Search results for: Multi-dimension WaveDigital Filters
238 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT
Authors: G. Koukiou, V. Anastassopoulos
Abstract:In this paper a bank of velocity filters is devised to be used for isolating a moving object with specific velocity in a sequence of frames. The approach used is a 3-D FFT based experimental procedure without applying any theoretical concept from velocity filters. Accordingly, velocity filters are built using the spectral signature of each separate moving object. Experimentation reveals the capabilities of the constructed filter bank to separate moving objects as far as the amplitude as well as the direction of the velocity are concerned.
Keywords: Velocity filters, filter banks, 3-D FFT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1660
237 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise
Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh
In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.
Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2607
236 Optimal Convolutive Filters for Real-Time Detection and Arrival Time Estimation of Transient Signals
Authors: Michal Natora, Felix Franke, Klaus Obermayer
Linear convolutive filters are fast in calculation and in application, and thus, often used for real-time processing of continuous data streams. In the case of transient signals, a filter has not only to detect the presence of a specific waveform, but to estimate its arrival time as well. In this study, a measure is presented which indicates the performance of detectors in achieving both of these tasks simultaneously. Furthermore, a new sub-class of linear filters within the class of filters which minimize the quadratic response is proposed. The proposed filters are more flexible than the existing ones, like the adaptive matched filter or the minimum power distortionless response beamformer, and prove to be superior with respect to that measure in certain settings. Simulations of a real-time scenario confirm the advantage of these filters as well as the usefulness of the performance measure.
Keywords: Adaptive matched filter, minimum variance distortionless response, beam forming, Capon beam former, linear filters, performance measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1420
235 Navigation and Self Alignment of Inertial Systems using Nonlinear H∞ Filters
Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng
Abstract:Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) play a vital role along with global positioning devices in navigation of autonomous vehicles .These sensors are low cost ,easily available but depict colored noises and unpredictable discontinuities .Conventional filters like Kalman filters and Sigma point filters are not able to cope with nonwhite noises. This research has utilized H∞ filter in nonlinear frame work both with Kalman filter and Unscented filter for navigation and self alignment of an airborne vehicle. The system is simulated for colored noises and discontinuities and results are compared with not robust nonlinear filters. The results are found 40%-70% more robust against colored noises and discontinuities.
Keywords: filtering, integrated navigation, MEMS, nonlinearfiltering, self alignmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
234 A Weighted Least Square Algorithm for Low-Delay FIR Filters with Piecewise Variable Stopbands
Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Aikawa
Variable digital filters are useful for various signal processing and communication applications where the frequency characteristics, such as fractional delays and cutoff frequencies, can be varied. In this paper, we propose a design method of variable FIR digital filters with an approximate linear phase characteristic in the passband. The proposed variable FIR filters have some large attenuation in stopband and their large attenuation can be varied by spectrum parameters. In the proposed design method, a quasi-equiripple characteristic can be obtained by using an iterative weighted least square method. The usefulness of the proposed design method is verified through some examples.
Keywords: Weighted Least Squares Approximation, Variable FIR Filters, Low-Delay, Quasi-EquirippleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1436
233 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform
Authors: Chia-Yu Yao
Abstract:This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.
Keywords: Pulse-shaping filters, jitter, inter-symbol interference, symmetric FIR filters, QAMProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 956
232 A Microwave Bandstop Filter Using Defected Microstrip Structure
Authors: H. Elftouh, N. T. Amar, M. Aghoutane, M. Boussouis
In this paper, two bandstop filters resonating at 5.25 GHz and 7.3 GHz using Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) are discussed. These slots are incorporated in the feed lines of filters to perform a serious LC resonance property in certain frequency and suppress the spurious signals. Therefore, this method keeps the filter size unchanged and makes a resonance frequency that is due to the abrupt change of the current path of the filter. If the application requires elimination of this band of frequencies, additional filter elements are required, which can only be accomplished by adding this DMS element resonant at desired frequency band rejection. The filters are optimized and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) tool.
