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Horizontal Dimension of Constitutional Social Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wątor

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the applicability of the constitutional social rights in the so-called horizontal relations, i.e. the relations between private entities. Nowadays the constitutional rights are more and more often violated by private entities and not only by the state. The private entities interfere with the privacy of individuals, limit their freedom of expression or disturb their peaceful gatherings. International corporations subordinate individuals in a way which may limit their constitutional rights. These new realities determine the new role of the constitution in protecting human rights. The paper will aim at answering two important questions. Firstly, are the private entities obliged to respect the constitutional social rights of other private entities and can they be liable for violation of these rights? Secondly, how the constitutional social rights can receive horizontal effect? Answers to these questions will have a significant meaning for the popularisation of the practice of applying the Constitution among the citizens as well as for the courts which settle disputes between them.

Keywords: Constitution, Social Rights, horizontal application, private relations

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1338232

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References:


[1] The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April, 1997, as published in Journal of Laws (Dziennik Ustaw) No. 79, item 483, with amendments.
[2] M. Florczak-Wątor, „Horyzontalny wymiar praw konstytucyjnych“ (Horizontal dimension of constitutional rights), Cracow 2014, p. 63-208
[3] A. S. Butler, “Constitutional Rights in Private Litigation: a Critique and Comparative Analysis”, Anglo-American Law Review vol. 22/1993, p. 20; C. O’Cinneide, “Irish Constitutional Law and Direct Horizontal Effect – A Successful Experiment?” (in:) D. Oliver, J. Fedtke (ed.), Human Rights and the Private Sphere. A Comparative Study, New York 2007, p. 213 n.; A. Clapham, “Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors”, New York 2006, p. 441
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