Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Monika Arora

27 Langmuir–Blodgett Films of Polyaniline for Efficient Detection of Uric Acid

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) grown onto ITO coated glass substrates were utilized for the fabrication of Uric acid biosensor for efficient detection of uric acid by immobilizing Uricase via EDC–NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response characteristics after immobilization of uricase were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The uricase/PANI/ITO/glass bioelectrode studied by CV and EIS techniques revealed detection of uric acid in a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0 mM, covering the physiological range in blood. A low Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 0.21 mM indicates the higher affinity of immobilized Uricase towards its analyte (uric acid). The fabricated uric acid biosensor based on PANI LB films exhibits excellent sensitivity of 0.21 mA/mM with a response time of 4 s, good reproducibility, long shelf life (8 weeks) and high selectivity.

Keywords: Uric acid; biosensor, PANI, Langmuir Blodgett films deposition.

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26 Demand Response from Residential Air Conditioning Load Using a Programmable Communication Thermostat

Authors: Saurabh Chanana, Monika Arora

Abstract:

Demand response is getting increased attention these days due to the increase in electricity demand and introduction of renewable resources in the existing power grid. Traditionally demand response programs involve large industrial consumers but with technological advancement, demand response is being implemented for small residential and commercial consumers also. In this paper, demand response program aims to reduce the peak demand as well as overall energy consumption of the residential customers. Air conditioners are the major reason of peak load in residential sector in summer, so a dynamic model of air conditioning load with thermostat action has been considered for applying demand response programs. A programmable communicating thermostat (PCT) is a device that uses real time pricing (RTP) signals to control the thermostat setting. A new model incorporating PCT in air conditioning load has been proposed in this paper. Results show that introduction of PCT in air conditioner is useful in reducing the electricity payments of customers as well as reducing the peak demand. 

Keywords: Demand response, Home energy management Programmable communicating thermostat, Thermostatically controlled appliances.

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25 Generalised Slant Weighted Toeplitz Operator

Authors: S. C. Arora, Ritu Kathuria

Abstract:

A slant weighted Toeplitz operator Aφ is an operator on L2(β) defined as Aφ = WMφ where Mφ is the weighted multiplication operator and W is an operator on L2(β) given by We2n = βn β2n en, {en}n∈Z being the orthonormal basis. In this paper, we generalise Aφ to the k-th order slant weighted Toeplitz operator Uφ and study its properties.

Keywords: Slant weighted Toeplitz operator, weighted multiplicationoperator.

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24 Sensitivity Computations of Time Relaxation Model with an Application in Cavity Computation

Authors: Monika Neda, Elena Nikonova

Abstract:

We present a numerical study of the sensitivity of the so called time relaxation family of models of fluid motion with respect to the time relaxation parameter χ on the two dimensional cavity problem. The goal of the study is to compute and compare the sensitivity of the model using finite difference method (FFD) and sensitivity equation method (SEM).

Keywords: Sensitivity, time relaxation, deconvolution, Navier- Stokes equations.

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23 2D Graphical Analysis of Wastewater Influent Capacity Time Series

Authors: Monika Chuchro, Maciej Dwornik

Abstract:

The extraction of meaningful information from image could be an alternative method for time series analysis. In this paper, we propose a graphical analysis of time series grouped into table with adjusted colour scale for numerical values. The advantages of this method are also discussed. The proposed method is easy to understand and is flexible to implement the standard methods of pattern recognition and verification, especially for noisy environmental data.

Keywords: graphical analysis, time series, seasonality, noisy environmental data

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22 A Literature Review on Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment of Obesity

Authors: Monika Nuffer, Wesley Nuffer

Abstract:

The problem of obesity is one that continues to be faced in the United States health care system and across the developing world. Prescription medications are available, but are often very expensive with minimal insurance coverage. The over-the-counter diet aid industry is a robust one, selling billions of dollars in products every year. It is important for clinicians to understand the myriad of different nutritional supplements marketed for obesity, and to weigh the evidence behind these products. This manuscript outlines the most commonly used nutritional supplements currently marketed for weight loss, reviewing the evidence with a focus on the efficacy and safety of these products.

Keywords: Obesity, weight loss, herbal products, nutritional supplements

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21 The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems

Authors: Inderjeet Kaur, M. Kulkarni, Daya Gupta, Kamal Thakur, Janki Arora

Abstract:

In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data. Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code always have the minimum PAPR.

Keywords: Wireless communications, OFDM, peak-to averagepower ratio, peak envelope power, block codes.

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20 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M.L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von- Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, Leaf Spring, 65Si7 spring steel.