Keywords: Defected microstrip structure, microstrip filters, passive filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1135
231 A Technique for Improving the Performance of Median Smoothers at the Corners Characterized by Low Order Polynomials
Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer
Median filters with larger windows offer greater smoothing and are more robust than the median filters of smaller windows. However, the larger median smoothers (the median filters with the larger windows) fail to track low order polynomial trends in the signals. Due to this, constant regions are produced at the signal corners, leading to the loss of fine details. In this paper, an algorithm, which combines the ability of the 3-point median smoother in preserving the low order polynomial trends and the superior noise filtering characteristics of the larger median smoother, is introduced. The proposed algorithm (called the combiner algorithm in this paper) is evaluated for its performance on a test image corrupted with different types of noise and the results obtained are included.
Keywords: Image filtering, detail preservation, median filters, nonlinear filters, order statistics filtering, Rank order filtering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1259
230 Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters
Authors: F. Castillo, J. Arellano, S. Sánchez
Abstract:In this paper an alternative analysis in the time domain is described and the results of the interpolation process are presented by means of functions that are based on the rule of conditional mathematical expectation and the covariance function. A comparison between the interpolation error caused by low order filters and the classic sinc(t) truncated function is also presented. When fewer samples are used, low-order filters have less error. If the number of samples increases, the sinc(t) type functions are a better alternative. Generally speaking there is an optimal filter for each input signal which depends on the filter length and covariance function of the signal. A novel scheme of work for adaptive interpolation filters is also presented.
Keywords: Interpolation, basis function, over-sampling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
229 Different Approaches for the Design of IFIR Compaction Filter
Authors: Sheeba V.S, Elizabeth Elias
Optimization of filter banks based on the knowledge of input statistics has been of interest for a long time. Finite impulse response (FIR) Compaction filters are used in the design of optimal signal adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks. In this paper we discuss three different approaches for the design of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) compaction filters. In the first method, the magnitude squared response satisfies Nyquist constraint approximately. In the second and third methods Nyquist constraint is exactly satisfied. These methods yield FIR compaction filters whose response is comparable with that of the existing methods. At the same time, IFIR filters enjoy significant saving in the number of multipliers and can be implemented efficiently. Since eigenfilter approach is used here, the method is less complex. Design of IFIR filters in the least square sense is presented.
Keywords: Principal Component Filter Bank, InterpolatedFinite Impulse Response filter, Orthonormal Filter Bank, Eigen Filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1455
228 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents
Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti
In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.
Keywords: Harmonics, Harmonic compensation, Parallel active power filters, Power quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3134
227 Designing FIR Filters with Polynomial Approach
Authors: Sunil Bhooshan, Vinay Kumar
Abstract:This paper discusses a method for designing the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on polynomial approach.
Keywords: FIR filter, Polynomial.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1761
226 Fusion Filters Weighted by Scalars and Matrices for Linear Systems
Authors: Seok Hyoung Lee, Vladimir Shin
Abstract:An optimal mean-square fusion formulas with scalar and matrix weights are presented. The relationship between them is established. The fusion formulas are compared on the continuous-time filtering problem. The basic differential equation for cross-covariance of the local errors being the key quantity for distributed fusion is derived. It is shown that the fusion filters are effective for multi-sensor systems containing different types of sensors. An example demonstrating the reasonable good accuracy of the proposed filters is given.
Keywords: Kalman filtering, fusion formula, multi-sensor, mean-square error.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1259
225 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard
Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis
Abstract:In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder  with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.
Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filtersProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1149
224 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters
Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou
This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.
Keywords: All-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, quincunx QMF bank.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 684
223 New Nonlinear Filtering Strategies for Eliminating Short and Long Tailed Noise in Images with Edge Preservation Properties
Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer
Abstract:Midpoint filter is quite effective in recovering the images confounded by the short-tailed (uniform) noise. It, however, performs poorly in the presence of additive long-tailed (impulse) noise and it does not preserve the edge structures of the image signals. Median smoother discards outliers (impulses) effectively, but it fails to provide adequate smoothing for images corrupted with nonimpulse noise. In this paper, two nonlinear techniques for image filtering, namely, New Filter I and New Filter II are proposed based on a nonlinear high-pass filter algorithm. New Filter I is constructed using a midpoint filter, a highpass filter and a combiner. It suppresses uniform noise quite well. New Filter II is configured using an alpha trimmed midpoint filter, a median smoother of window size 3x3, the high pass filter and the combiner. It is robust against impulse noise and attenuates uniform noise satisfactorily. Both the filters are shown to exhibit good response at the image boundaries (edges). The proposed filters are evaluated for their performance on a test image and the results obtained are included.
