Search results for: block codes.
742 Packing and Covering Radii of Linear Error-Block Codes
Authors: Rabiˆı DARITI, El Mamoun SOUIDI
Linear error-block codes are a natural generalization of linear error correcting codes. The purpose of this paper is to generalize some results on the packing and the covering radii to the error-block case. We study their properties when a code undergoes some specific modifications and combinations with another code. We give a few bounds on the packing and the covering radii of these codes.
Keywords: Linear error-block codes, π-distance, Correction capacity, Packing radius, Covering radius.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2071
741 Systematic Unit-Memory Binary Convolutional Codes from Linear Block Codes over F2r + vF2r
Authors: John Mark Lampos, Virgilio Sison
Abstract:Two constructions of unit-memory binary convolutional codes from linear block codes over the finite semi-local ring F2r +vF2r , where v2 = v, are presented. In both cases, if the linear block code is systematic, then the resulting convolutional encoder is systematic, minimal, basic and non-catastrophic. The Hamming free distance of the convolutional code is bounded below by the minimum Hamming distance of the block code. New examples of binary convolutional codes that meet the Heller upper bound for systematic codes are given.
Keywords: Convolutional codes, semi-local ring, free distance, Heller bound.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1543
740 Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrixand Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK
Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil
A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalueeigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.
Keywords: bit error rate, block codes, code correlation matrix, eigenstructure, soft-decision decoding, weight vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1644
739 Squaring Construction for Repeated-Root Cyclic Codes
Authors: O. P. Vinocha , J. S. Bhullar , Manish Gupta
Abstract:We considered repeated-root cyclic codes whose block length is divisible by the characteristic of the underlying field. Cyclic self dual codes are also the repeated root cyclic codes. It is known about the one-level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes. In this correspondence, we introduced of two level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes of length 2a b , a > 0, b is odd.
Keywords: Squaring Construction, generator matrix, selfdual codes, cyclic codes, coset codes, repeated root cycliccodes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1434
738 Matrix-Interleaved Serially Concatenated Block Codes for Speech Transmission in Fixed Wireless Communication Systems
Authors: F. Mehran
In this paper, we study a class of serially concatenated block codes (SCBC) based on matrix interleavers, to be employed in fixed wireless communication systems. The performances of SCBC¬coded systems are investigated under various interleaver dimensions. Numerical results reveal that the matrix interleaver could be a competitive candidate over conventional block interleaver for frame lengths of 200 bits; hence, the SCBC coding based on matrix interleaver is a promising technique to be employed for speech transmission applications in many international standards such as pan-European Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800, and Joint Detection Code Division Multiple Access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio systems, where the speech frame contains around 200 bits.
Keywords: Matrix Interleaver, serial concatenated block codes (SCBC), turbo codes, wireless communications.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1810
737 Metaheuristic Algorithms for Decoding Binary Linear Codes
Authors: Hassan Berbia, Faissal Elbouanani, Rahal Romadi, Mostafa Belkasmi
Abstract:This paper introduces two decoders for binary linear codes based on Metaheuristics. The first one uses a genetic algorithm and the second is based on a combination genetic algorithm with a feed forward neural network. The decoder based on the genetic algorithms (DAG) applied to BCH and convolutional codes give good performances compared to Chase-2 and Viterbi algorithm respectively and reach the performances of the OSD-3 for some Residue Quadratic (RQ) codes. This algorithm is less complex for linear block codes of large block length; furthermore their performances can be improved by tuning the decoder-s parameters, in particular the number of individuals by population and the number of generations. In the second algorithm, the search space, in contrast to DAG which was limited to the code word space, now covers the whole binary vector space. It tries to elude a great number of coding operations by using a neural network. This reduces greatly the complexity of the decoder while maintaining comparable performances.
Keywords: Block code, decoding, methaheuristic, genetic algorithm, neural networkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1960
736 A Novel Design for Hybrid Space-Time Block Codes and Spatial Multiplexing Scheme
Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Jang-Kyun Ahn, Eui-Young Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song
Abstract:Space-time block codes (STBC) and spatial multiplexing (SM) are promising techniques that effectively exploit multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) transmission to achieve more reliable communication and a higher multiplexing rate, respectively. In this paper, we study a practical design for hybrid scheme with multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMOOFDM) systems to flexibly maximize the tradeoff between diversity and multiplexing gains. Unlike the existing STBC and SM designs which are suitable for the integer multiplexing rate, the proposed design can achieve arbitrary number of multiplexing rate.
Keywords: Space-Time Block Codes, Spatial Multiplexing, MIMO-OFDM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1688
735 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes
Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf
In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme  and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.
Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1624
734 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals
Authors: J. S. Bhullar, Manish Gupta
Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.
Keywords: Quantum Codes, BCH Codes, Dual BCH Codes, Designed Distance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1608
733 Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery
Authors: Ammar M. Hassan, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Yassin M. Y. Hasan, Mohamed A. A. Wahab, Bernd Michaelis
Abstract:Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.