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19 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Mesitylene + 1- Heptanol and Mesitylene +1-Octanol at 97.3 kPa

Authors: Seema Kapoor, Sushil K. Kansal, Baljinder K. Gill, Aarti Sharma, Swati Arora

Abstract:

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol and Mesitylene + 1-Octanol at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. Both the mixtures show positive deviation from ideality. The Mesitylene + 1-Heptanol mixture forms an azeotrope whereas Mesitylene + 1- Octanol form a non – azeotropic mixture. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency tests of Herington, and Hirata. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, Redlich-Kister, Wilson, Black, and NRTL equations. The activity coefficient values have also been obtained by UNIFAC method.

Keywords: Binary mixture, Mesitylene, Vapor-liquid equilibrium, 1-Heptanol, 1-Octanol.

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18 Riemann-Liouville Fractional Calculus and Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev Differentiation and Integration with Multiindex Mittag-Leffler Function

Authors: U.K. Saha, L.K. Arora

Abstract:

The multiindex Mittag-Leffler (M-L) function and the multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev (D-G-L) differentiation and integration play a very pivotal role in the theory and applications of generalized fractional calculus. The object of this paper is to investigate the relations that exist between the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration with multiindex Mittag-Leffler function.

Keywords: Multiindex Mittag-Leffler function, Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration, Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals and derivatives.

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17 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag S. Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3 -(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: Aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies.

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16 Extraction of Natural Colorant from the Flowers of Flame of Forest Using Ultrasound

Authors: Sunny Arora, Meghal A. Desai

Abstract:

An impetus towards green consumerism and implementation of sustainable techniques, consumption of natural products and utilization of environment friendly techniques have gained accelerated acceptance. Butein, a natural colorant, has many medicinal properties apart from its use in dyeing industries. Extraction of butein from the flowers of flame of forest was carried out using ultrasonication bath. Solid loading (2-6 g), extraction time (30-50 min), volume of solvent (30-50 mL) and types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and water) have been studied to maximize the yield of butein using the Taguchi method. The highest yield of butein 4.67% (w/w) was obtained using 4 g of plant material, 40 min of extraction time and 30 mL volume of methanol as a solvent. The present method provided a greater reduction in extraction time compared to the conventional method of extraction. Hence, the outcome of the present investigation could further be utilized to develop the method at a higher scale.

Keywords: Butein, flowers of flame of forest, Taguchi method, ultrasonic bath.

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15 Personality of Military Professionals (Commanders) and Their Way of Leading and Commanding Today and in Historical Context

Authors: Petra Hurbišová, Monika Davidová

Abstract:

The article deals with the personality of military professionals (commanders) and their way of leading and commanding today and in historical context. The first part focuses on the leadership skills of Alexander the Great, who introduced strategic innovations and even from today's perspective; he excelled in efficient work with people. This paper focuses on the way which he achieved his goals. Further attention is paid to approaches to commander´s personality by other great generals. The paper is also focused on personality traits of military professionals necessary for successful management and leadership in today's variable and challenging environment. Finally, attention is paid to the effective and ineffective ways of behavior of commanders and determining what styles of leadership is appropriate for a given situation, whether in peacetime or on deployment.

Keywords: Authority, commander, leader, leadership, military professional, personality.

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14 Horizontal Dimension of Constitutional Social Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wątor

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the applicability of the constitutional social rights in the so-called horizontal relations, i.e. the relations between private entities. Nowadays the constitutional rights are more and more often violated by private entities and not only by the state. The private entities interfere with the privacy of individuals, limit their freedom of expression or disturb their peaceful gatherings. International corporations subordinate individuals in a way which may limit their constitutional rights. These new realities determine the new role of the constitution in protecting human rights. The paper will aim at answering two important questions. Firstly, are the private entities obliged to respect the constitutional social rights of other private entities and can they be liable for violation of these rights? Secondly, how the constitutional social rights can receive horizontal effect? Answers to these questions will have a significant meaning for the popularisation of the practice of applying the Constitution among the citizens as well as for the courts which settle disputes between them.

Keywords: Constitution, horizontal application, private relations, social rights.

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13 Is the Expansion of High-Tech Leaders Possible Within the New EU Members? A Case Study of Ammono S.A. and the High-Tech Financing System in Poland

Authors: Monika Dwilinska

Abstract:

Innovations, especially technological, are considered key-drivers for sustainable economic growth and competitiveness in the globalised world. As such they should also play an important role in the process of economical convergence inside the EU. Unfortunately, the problem of insufficient innovation performance concerns around half of the EU countries. Poland shows that a lack of a consistent high-tech financing system constitutes a serious obstacle for the development of innovative firms. In this article we will evaluate these questions referring to the example of Ammono S.A., a Polish company established to develop and commercialise an original technology for the production of bulk GaN crystals. We will focus on its efforts to accumulate the financial resources necessary at different stages of its development. The purpose of this article is to suggest possible ways to improve the national innovative system, which would make it more competent in generating high-tech leaders.