Keywords: Image filters, Midpoint filter, Nonlinear filters, Nonlinear highpass filter, Order-statistic filters, Rank-order filters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1342
222 Simulation of Voltage Controlled Tunable All Pass Filter Using LM13700 OTA
Authors: Bhaba Priyo Das, Neville Watson, Yonghe Liu
In recent years Operational Transconductance Amplifier based high frequency integrated circuits, filters and systems have been widely investigated. The usefulness of OTAs over conventional OP-Amps in the design of both first order and second order active filters are well documented. This paper discusses some of the tunability issues using the Matlab/Simulink® software which are previously unreported for any commercial OTA. Using the simulation results two first order voltage controlled all pass filters with phase tuning capability are proposed.
Keywords: All pass filter, Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3468
221 Modeling and Visualizing Seismic Wave Propagation in Elastic Medium Using Multi-Dimension Wave Digital Filtering Approach
Authors: Jason Chien-Hsun Tseng, Nguyen Dong-Thai Dao, Chong-Ching Chang
Abstract:A novel PDE solver using the multidimensional wave digital filtering (MDWDF) technique to achieve the solution of a 2D seismic wave system is presented. In essence, the continuous physical system served by a linear Kirchhoff circuit is transformed to an equivalent discrete dynamic system implemented by a MD wave digital filtering (MDWDF) circuit. This amounts to numerically approximating the differential equations used to describe elements of a MD passive electronic circuit by a grid-based difference equations implemented by the so-called state quantities within the passive MDWDF circuit. So the digital model can track the wave field on a dense 3D grid of points. Details about how to transform the continuous system into a desired discrete passive system are addressed. In addition, initial and boundary conditions are properly embedded into the MDWDF circuit in terms of state quantities. Graphic results have clearly demonstrated some physical effects of seismic wave (P-wave and S–wave) propagation including radiation, reflection, and refraction from and across the hard boundaries. Comparison between the MDWDF technique and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach is also made in terms of the computational efficiency.
Keywords: Seismic Wave Propagation, Multi-dimension WaveDigital Filters, Partial Differential Equations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
220 Filteristic Soft Lattice Implication Algebras
Applying the idea of soft set theory to lattice implication algebras, the novel concept of (implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras which related to (implicative) filter(for short, (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras) are introduced. Basic properties of (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras are derived. Two kinds of fuzzy filters (i.e.(2, 2 _qk)((2, 2 _ qk))-fuzzy (implicative) filter) of L are introduced, which are generalizations of fuzzy (implicative) filters. Some characterizations for a soft set to be a (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebra are provided. Analogously, this idea can be used in other types of filteristic lattice implication algebras (such as fantastic (positive implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras).
Keywords: Soft set, (implicative) filteristic lattice implication algebras, fuzzy (implicative) filters, ((2, 2 _qk)) (2, 2 _ qk)-fuzzy(implicative) filters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1528
219 Building Gabor Filters from Retinal Responses
Authors: Johannes Partzsch, Christian Mayr, Rene Schuffny
Starting from a biologically inspired framework, Gabor filters were built up from retinal filters via LMSE algorithms. Asubset of retinal filter kernels was chosen to form a particular Gabor filter by using a weighted sum. One-dimensional optimization approaches were shown to be inappropriate for the problem. All model parameters were fixed with biological or image processing constraints. Detailed analysis of the optimization procedure led to the introduction of a minimization constraint. Finally, quantization of weighting factors was investigated. This resulted in an optimized cascaded structure of a Gabor filter bank implementation with lower computational cost.