Keywords: Authentication, hash function, multiple descriptioncoding, public key encryption, watermarking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1810
732 Block Sorting: A New Characterization and a New Heuristic
Authors: Swapnoneel Roy, Ashok Kumar Thakur, Minhazur Rahman
Abstract:The Block Sorting problem is to sort a given permutation moving blocks. A block is defined as a substring of the given permutation, which is also a substring of the identity permutation. Block Sorting has been proved to be NP-Hard. Until now two different 2-Approximation algorithms have been presented for block sorting. These are the best known algorithms for Block Sorting till date. In this work we present a different characterization of Block Sorting in terms of a transposition cycle graph. Then we suggest a heuristic, which we show to exhibit a 2-approximation performance guarantee for most permutations.
Keywords: Block Sorting, Optical Character Recognition, Genome Rearrangements, Sorting Primitives, ApproximationAlgorithmsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2009
731 Performance Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes
Authors: Othman O. Khalifa, Sheroz khan, Mohamad Zaid, Muhamad Nawawi
Abstract:This paper mainly about the study on one of the widely used error correcting codes that is Low parity check Codes (LDPC). In this paper, the Regular LDPC code has been discussed The LDPC codes explained in this paper is about the Regular Binary LDPC codes or the Gallager.
Keywords: LDPC, channel coding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2659
730 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq
This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.
Keywords: Skew cyclic code, gray map, automophism, cyclic code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 774
729 Pontrjagin Duality and Codes over Finite Commutative Rings
Authors: Khalid Abdelmoumen, Mustapha Najmeddine, Hussain Ben-Azza
Abstract:We present linear codes over finite commutative rings which are not necessarily Frobenius. We treat the notion of syndrome decoding by using Pontrjagin duality. We also give a version of Delsarte-s theorem over rings relating trace codes and subring subcodes.
Keywords: Codes, Finite Rings, Pontrjagin Duality, Trace Codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1669
728 Low Complexity Regular LDPC codes for Magnetic Storage Devices
Authors: Gabofetswe Malema, Michael Liebelt
LDPC codes could be used in magnetic storage devices because of their better decoding performance compared to other error correction codes. However, their hardware implementation results in large and complex decoders. This one of the main obstacles the decoders to be incorporated in magnetic storage devices. We construct small high girth and rate 2 columnweight codes from cage graphs. Though these codes have low performance compared to higher column weight codes, they are easier to implement. The ease of implementation makes them more suitable for applications such as magnetic recording. Cages are the smallest known regular distance graphs, which give us the smallest known column-weight 2 codes given the size, girth and rate of the code.
Keywords: Structured LDPC codes, cage graphs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2002
727 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II
Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade
In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.
Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1273
726 Flexural Strength and Ductility Improvement of NSC beams
Authors: Jun Peng, Johnny Ching Ming Ho
Abstract:In order to calculate the flexural strength of normal-strength concrete (NSC) beams, the nonlinear actual concrete stress distribution within the compression zone is normally replaced by an equivalent rectangular stress block, with two coefficients of α and β to regulate the intensity and depth of the equivalent stress respectively. For NSC beams design, α and β are usually assumed constant as 0.85 and 0.80 in reinforced concrete (RC) codes. From an earlier investigation of the authors, α is not a constant but significantly affected by flexural strain gradient, and increases with the increasing of strain gradient till a maximum value. It indicates that larger concrete stress can be developed in flexure than that stipulated by design codes. As an extension and application of the authors- previous study, the modified equivalent concrete stress block is used here to produce a series of design charts showing the maximum design limits of flexural strength and ductility of singly- and doubly- NSC beams, through which both strength and ductility design limits are improved by taking into account strain gradient effect.
Keywords: Concrete beam, Ductility, Equivalent concrete stress, Normal strength, Strain gradient, StrengthProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1567
725 A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects
Authors: Tayfun Çay, Yaşar İnceyol, Abdurrahman Özbeyaz
Abstract:Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.
Keywords: Genetic algorithm, land consolidation, landholding, land reallocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
724 Enhancing the Error-Correcting Performance of LDPC Codes through an Efficient Use of Decoding Iterations
Authors: Insah Bhurtah, P. Clarel Catherine, K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah
The decoding of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes is operated over a redundant structure known as the bipartite graph, meaning that the full set of bit nodes is not absolutely necessary for decoder convergence. In 2008, Soyjaudah and Catherine designed a recovery algorithm for LDPC codes based on this assumption and showed that the error-correcting performance of their codes outperformed conventional LDPC Codes. In this work, the use of the recovery algorithm is further explored to test the performance of LDPC codes while the number of iterations is progressively increased. For experiments conducted with small blocklengths of up to 800 bits and number of iterations of up to 2000, the results interestingly demonstrate that contrary to conventional wisdom, the error-correcting performance keeps increasing with increasing number of iterations.