Keywords: High-tech financing, innovation, national innovative system

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12 Readiness of Military Professionals for Challenging Situations

Authors: Petra Hurbišová, Monika Davidová

Abstract:

The article deals with the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations. It discusses higher requirements on the psychical endurance of military professionals arising from the specific nature of the military occupation, which is typical for being very difficult to maintain regularity, which is in accordance with the hygiene of work alternated by relaxation. The soldier must be able to serve in the long term and constantly intense performance that goes beyond human tolerance to stress situations. A challenging situation is always associated with overcoming difficulties, obstacles and complicated circumstances or using unusual methods, ways and means to achieve the desired (expected) objectives, performing a given task or satisfying an important need. This paper describes the categories of challenging situations, their classification and characteristics. Attention is also paid to the formation of personality in challenging situations, coping with stress in challenging situations, Phases of solutions of stressful situations, resistance to challenging life situations and its factors. Finally, the article is focused on increasing the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations.

Keywords: Coping, challenging situations, stress, stressful situations, military professionals, resilience.

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11 Eyeball Motion Controlled Wheelchair Using IR Sensors

Authors: Monika Jain, Shikhar Puri, Shivali Unishree

Abstract:

This paper presents the ‘Eye Ball Motion Controlled Wheelchair using IR Sensors’ for the elderly and differently abled people. In this eye tracking based technology, three Proximity Infrared (IR) sensor modules are mounted on an eye frame to trace the movement of the iris. Since, IR sensors detect only white objects; a unique sequence of digital bits is generated corresponding to each eye movement. These signals are then processed via a micro controller IC (PIC18F452) to control the motors of the wheelchair. The potential and efficiency of previously developed rehabilitation systems that use head motion, chin control, sip-n-puff control, voice recognition, and EEG signals variedly have also been explored in detail. They were found to be inconvenient as they served either limited usability or non-affordability. After multiple regression analyses, the proposed design was developed as a cost-effective, flexible and stream-lined alternative for people who have trouble adopting conventional assistive technologies.

Keywords: Eye tracking technology, Intelligent wheelchair, IR module, rehabilitation technology.

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10 Old Age Home Organizer

Authors: Vicky Suri, Monika Suri Grover, Raghav Gupta, Shipra Asija, Sulabh Arya, Sushant Jain

Abstract:

With today's fast lifestyles and busy schedule, nuclear families are becoming popular. Thus, the elderly members of these families are often neglected. This has lead to the popularity of the concept of Community living for the aged. The elders reside at a centre, which is controlled by the MANAGER. The manager takes responsibility of the functioning of the centre which includes taking care of 'residents' at the centre along with managing the daily chores of the centre, which he accomplishes with the help of a number of staff members and volunteers Often the Manager is not an employee but a volunteer. In such cases especially, time is an important constraint. A system, which provides an easy and efficient manner of managing the working of an old age home in detail, will prove to be of great benefit. We have developed a P.C. based organizer used to monitor the various activities of an old age home. It is an effective and easy-to-use system which will enable the manager to keep an account of all the residents, their accounts, staff members, volunteers, the centre-s logistic requirements etc. It is thus, a comprehensive 'Organizer' for Old Age Homes.

Keywords: Old Age Home Organizer, HelpAge India.

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9 Time Series Regression with Meta-Clusters

Authors: Monika Chuchro

Abstract:

This paper presents a preliminary attempt to apply classification of time series using meta-clusters in order to improve the quality of regression models. In this case, clustering was performed as a method to obtain subgroups of time series data with normal distribution from the inflow into wastewater treatment plant data, composed of several groups differing by mean value. Two simple algorithms, K-mean and EM, were chosen as a clustering method. The Rand index was used to measure the similarity. After simple meta-clustering, a regression model was performed for each subgroups. The final model was a sum of the subgroups models. The quality of the obtained model was compared with the regression model made using the same explanatory variables, but with no clustering of data. Results were compared using determination coefficient (R2), measure of prediction accuracy- mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and comparison on a linear chart. Preliminary results allow us to foresee the potential of the presented technique.

Keywords: Clustering, Data analysis, Data mining, Predictive models.