Keywords: Gabor filter, image processing, optimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2285
218 Joint Transmitter-Receiver Optimization for Bonded Wireline Communications
Authors: Mohammed H. Nafie, Ahmed F. Shalash
With the advent of DSL services, high data rates are now available over phone lines, yet higher rates are in demand. In this paper, we optimize the transmit filters that can be used over wireline channels. Results showing the bit error rates when optimized filters are used, and with a decision feedback equalizer (DFE) employed in the receiver, are given. We then show that significantly higher throughput can be achieved by modeling the channel as a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel. A receiver that employs a MIMO-DFE that deals jointly with several users is proposed and shown to provide significant improvement over the conventional DFE.
Keywords: DFE, MIMO Channels, Receiver Architectures, Transmit Filters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1239
217 The Wavelet-Based DFT: A New Interpretation, Extensions and Applications
Authors: Abdulnasir Hossen, Ulrich Heute
In 1990  the subband-DFT (SB-DFT) technique was proposed. This technique used the Hadamard filters in the decomposition step to split the input sequence into low- and highpass sequences. In the next step, either two DFTs are needed on both bands to compute the full-band DFT or one DFT on one of the two bands to compute an approximate DFT. A combination network with correction factors was to be applied after the DFTs. Another approach was proposed in 1997  for using a special discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In the first step of the algorithm, the input sequence is decomposed in a similar manner to the SB-DFT into two sequences using wavelet decomposition with Haar filters. The second step is to perform DFTs on both bands to obtain the full-band DFT or to obtain a fast approximate DFT by implementing pruning at both input and output sides. In this paper, the wavelet-based DFT (W-DFT) with Haar filters is interpreted as SB-DFT with Hadamard filters. The only difference is in a constant factor in the combination network. This result is very important to complete the analysis of the W-DFT, since all the results concerning the accuracy and approximation errors in the SB-DFT are applicable. An application example in spectral analysis is given for both SB-DFT and W-DFT (with different filters). The adaptive capability of the SB-DFT is included in the W-DFT algorithm to select the band of most energy as the band to be computed. Finally, the W-DFT is extended to the two-dimensional case. An application in image transformation is given using two different types of wavelet filters.
Keywords: Image Transform, Spectral Analysis, Sub-Band DFT, Wavelet DFT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537
216 Performance Analysis of a Series of Adaptive Filters in Non-Stationary Environment for Noise Cancelling Setup
Authors: Anam Rafique, Syed Sohail Ahmed
Abstract:One of the essential components of much of DSP application is noise cancellation. Changes in real time signals are quite rapid and swift. In noise cancellation, a reference signal which is an approximation of noise signal (that corrupts the original information signal) is obtained and then subtracted from the noise bearing signal to obtain a noise free signal. This approximation of noise signal is obtained through adaptive filters which are self adjusting. As the changes in real time signals are abrupt, this needs adaptive algorithm that converges fast and is stable. Least mean square (LMS) and normalized LMS (NLMS) are two widely used algorithms because of their plainness in calculations and implementation. But their convergence rates are small. Adaptive averaging filters (AFA) are also used because they have high convergence, but they are less stable. This paper provides the comparative study of LMS and Normalized NLMS, AFA and new enhanced average adaptive (Average NLMS-ANLMS) filters for noise cancelling application using speech signals.
Keywords: AFA, ANLMS, LMS, NLMS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1825
215 Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters
Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Arash Golibagh Mahyari
Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.
Keywords: Image enhancement, median filter, ε-filter – α-trimmed mean filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5279
214 A Performance Evaluation of Oscillation Based Test in Continuous Time Filters
Authors: Eduardo Romero, Marcelo Costamagna, Gabriela Peretti, Carlos Marqués
This work evaluates the ability of OBT for detecting parametric faults in continuous-time filters. To this end, we adopt two filters with quite different topologies as cases of study and a previously reported statistical fault model. In addition, we explore the behavior of the test schemes when a particular test condition is changed. The new data reported here, obtained from a fault simulation process, reveal a lower performance of OBT not observed in previous work using single-deviation faults, even under the change in the test condition.