Keywords: Error-correcting codes, information theory, low-density parity-check codes, sum-product algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586
723 Vortex Formation in Lid-driven Cavity with Disturbance Block
Authors: Maysam Saidi, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi, Reza Maddahian
In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of disturbance block on flow field of the classical square lid-driven cavity. Attentions are focused on vortex formation and studying the effect of block position on its structure. Corner vortices are different upon block position and new vortices are produced because of the block. Finite volume method is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and PISO algorithm is employed for the linkage of velocity and pressure. Verification and grid independency of results are reported. Stream lines are sketched to visualize vortex structure in different block positions.
Keywords: Disturbance Block, Finite Volume Method, Lid-Driven CavityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
722 Low Complexity, High Performance LDPC Codes Based on Defected Fullerene Graphs
Authors: Ashish Goswami, Rakesh Sharma
Abstract:In this paper, LDPC Codes based on defected fullerene graphs have been generated. And it is found that the codes generated are fast in encoding and better in terms of error performance on AWGN Channel.
Keywords: LDPC Codes, Fullerene Graphs, Defected Fullerene Graphs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1666
721 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes
Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao
Abstract:A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.
Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome SpinorsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1295
720 On Finite Wordlength Properties of Block-Floating-Point Arithmetic
Authors: Abhijit Mitra
Abstract:A special case of floating point data representation is block floating point format where a block of operands are forced to have a joint exponent term. This paper deals with the finite wordlength properties of this data format. The theoretical errors associated with the error model for block floating point quantization process is investigated with the help of error distribution functions. A fast and easy approximation formula for calculating signal-to-noise ratio in quantization to block floating point format is derived. This representation is found to be a useful compromise between fixed point and floating point format due to its acceptable numerical error properties over a wide dynamic range.
Keywords: Block floating point, Roundoff error, Block exponent dis-tribution fuction, Signal factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1846
719 Development Partitioning Intervalwise Block Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
Authors: K.H.Khairul Anuar, K.I.Othman, F.Ishak, Z.B.Ibrahim, Z.Majid
Abstract:Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) by using Partitioning Block Intervalwise (PBI) technique is our aim in this paper. The PBI technique is based on Block Adams Method and Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF). Block Adams Method only use the simple iteration for solving while BDF requires Newtonlike iteration involving Jacobian matrix of ODEs which consumes a considerable amount of computational effort. Therefore, PBI is developed in order to reduce the cost of iteration within acceptable maximum error
Keywords: Adam Block Method, BDF, Ordinary Differential Equations, Partitioning Block IntervalwiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
718 Maximum Distance Separable b-Symbol Repeated-Root γ-Constacylic Codes over a Finite Chain Ring of Length 2
Authors: Jamal Laaouine, Mohammed Elhassani Charkani
Let p be a prime and let b be an integer. MDS b-symbol codes are a direct generalization of MDS codes. The γ-constacyclic codes of length pˢ over the finite commutative chain ring Fₚm [u]/ < u² > had been classified into four distinct types, where is a nonzero element of the field Fₚm. Let C₃ be a code of Type 3. In this paper, we obtain the b-symbol distance db(C₃) of the code C₃. Using this result, necessary and sufficient conditions under which C₃ is an MDS b-symbol code are given.
Keywords: constacyclic code, repeated-root code, maximum distance separable, MDS codes, b-symbol distance, finite chain ringsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 244
717 Design and Implementation of Reed Solomon Encoder on FPGA
Authors: Amandeep Singh, Mandeep Kaur
Error correcting codes are used for detection and correction of errors in digital communication system. Error correcting coding is based on appending of redundancy to the information message according to a prescribed algorithm. Reed Solomon codes are part of channel coding and withstand the effect of noise, interference and fading. Galois field arithmetic is used for encoding and decoding reed Solomon codes. Galois field multipliers and linear feedback shift registers are used for encoding the information data block. The design of Reed Solomon encoder is complex because of use of LFSR and Galois field arithmetic. The purpose of this paper is to design and implement Reed Solomon (255, 239) encoder with optimized and lesser number of Galois Field multipliers. Symmetric generator polynomial is used to reduce the number of GF multipliers. To increase the capability toward error correction, convolution interleaving will be used with RS encoder. The Design will be implemented on Xilinx FPGA Spartan II.
Keywords: Galois Field, Generator polynomial, LFSR, Reed Solomon.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4721
716 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems
Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah
This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.
Keywords: Image encryption, security analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3500
715 String Searching in Dispersed Files using MDS Convolutional Codes
Authors: A. S. Poornima, R. Aparna, B. B. Amberker, Prashant Koulgi
Abstract:In this paper, we propose use of convolutional codes for file dispersal. The proposed method is comparable in complexity to the information Dispersal Algorithm proposed by M.Rabin and for particular choices of (non-binary) convolutional codes, is almost as efficient as that algorithm in terms of controlling expansion in the total storage. Further, our proposed dispersal method allows string search.
Keywords: Convolutional codes, File dispersal, Filereconstruction, Information Dispersal Algorithm, String search.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1157
714 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences
Authors: Abhijit Mitra
Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.
Keywords: Code division multiple access, pseudo-noise codes, maximal length, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5873
713 Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images
Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah
This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.
Keywords: Block cipher, Image encryption, Encryption quality, and Security analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2250