Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Coping

65 Effects of Proactive Coping on Workplace Adaptation After Transition from College to Workplace

Authors: YiHui Cai, Takaya Kohyama

Abstract:

Proactive coping directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology. The present study explored the proactive coping-s effect on the workplace adaptation after transition from college to workplace. In order to demonstrate the influence process between them, we constructed the model of proactive coping style effecting the actual positive coping efforts and outcomes by mediating proactive competence during one year after the transition. Participants (n = 100) started to work right after graduating from college completed all the four time-s surveys --one month before (Time 0), one month after (Time 1), three months after (Time 2), and one year after (Time 3) the transition. Time 0 survey included the measurement of proactive coping style and competence. Time 1, 2, 3 surveys included the measurement of the challenge cognitive appraisal, problem solving coping strategy, and subjective workplace adaptation. The result indicated that proactive coping style effected newcomers- actual coping efforts and outcomes by mediating proactive coping competence. The result also showed that proactive coping competence directly promoted Time1-s actual positive coping efforts and outcomes, and indirectly promoted Time 2-s and Time 3-s.

Keywords: Proactive coping style, proactive coping competence, transition form college to workplace, workplace adaptation.

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64 Correlates of Coping in Individuals with Tinnitus

Authors: Vasco de Oliveira, Rute F. Meneses, Nuno Trigueiros-Cunha

Abstract:

Tinnitus is commonly defined as an aberrant  perception of sound without external stimulus. It’s a chronic  condition with consequences on the QOL. The coping strategies used  were not always effective and coping was identified as a predictor of  QOL in individuals with tinnitus, which reinforces the idea that in  health the use of effective coping styles should be promoted. This  work intend to verify relations between coping strategies assessed by  BriefCope in subjects with tinnitus and variables such as gender, age  and severity of tinnitus measured by THI and the Visual Analogue  Scale and also hearing and hyperacusis. The results indicate that there  are any statistically significant relationships between the variables  assessed in relation to the results of BriefCope except in the Visual  Analogue Scale.These results, indicating no relationship between  almost all variables, reinforce the need for further study of coping  strategies use by these patients.

 

Keywords: BriefCope, Coping strategies, Quality of Live, THI, Tinnitus.

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63 Stress, Perceived Social Support, Coping Capability and Depression: A Study of Local and Foreign Students in the Malaysian Context

Authors: Shamirah-Farah Faleel, Cai-Lian Tam, Teck-Heang Lee, Wai-Mun Har, Yie-Chu Foo

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of perceived social support and stress on the coping capability and level of depression of foreign and local students in Malaysia. Using convenience sampling, 200 students from three universities in Selangor, Malaysia participated in the study. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant relationship between perceived social support and coping capability. It is also found that there is a negative relationship between coping capability and depression. Further, stress and depression are positively related whereas stress and coping capability are negatively related. Lastly, there is no significant difference for the stress level and coping capability amongst local and foreign students.

Keywords: Coping capability, depression, perceived social support, stress.

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62 The Relation between Proactive Coping and Well-Being: An Example of Middle-Aged and Older Learners from Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Hui-Chuan Wei

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to explore the relation between proactive coping and well-being of middle-aged adults. We conducted survey research that with t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression to analyze. This research drew on a sample of 395 participants from the senior learning centers of Taiwan. The results provided the following findings: 1.The participants from different residence areas associated significant difference with proactive coping, but not with well-being. 2. The participants’ perceived of financial level associated significant difference with both proactive coping and well-being. 3. There was significant difference between participants’ income and well-being. 4. The proactive coping was positively correlated with well-being. 5. From stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that two dimensions of proactive coping had positive predictability. Finally, these results of this study can be provided as references for designing older adult educational programs in Taiwan.

Keywords: Middle-age adults, learners, proactive coping, well-being.

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61 The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress.