Keywords: Testing, analog fault simulation, analog filter test, oscillation based test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1321
213 A Study on the Least Squares Reduced Parameter Approximation of FIR Digital Filters
Authors: S. Seyedtabaii, E. Seyedtabaii
Abstract:Rounding of coefficients is a common practice in hardware implementation of digital filters. Where some coefficients are very close to zero or one, as assumed in this paper, this rounding action also leads to some computation reduction. Furthermore, if the discarded coefficient is of high order, a reduced order filter is obtained, otherwise the order does not change but computation is reduced. In this paper, the Least Squares approximation to rounded (or discarded) coefficient FIR filter is investigated. The result also succinctly extended to general type of FIR filters.
Keywords: Digital filter, filter approximation, least squares, model order reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1488
212 Design of a CMOS Highly Linear Front-end IC with Auto Gain Controller for a Magnetic Field Transceiver
Authors: Yeon-kug Moon, Kang-Yoon Lee, Yun-Jae Won, Seung-Ok Lim
Abstract:This paper describes a low-voltage and low-power channel selection analog front end with continuous-time low pass filters and highly linear programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The filters were realized as balanced Gm-C biquadratic filters to achieve a low current consumption. High linearity and a constant wide bandwidth are achieved by using a new transconductance (Gm) cell. The PGA has a voltage gain varying from 0 to 65dB, while maintaining a constant bandwidth. A filter tuning circuit that requires an accurate time base but no external components is presented. With a 1-Vrms differential input and output, the filter achieves -85dB THD and a 78dB signal-to-noise ratio. Both the filter and PGA were implemented in a 0.18um 1P6M n-well CMOS process. They consume 3.2mW from a 1.8V power supply and occupy an area of 0.19mm2.
Keywords: component ; Channel selection filters, DC offset, programmable gain amplifier, tuning circuitProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2023
211 Investigating Performance of Numerical Distance Relay with Higher Order Antialiasing Filter
Authors: Venkatesh C., K. Shanti Swarup
This paper investigates the impact on operating time delay and relay maloperation when 1st,2nd and 3rd order analog antialiasing filters are used in numerical distance protection. RC filter with cut-off frequency 90 Hz is used. Simulations are carried out for different SIR (Source to line Impedance Ratio), load, fault type and fault conditions using SIMULINK, where the voltage and current signals are fed online to the developed numerical distance relay model. Matlab is used for plotting the impedance trajectory. Investigation results shows that, about 75 % of the simulated cases, numerical distance relay operating time is not increased even-though there is a time delay when higher order filters are used. Relay maloperation (selectivity) also reduces (increases) when higher order filters are used in numerical distance protection.
Keywords: Antialiasing, capacitive voltage transformers, delay estimation, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), distance measurement, low-pass filters, source to line impedance ratio (SIR), protective relaying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2675
210 Design of Multiplier-free State-Space Digital Filters
Authors: Tamal Bose, Zhurun Zhang, Miloje Radenkovic, Ojas Chauhan
Abstract:In this paper, a novel approach is presented for designing multiplier-free state-space digital filters. The multiplier-free design is obtained by finding power-of-2 coefficients and also quantizing the state variables to power-of-2 numbers. Expressions for the noise variance are derived for the quantized state vector and the output of the filter. A “structuretransformation matrix" is incorporated in these expressions. It is shown that quantization effects can be minimized by properly designing the structure-transformation matrix. Simulation results are very promising and illustrate the design algorithm.
Keywords: Digital filters, minimum noise, multiplier-free, quantization, state-space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1410
209 Design of Stable IIR Digital Filters with Specified Group Delay Errors
Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa
Abstract:The design problem of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters is usually expressed as the minimization problem of the complex magnitude error that includes both the magnitude and phase information. However, the group delay of the filter obtained by solving such design problem may be far from the desired group delay. In this paper, we propose a design method of stable IIR digital filters with prespecified maximum group delay errors. In the proposed method, the approximation problems of the magnitude-phase and group delay are separately defined, and these two approximation problems are alternately solved using successive projections. As a result, the proposed method can design the IIR filters that satisfy the prespecified allowable errors for not only the complex magnitude but also the group delay by alternately executing the coefficient update for the magnitude-phase and the group delay approximation. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified through some examples.
Keywords: Filter design, Group delay approximation, Stable IIRfilters, Successive projection method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1439