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8 Bread Quality Improvement with Special Novel Additives

Authors: Mónika Bartalné-Berceli, Eszter Izsó, Szilveszter Gergely, András Salgó

Abstract:

Presently a significant portion of the Earth's population does not have access to healthy food. Either because they cannot afford it or because they do not know which one are they. The aim of the VII th Framework Chance project (Nr. 266331) supported by the European Union has been to develop relatively cheap food with favourable nutritional value and it should have acceptable quality for consumers. As one task of the project we manufactured bread products as a basic food. We examined the enrichment of bread products with four kinds of bran, with a special milling product of grain industry (aleurone-rich flour) and with a soy-based sprouted additive. The applied concentration of the six mentioned additives has been optimized and the physical properties of the bread products were monitored. The weight/density of the enriched breads increased a bit, however the volume and height decreased slightly compared to the corresponding data of the control bread. The optimized composition of the final product is favourably affected by these additives having highly preferred composition from nutritional point of view.

Keywords: Aleurone-rich flour, Brans, Bread products, Sprouted soybean, YASO.

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7 A Generalized Approach for State Analysis and Parameter Estimation of Bilinear Systems using Haar Connection Coefficients

Authors: Monika Garg, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

Three novel and significant contributions are made in this paper Firstly, non-recursive formulation of Haar connection coefficients, pioneered by the present authors is presented, which can be computed very efficiently and avoid stack and memory overflows. Secondly, the generalized approach for state analysis of singular bilinear time-invariant (TI) and time-varying (TV) systems is presented; vis-˜a-vis diversified and complex works reported by different authors. Thirdly, a generalized approach for parameter estimation of bilinear TI and TV systems is also proposed. The unified framework of the proposed method is very significant in that the digital hardware once-designed can be used to perform the complex tasks of state analysis and parameter estimation of different types of bilinear systems single-handedly. The simplicity, effectiveness and generalized nature of the proposed method is established by applying it to different types of bilinear systems for the two tasks.

Keywords: Bilinear Systems, Haar Wavelet, Haar ConnectionCoefficients, Parameter Estimation, Singular Bilinear Systems, StateAnalysis.

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6 The Bright Side of Organizational Politics as a Driver of Firm Competitiveness: The Mediating Role of Corporate Entrepreneurship

Authors: Monika Kulikowska-Pawlak, Katarzyna Bratnicka-Myśliwiec, Tomasz Ingram

Abstract:

This study seeks to contribute to the literature on firm competitiveness by advancing the perspective of organizational politics that views this process as a driver which creates identifiable differences in firm performance. The hypothesized relationships were tested on the basis of data from 355 Polish medium and large-sized enterprises. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis, EFA and robustness tests. The main result of the conducted analyses proved the coexistence, previously examined in the literature, of corporate entrepreneurship and firm performance. The obtained research findings made it possible to add organizational politics to a wide range of elements determining corporate entrepreneurship, followed by competitive advantage, in addition to antecedents such as strategic leadership, corporate culture, opportunity-oriented resource-based management, etc. Also, the empirical results suggest that four dimensions of organizational politics (dominant coalition, influence exertion, making organizational changes, and information openness) are positively related to firm competitiveness. In addition, these findings seem to underline a supposition that corporate entrepreneurship is an important mediator which strengthens the competitive effects of organizational politics.

Keywords: Corporate entrepreneurship, firm competitiveness organizational politics, sensemaking.

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5 Monitoring Co-Creation: A Survey of Lithuanian Urban Communities

Authors: Aelita Skarzauskiene, Monika Maciuliene

Abstract:

In this paper, we conduct a systematic survey of urban communities in Lithuania to evaluate their potential to co-create collective intelligence or “civic intelligence” applying Digital Co-creation Index methodology that includes different socio-technological indicators. Civic intelligence is a form of collective intelligence that refers to the group’s capacity to perceive societal problems and to address them effectively. The research focuses on evaluation of diverse organizational designs that increase efficient collective performance. The current scientific project advanced the state of the art by evaluating the basic preconditions in the urban communities through which the collective intelligence is being co-created under the systemic manner. The research subject is the “bottom up” digital enabled urban platforms, initiated by Lithuanian public organizations, civic movements or business entities. The web-based monitoring results obtained by applying a social indices calculation methodology and Pearson correlation analysis provided the information about the potential and limits of the urban communities and what possible changes need to be implemented to overcome the limitations.

Keywords: Computer supported collaboration, co-creation, collective intelligence, socio-technological system, networked society.

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4 Quantitative Assessment of Different Formulations of Antimalarials in Sentinel Sites of India

Authors: Taruna Katyal Arora, Geeta Kumari, Hari Shankar, Neelima Mishra

Abstract:

Substandard and counterfeit antimalarials is a major problem in malaria endemic areas. The availability of counterfeit/ substandard medicines is not only decreasing the efficacy in patients, but it is also one of the contributing factors for developing antimalarial drug resistance. Owing to this, a pilot study was conducted to survey quality of drugs collected from different malaria endemic areas of India. Artesunate+Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP), Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), Chloroquine (CQ) tablets were randomly picked from public health facilities in selected states of India. The quality of antimalarial drugs from these areas was assessed by using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab test kit. This includes physical/visual inspection and disintegration test. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out for semi-quantitative assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients. A total of 45 brands, out of which 21 were for CQ, 14 for AL and 10 for AS+SP were tested from Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Mizoram, Meghalaya and Gujrat states. One out of 45 samples showed variable disintegration and retension factor. The variable disintegration and retention factor which would have been due to substandard quality or other factors including storage. However, HPLC analysis confirms standard active pharmaceutical ingredient, but may be due to humid temperature and moisture in storage may account for the observed result.

Keywords: Antimalarial medicines, counterfeit, substandard, thin layer chromatography.

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3 Life Estimation of Induction Motor Insulation under Non-Sinusoidal Voltage and Current Waveforms Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Triloksingh G. Arora, Mohan V. Aware, Dhananjay R. Tutakne

Abstract:

Thyristor based firing angle controlled voltage regulators are extensively used for speed control of single phase induction motors. This leads to power saving but the applied voltage and current waveforms become non-sinusoidal. These non-sinusoidal waveforms increase voltage and thermal stresses which result into accelerated insulation aging, thus reducing the motor life. Life models that allow predicting the capability of insulation under such multi-stress situations tend to be very complex and somewhat impractical. This paper presents the fuzzy logic application to investigate the synergic effect of voltage and thermal stresses on intrinsic aging of induction motor insulation. A fuzzy expert system is developed to estimate the life of induction motor insulation under multiple stresses. Three insulation degradation parameters, viz. peak modification factor, wave shape modification factor and thermal loss are experimentally obtained for different firing angles. Fuzzy expert system consists of fuzzyfication of the insulation degradation parameters, algorithms based on inverse power law to estimate the life and defuzzyficaton process to output the life. An electro-thermal life model is developed from the results of fuzzy expert system. This fuzzy logic based electro-thermal life model can be used for life estimation of induction motors operated with non-sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms.

Keywords: Aging, Dielectric losses, Insulation and Life Estimation.

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2 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar

Abstract:

The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, rotating disk electrode optical emission spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, ICCD spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser, engine oil.

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1 Financial Innovations for Companies Offered by Banks: Polish Experience

Authors: Joanna Błach, Anna Doś, Maria Gorczyńska, Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

Abstract:

Financial innovations can be regarded as the cause and the effect of the evolution of the financial system. Most of financial innovations are created by various financial institutions for their own purposes and needs. However, due to their diversity, financial innovations can be also applied by various business entities (other than financial institutions). This paper focuses on the potential application of financial innovations by non-financial companies. It is assumed that financial innovations may be effectively applied in all fields of corporate financial decisions integrating financial management with the risk management process. Appropriate application of financial innovations may enhance the development of the company and increase its value by improving its financial situation and reducing the level of risk. On the other hand, misused financial innovations may become the source of extra risk for the company threatening its further operation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the major types of financial innovations offered to non-financial companies by the banking system in Poland. It also aims at identifying the main factors determining the creation of financial innovations in the banking system in Poland and indicating future directions of their development. This paper consists of conceptual and empirical part. Conceptual part based on theoretical study is focused on the determinants of the process of financial innovations and their application by the nonfinancial companies. Theoretical study is followed by the empirical research based on the analysis of the actual offer of the 20 biggest banks operating in Poland with regard to financial innovations offered to SMEs and large corporations. These innovations are classified according to the main functions of the integrated financial management, such as financing, investment, working capital management and risk management. Empirical study has proved that the biggest banks operating in the Polish market offer to their business customers many types and classes of financial innovations. This offer appears vast and adequate to the needs and purposes of the Polish non-financial companies. It was observed that financial innovations pertained to financing decisions dominate in the banks’ offer. However, due to high diversification of the offered financial innovations, business customers may effectively apply them in all fields and areas of integrated financial management. It should be underlined, that the banks’ offer is highly dispersed, which may limit the implementation of financial innovations in the corporate finance. It would be also recommended for the banks operating in the Polish market to intensify the education campaign aiming at increasing knowledge about financial innovations among business customers.

Keywords: Banking products and services, banking sector in Poland, corporate financial management, financial innovations, theory of innovation.

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