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60 Assessing the Physiological, Psychological Stressors and Coping Strategies among Hemodialysis Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Seham A. Elgamal, Reham H. Saleh

Abstract:

Chronic kidney disease became a global health problem worldwide. Therefore, in order to maintain a patient’s life and improve the survival rate, hemodialysis is essential to replace the function of their kidneys. However, those patients may complain about multiple physical and psychological stressors due to the nature of the disease and the need for frequent hemodialysis sessions. So, those patients use various strategies to cope with the stressors related to their disease and the treatment procedures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out to achieve the aim of the study. A convenient sample including all adult patients was recruited for this study. Hemodialysis Stressors Scale (HSS) and Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) were used to investigate the stressors and coping strategies of 89 hemodialysis patients, at a governmental hospital (King Khalid Hospital-Jeddah). Results of the study revealed that 50.7% experienced physiological stressors and 38% experienced psychosocial stressors. Also, optimistic, fatalistic, and supportive coping strategies were the most common coping strategies used by the patients with mean scores (2.88 + 0.75, 2.87 + 0.75, and 1.82 + 0.71), respectively. In conclusion, being familiar with the types of stressors and the effective coping strategies of hemodialysis patients and their families are important in order to enhance their adaptation with chronic kidney diseases.

Keywords: Coping strategies, hemodialysis, physiological stressors, psychological stressors.

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59 A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangements and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong

Authors: K. M. Yuen

Abstract:

This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to share their experiences on the differences with their parents in regard to wedding preparations and coping strategies. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while “concern towards parents” was found to be the essential element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, a developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered intergenerational differences in regard to their wedding preparations.

Keywords: Coping strategies, difference, family life cycle, developmental tasks, wedding preparation.

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58 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: Young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration.

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57 The Study of the Correlation of Proactive Coping and Retirement Planning: An Example of Senior Civil Servants in Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Chien-Hung Hsieh, Ching-Yi Lu

Abstract:

Demographic aging is the major problem that Taiwanese society is facing, and retirement life adaptation is the most concerning issue. In recent years, studies have suggested that in order to have successful aging and retirement planning, a view for the future is necessary. In Taiwan, civil servants receive better pensions and retirement benefits than do other industries. Therefore, their retirement preparation is considerably more significant than other senior groups in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to understand the correlation of proactive coping and retirement planning of senior civil servants in Taiwan. The method is conducted by questionnaire surveys, with 342 valid questionnaires collected. The results of this study are: 1. The background variables of the interviewees, including age, perceived economic statuses, and retirement statuses, are all significantly related to their proactive coping and retirement planning. 2. Regarding age, the interviewees with ages 55 and above have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those with ages 45 and below. 3. In the aspect of perceived economic statuses, the participants who feel “very good” economic statuses have better proactive coping ability and retirement readiness than those who feel “bad” and “very bad”. 4. Retirees have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those who are still working. 5. Monthly income is significant in retirement planning only. The participants’ retirement planning would be better if they have higher incomes. Furthermore, the participants’ retirement planning would be better if their revenue were €1453~€1937, than if their revenue were below €968. 6. There are positive correlations between proactive coping and retirement planning. 7. Proactive coping can predict retirement planning. The result of this study will be provided as references to the Taiwan government for educational retirement planning policies.

Keywords: Civil servants, proactive coping, retirement planning.

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56 Post ERP Feral System and use of ‘Feral System as Coping Mechanism

Authors: Tajul Urus, S., Molla, A., Teoh, S.Y.

Abstract:

A number of studies highlighted problems related to ERP systems, yet, most of these studies focus on the problems during the project and implementation stages but not during the postimplementation use process. Problems encountered in the process of using ERP would hinder the effective exploitation and the extended and continued use of ERP systems and their value to organisations. This paper investigates the different types of problems users (operational, supervisory and managerial) faced in using ERP and how 'feral system' is used as the coping mechanism. The paper adopts a qualitative method and uses data collected from two cases and 26 interviews, to inductively develop a casual network model of ERP usage problem and its coping mechanism. This model classified post ERP usage problems as data quality, system quality, interface and infrastructure. The model is also categorised the different coping mechanism through use of 'feral system' inclusive of feral information system, feral data and feral use of technology.

Keywords: Case Studies, Coping Mechanism, Post Implementation ERP system, Usage Problem

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55 Self-Care Behavior and Performance Level Associated with Algerian Chronically Ill Patients

Authors: S. Aberkane, N. Djabali, S. Fafi, A. Baghezza

Abstract:

Chronic illnesses affect many Algerians. It is possible to investigate the impact of illness representations and coping on quality of life and whether illness representations are indirectly associated with quality of life through their influence on coping. This study aims at investigating the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life with chronic illness. Illness perceptions are indirectly associated with the quality of life through their influence on coping mediation. A sample of 316 participants with chronic illness living in the region of Batna, Algeria, has been adopted in this study. A correlation statistical analysis is used to determine the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was employed to highlight the predictive ability of the dimensions of illness perception and coping strategies on the dependent variables of quality of life, where mediation analysis is considered in the exploration of the indirect effect significance of the mediator. This study provides insights about the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life in the considered sample (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Therefore, it proves that there is an effect of illness identity perception, external and medical attributions related to emotional role, physical functioning, and mental health perceived, and these were fully mediated by the asking for assistance (c’= 0.04, p < 0.05), the guarding (c’= 0.00, p < 0.05), and the task persistence strategy (c’= 0.05, p < 0.05). The findings imply partial support for the common-sense model of illness representations in a chronic illness population. Directions for future research are highlighted, as well as implications for psychotherapeutic interventions which target unhelpful beliefs and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy).

Keywords: Chronic illness, coping, illness perception, quality of life, self-regulation model.

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54 Happiness Understanding Depending on Features of Coping Behavior

Authors: A.R.Rizulla, F.S.Tashimova, A.R. Massalimova, A.K.Mynbayeva, G.S.Abdiraiymova

Abstract:

The importance of happiness understanding research is caused by cardinal changes experiences in system of people values in the post-Soviet countries territory. «The time of changes», which characterized with destruction of old values and not creativeness of new, stimulating experiences by the person of existential vacuum. The given research is actual not only in connection with sense formation, but also in connection with necessity creatively to adapt in integrative space. According to numerous works [1,2,3], we define happiness as the peak experience connected with satisfaction correlated system of needs, dependent on style of subject's coping behavior.

Keywords: Coping behavior, happiness, overcoming, psychological defense.

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53 Mental Vulnerability and Coping Strategies as a Factor for Academic Success for Pupils with Special Education Needs

Authors: T. Dubayova

Abstract:

Slovak, as well as foreign authors, believe that the influence of non-cognitive factors on a student's academic success or failure is unquestionable. The aim of this paper is to establish a link between the mental vulnerability and coping strategies used by 4th grade elementary school students in dealing with stressful situations and their academic performance, which was used as a simple quantitative indicator of academic success. The research sample consists of 320 students representing the standard population and 60 students with special education needs (SEN), who were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) by their teachers and the Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC-R1) filled in by themselves. Students with SEN recorded an extraordinarily high frequency of mental vulnerability (34.5 %) than students representing the standard population (7 %). The poorest academic performance of students with SEN was associated with the avoidance behavior displayed during stressful situations. Students of the standard population did not demonstrate this association. Students with SEN are more likely to display mental health problems than students of the standard population. This may be caused by the accumulation of and frequent exposure to situations that they perceive as stressful.

Keywords: Coping, mental vulnerability, students with special education needs, academic performance, academic success.

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52 Household Food Insecurity and Associated Coping Strategies in Urban, Peri-Urban and Rural Settings: A Case of Morogoro and Iringa Towns, Tanzania

Authors: U. Tumaini, J. Msuya

Abstract:

Food insecurity is a worrying challenge worldwide with sub-Saharan Africa including Tanzania being the most affected. Although factors that influence household food access security status and ways of coping with such factors have been examined, little has been reported on how these coping strategies vary along the urban-rural continuum especially in medium-sized towns. The purpose of this study was to identify food insecurity coping strategies employed by households and assess whether they are similar along the urban-rural continuum. The study was cross-sectional in design whereby a random sample of 279 households was interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 software. It was revealed that the proportion of households relying on less preferred and quality foods, eating fewer meals per day, undertaking work for food or money, performing farm and off-farm activities, and selling fall back assets was higher in rural settings compared to urban and peri-urban areas. Similarly, more households in urban and peri-urban areas cope with food access insecurity by having strict food budgets compared to those in rural households (p ≤ 0.001). The study concludes that food insecurity coping strategies vary significantly from one spatial entity to another. It is thereby recommended that poor, particularly rural households should be supported to diversify their income-generating activities not only for food security purposes during times of food shortage but also as businesses aimed at increasing their household incomes.

Keywords: Food coping strategies, household food insecurity, medium-sized towns, urban-rural continuum.

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51 Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring the Coping Strategies in Situations of Stress

Authors: Lucie Côté, Martin Lauzier, Guy Beauchamp, France Guertin

Abstract:

Stress causes deleterious effects to the physical, psychological and organizational levels, which highlight the need to use effective coping strategies to deal with it. Several coping models exist, but they don’t integrate the different strategies in a coherent way nor do they take into account the new research on the emotional coping and acceptance of the stressful situation. To fill these gaps, an integrative model incorporating the main coping strategies was developed. This model arises from the review of the scientific literature on coping and from a qualitative study carried out among workers with low or high levels of stress, as well as from an analysis of clinical cases. The model allows one to understand under what circumstances the strategies are effective or ineffective and to learn how one might use them more wisely. It includes Specific Strategies in controllable situations (the Modification of the Situation and the Resignation-Disempowerment), Specific Strategies in non-controllable situations (Acceptance and Stubborn Relentlessness) as well as so-called General Strategies (Wellbeing and Avoidance). This study is intended to undertake and present the process of development and validation of an instrument to measure coping strategies based on this model. An initial pool of items has been generated from the conceptual definitions and three expert judges have validated the content. Of these, 18 items have been selected for a short form questionnaire. A sample of 300 students and employees from a Quebec university was used for the validation of the questionnaire. Concerning the reliability of the instrument, the indices observed following the inter-rater agreement (Krippendorff’s alpha) and the calculation of the coefficients for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) are satisfactory. To evaluate the construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis using MPlus supports the existence of a model with six factors. The results of this analysis suggest also that this configuration is superior to other alternative models. The correlations show that the factors are only loosely related to each other. Overall, the analyses carried out suggest that the instrument has good psychometric qualities and demonstrates the relevance of further work to establish predictive validity and reconfirm its structure. This instrument will help researchers and clinicians better understand and assess coping strategies to cope with stress and thus prevent mental health issues.

Keywords: Acceptance, coping strategies, measurement instrument, questionnaire, stress, validation process.

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50 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake

Abstract:

Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: Athletic retirement, coping, female athlete, stress.

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49 Incidence of Disasters and Coping Mechanism among Farming Households in South West Nigeria

Authors: Fawehinmi Olabisi Alaba, Adeniyi O. R.

Abstract:

Farming households faces lots of disaster which contribute to endemic poverty. Anticipated increases in extreme weather events will exacerbate this. Primary data was administered to farming household using multi-stage random sampling technique. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the respondents (69.9%) are male, have mean household size, years of formal education and age of 5±1.14, 6±3.41, and 51.06±10.43 respectively. The major (48.9%) type of disaster experienced is flooding. Major coping mechanism adopted is sourcing for support from family and friends. Age, education, experience, access to extension agent, and mitigation control method contribute significantly to vulnerability to disaster. The major adaptation method (62.3%) is construction of drainage.

The study revealed that the coping mechanisms employed may become less effective as increasingly fragile livelihood systems struggle to withstand disaster shocks. Thus there is need for training of the farmers on measures to adapt to mitigate the shock from disasters

Keywords: Adaptation, Disasters, Flooding, Vulnerability.

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48 Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

Authors: Erdinc Ozturk, Gizem Akcan

Abstract:

Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students whose ages are between 18 and 35 participated this study. According to findings of this study, men are more prone to cyber bullying than women. Moreover, men are also more prone to cyber victimization than women.

Keywords: Cyber bullying, cyber victimization, coping strategies.

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47 Dependence of Virtual Subjects Reflection from the Features of Coping Behavior of Students

Authors: F.S.Tashimova, A. Mirzabekova, Z. Ismagambetova, Y. Massanov, Z. Gabit

Abstract:

In the globalization process, when the struggle for minds and values of the people is taking place, the impact of the virtual space can cause unexpected effects and consequences in the process of adjustment of young people in this world. Their special significance is defined by unconscious influence on the underlying process of meaning and therefore the values preached by them are much more effective and affect both the personal characteristics and the peculiarities of adjustment process. Related to this the challenge is to identify factors influencing the reflection characteristics of virtual subjects and measures their impact on the personal characteristics of the students.

Keywords: Coping behavior, overcoming, personalization (representation), psychological defense, values, virtual space, virtual subject, subjective reflection.

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46 Biokinetics of Coping Mechanism of Freshwater tilapia following Exposure to Waterborne and Dietary Copper

Authors: Jeng-Wei Tsai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to understand the main sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the organism mediate the process of Cu accumulation under prolonged conditions. By measuring both dietary and waterborne Cu accumulation and total concentrations in tilapia with biokinetic modeling approach, we were able to clarify the biokinetic coping mechanisms for the long term Cu accumulation. This study showed that water and food are both the major source of Cu for the muscle and liver of tilapia. This implied that control the Cu concentration in these two routes will be correlated to the Cu bioavailability for tilapia. We found that exposure duration and level of waterborne Cu drove the Cu accumulation in tilapia. The ability for Cu biouptake and depuration in organs of tilapia were actively mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. Generally, the uptake rate, depuration rate and net bioaccumulation ability in all selected organs decreased with the increasing level of waterborne Cu and extension of exposure duration.Muscle tissues accounted for over 50%of the total accumulated Cu and played a key role in buffering the Cu burden in the initial period of exposure, alternatively, the liver acted a more important role in the storage of Cu with the extension of exposures. We concluded that assumption of the constant biokinetic rates could lead to incorrect predictions with overestimating the long-term Cu accumulation in ecotoxicological risk assessments.

Keywords: Biokinetics, Chronic exposure, Copper, Coping mechanism, Tilapia

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45 The Role of Public Education in Increasing Public Awareness through Mass Media with Emphasis on Newspapers and TV: Coping with Possible Earthquake in Tehran

Authors: Naser Charkhsaz, Ashraf Sadat Mousavi, Navvab Shamspour

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the role of state education in increasing public awareness through mass media (with emphasis on newspapers and TV) coping with possible earthquake in Tehran. All residents aged 15 to 65 who live in the five regions of Tehran (North, South, East, West and Center) during the plan implementation were selected and studied. The required sample size in each region was calculated based on the Cochran formula (n=380). In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire with reliability (82%) and a one-sample t-test has been used, respectively. The results showed that warnings related to the Tehran earthquake affected people in the pre-contemplation stage, while public education through mass media did not promote public awareness about prevention, preparedness and rehabilitation.

Keywords: Public education through mass media, public awareness, possible earthquake in Tehran, pre-contemplation.

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44 Readiness of Military Professionals for Challenging Situations

Authors: Petra Hurbišová, Monika Davidová

Abstract:

The article deals with the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations. It discusses higher requirements on the psychical endurance of military professionals arising from the specific nature of the military occupation, which is typical for being very difficult to maintain regularity, which is in accordance with the hygiene of work alternated by relaxation. The soldier must be able to serve in the long term and constantly intense performance that goes beyond human tolerance to stress situations. A challenging situation is always associated with overcoming difficulties, obstacles and complicated circumstances or using unusual methods, ways and means to achieve the desired (expected) objectives, performing a given task or satisfying an important need. This paper describes the categories of challenging situations, their classification and characteristics. Attention is also paid to the formation of personality in challenging situations, coping with stress in challenging situations, Phases of solutions of stressful situations, resistance to challenging life situations and its factors. Finally, the article is focused on increasing the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations.

Keywords: Coping, challenging situations, stress, stressful situations, military professionals, resilience.

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43 Job Stressors and Coping Mechanisms among Emergency Department Nurses in the Armed Force Hospitals of Taiwan

Authors: Wei-Wen Liu, Feng-Chuan Pan, Pei-Chi Wen, Sen-Ji Chen, Su-Hui Lin

Abstract:

Nurses in an Armed Force Hospital (AFH) expose to stronger stress than those in a civil hospital, especially in an emergency department (ED). Ironically, stresses of these nurses received few if any attention in academic research in the past. This study collects 227 samples from the emergency departments of four armed force hospitals in central and southern Taiwan. The research indicates that the top five stressors are a massive casualty event, delayed physician support, overloads of routine work, overloads of assignments, and annoying paper work. Excessive work loading was found to be the primary source of stress. Nurses who were perceived to have greater stress levels were more inclined to deploy emotion-oriented approaches and more likely to seek job rotations. Professional stressors and problem-oriented approaches were positively correlated. Unlike other local studies, this study concludes that the excessive work-loading is more stressful in an AFH.

Keywords: Emergency nurse, Job stressor, Coping behavior, Armed force hospital.

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42 Managing IT Departments in Higher Education Institutes: Coping with the Exponentially Growing Needs and Expectations

Authors: Balqees A. Al-Thuhli, Ali H. Al-Badi, Khamis Al-Gharbi

Abstract:

Information technology is changing rapidly and the users’ expectations are also growing. Dealing with these changes in information technology, while satisfying the users’ needs and expectations is a big challenge. IT managers need to explore new mechanisms/strategies to enable them to cope with such challenges.

 The objectives of this research are to identify the significant challenges that might face IT managers in higher education institutes in the face of the high and ever growing customer expectations and to propose possible solutions to cope with such high-speed changes in information technology.

To achieve these objectives, interviews with the IT professionals from different higher education institutes in Oman were conducted. In addition, documentation (printed and online) related to these institutions were studied and an intensive literature review of published work was examined.

The findings of this research are expected to give a better understanding of the challenges that might face the IT managers at higher education institutes. This acquired understanding is expected to highlight the importance of being adaptable and fast in keeping up with the ever-growing technological changes. Moreover, adopting different tools and technologies could assist IT managers in developing their organisations’ IT policies and strategies.

Keywords: Information technology, IT rapid changes, CIO roles, challenges, IT managers, coping mechanisms, users' expectations.

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41 Analyses of Socio-Cognitive Identity Styles by Slovak Adolescents

Authors: Blandína Šramová, Gabriel Bianchi, Barbara Lášticová, Katarína Fichnová, Anežka Hamranová

Abstract:

The contribution deals with analysis of identity style at adolescents (N=463) at the age from 16 to 19 (the average age is 17,7 years). We used the Identity Style Inventory by Berzonsky, distinguishing three basic, measured identity styles: informational, normative, diffuse-avoidant identity style and also commitment. The informational identity style influencing on personal adaptability, coping strategies, quality of life and the normative identity style, it means the style in which an individual takes on models of authorities at self-defining were found to have the highest representation in the studied group of adolescents by higher scores at girls in comparison with boys. The normative identity style positively correlates with the informational identity style. The diffuse-avoidant identity style was found to be positively associated with maladaptive decisional strategies, neuroticism and depressive reactions. There is the style, in which the individual shifts aside defining his personality. In our research sample the lowest score represents it and negatively correlates with commitment, it means with coping strategies, thrust in oneself and the surrounding world. The age of adolescents did not significantly differentiate representation of identity style. We were finding the model, in which informational and normative identity style had positive relationship and the informational and diffuseavoidant style had negative relationship, which were determinated with commitment. In the same time the commitment is influenced with other outside factors.

Keywords: Identity Style Inventory, Informational IdentityStyle, Normative Identity Style, Diffuse-Avoidant Style, IdentityCommitment.

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40 The Risk of In-work Poverty and Family Coping Strategies

Authors: A. Banovcinova, M. Zakova

Abstract:

Labor market activity and paid employment should be a key factor in protecting individuals and families from falling into poverty and providing them with sufficient resources to meet the needs of their members. However, due to various processes in the labor market as well as the influence of individual factors and often insufficient social capital, there is a relatively large group of households that cannot eliminate paid employment and find themselves in a state of so-called working poverty. The aim of the research was to find out what strategies families use in managing poverty and meeting their needs and which of these strategies prevail in the Slovak population. A quantitative research strategy was chosen. The method of data collection was a structured interview focused on finding out the use of individual management strategies and also selected demographic indicators. The research sample consisted of members of families in which at least one member has a paid job. The condition for inclusion in the research was that the family's income did not exceed 60% of the national median equalized disposable income. The analysis of the results showed 5 basic areas to which management strategies are related - work, financial security, needs, social contacts and perception of the current situation. The prevailing strategies were strategies aimed at increasing and streamlining labor market activity and the planned and effective management of the family budget. Strategies that were rejected were mainly related to debt creation. The results make it possible to identify the preferred ways of managing poverty in individual areas of life, as well as the factors that influence this behavior. This information is important for working with families living in a state of working poverty and can help professionals develop positive ways of coping for families.

Keywords: Copying strategies, family, in-work poverty, quantitative research.

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39 Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Psychosocial Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease: The Case of Patients in a Public Hospital in Ghana

Authors: Vincent A. Adzika, Franklin N. Glozah, Collins S. K. Ahorlu

Abstract:

Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is of major public-health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Africa. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used, involving the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life of individuals, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results: Results showed no gender and marital status differences in anxiety and depression. However, there were age and level of education variances in depression but not in anxiety. In terms of quality of life, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends, relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having Faith in God was the frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion: It is recommended that a multi-dimensional intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.

Keywords: Sickle cell disease, quality of life, anxiety, depression, socio-demographic characteristics, