Keywords: classification, Indonesian news, text processing, support vector machine

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6 A Hybrid Approach for Selection of Relevant Features for Microarray Datasets

Authors: R. K. Agrawal, Rajni Bala

Abstract:

Developing an accurate classifier for high dimensional microarray datasets is a challenging task due to availability of small sample size. Therefore, it is important to determine a set of relevant genes that classify the data well. Traditionally, gene selection method often selects the top ranked genes according to their discriminatory power. Often these genes are correlated with each other resulting in redundancy. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid method using feature ranking and wrapper method (Genetic Algorithm with multiclass SVM) to identify a set of relevant genes that classify the data more accurately. A new fitness function for genetic algorithm is defined that focuses on selecting the smallest set of genes that provides maximum accuracy. Experiments have been carried on four well-known datasets1. The proposed method provides better results in comparison to the results found in the literature in terms of both classification accuracy and number of genes selected.

Keywords: Gene selection, genetic algorithm, microarray datasets, multi-class SVM.

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5 A Multiclass BCMP Queueing Modeling and Simulation-Based Road Traffic Flow Analysis

Authors: Jouhra Dad, Mohammed Ouali, Yahia Lebbah

Abstract:

Urban road network traffic has become one of the most studied research topics in the last decades. This is mainly due to the enlargement of the cities and the growing number of motor vehicles traveling in this road network. One of the most sensitive problems is to verify if the network is congestion-free. Another related problem is the automatic reconfiguration of the network without building new roads to alleviate congestions. These problems require an accurate model of the traffic to determine the steady state of the system. An alternative is to simulate the traffic to see if there are congestions and when and where they occur. One key issue is to find an adequate model for road intersections. Once the model established, either a large scale model is built or the intersection is represented by its performance measures and simulation for analysis. In both cases, it is important to seek the queueing model to represent the road intersection. In this paper, we propose to model the road intersection as a BCMP queueing network and we compare this analytical model against a simulation model for validation.

Keywords: Queueing theory, transportation systems, BCMPqueueing network, performance measures, modeling, simulation

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4 Multinomial Dirichlet Gaussian Process Model for Classification of Multidimensional Data

Authors: Wanhyun Cho, Soonja Kang, Sangkyoon Kim, Soonyoung Park

Abstract:

We present probabilistic multinomial Dirichlet classification model for multidimensional data and Gaussian process priors. Here, we have considered efficient computational method that can be used to obtain the approximate posteriors for latent variables and parameters needed to define the multiclass Gaussian process classification model. We first investigated the process of inducing a posterior distribution for various parameters and latent function by using the variational Bayesian approximations and important sampling method, and next we derived a predictive distribution of latent function needed to classify new samples. The proposed model is applied to classify the synthetic multivariate dataset in order to verify the performance of our model. Experiment result shows that our model is more accurate than the other approximation methods.

Keywords: Multinomial dirichlet classification model, Gaussian process priors, variational Bayesian approximation, Importance sampling, approximate posterior distribution, Marginal likelihood evidence.

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3 Addressing Scalability Issues of Named Entity Recognition Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines

Authors: Mona Soliman Habib

Abstract:

This paper explores the scalability issues associated with solving the Named Entity Recognition (NER) problem using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and high-dimensional features. The performance results of a set of experiments conducted using binary and multi-class SVM with increasing training data sizes are examined. The NER domain chosen for these experiments is the biomedical publications domain, especially selected due to its importance and inherent challenges. A simple machine learning approach is used that eliminates prior language knowledge such as part-of-speech or noun phrase tagging thereby allowing for its applicability across languages. No domain-specific knowledge is included. The accuracy measures achieved are comparable to those obtained using more complex approaches, which constitutes a motivation to investigate ways to improve the scalability of multiclass SVM in order to make the solution more practical and useable. Improving training time of multi-class SVM would make support vector machines a more viable and practical machine learning solution for real-world problems with large datasets. An initial prototype results in great improvement of the training time at the expense of memory requirements.

Keywords: Named entity recognition, support vector machines, language independence, bioinformatics.

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2 Intelligent Transport System: Classification of Traffic Signs Using Deep Neural Networks in Real Time

Authors: Anukriti Kumar, Tanmay Singh, Dinesh Kumar Vishwakarma

Abstract:

Traffic control has been one of the most common and irritating problems since the time automobiles have hit the roads. Problems like traffic congestion have led to a significant time burden around the world and one significant solution to these problems can be the proper implementation of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). It involves the integration of various tools like smart sensors, artificial intelligence, position technologies and mobile data services to manage traffic flow, reduce congestion and enhance driver's ability to avoid accidents during adverse weather. Road and traffic signs’ recognition is an emerging field of research in ITS. Classification problem of traffic signs needs to be solved as it is a major step in our journey towards building semi-autonomous/autonomous driving systems. The purpose of this work focuses on implementing an approach to solve the problem of traffic sign classification by developing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier using the GTSRB (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark) dataset. Rather than using hand-crafted features, our model addresses the concern of exploding huge parameters and data method augmentations. Our model achieved an accuracy of around 97.6% which is comparable to various state-of-the-art architectures.

Keywords: Multiclass classification, convolution neural network, OpenCV, Data Augmentation.

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1 Optimization Modeling of the Hybrid Antenna Array for the DoA Estimation

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

The direction of arrival (DoA) estimation is the crucial aspect of the radar technologies for detecting and dividing several signal sources. In this scenario, the antenna array output modeling involves numerous parameters including noise samples, signal waveform, signal directions, signal number, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), and thereby the methods of the DoA estimation rely heavily on the generalization characteristic for establishing a large number of the training data sets. Hence, we have analogously represented the two different optimization models of the DoA estimation; (1) the implementation of the decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) for the multiclass least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and (2) the optimization method of the deep neural network (DNN) radial basis function (RBF). We have rigorously verified that the LS-SVM DDAG algorithm is capable of accurately classifying DoAs for the three classes. However, the accuracy and robustness of the DoA estimation are still highly sensitive to technological imperfections of the antenna arrays such as non-ideal array design and manufacture, array implementation, mutual coupling effect, and background radiation and thereby the method may fail in representing high precision for the DoA estimation. Therefore, this work has a further contribution on developing the DNN-RBF model for the DoA estimation for overcoming the limitations of the non-parametric and data-driven methods in terms of array imperfection and generalization. The numerical results of implementing the DNN-RBF model have confirmed the better performance of the DoA estimation compared with the LS-SVM algorithm. Consequently, we have analogously evaluated the performance of utilizing the two aforementioned optimization methods for the DoA estimation using the concept of the mean squared error (MSE).

Keywords: DoA estimation, adaptive antenna array, Deep Neural Network, LS-SVM optimization model, radial basis function, MSE.

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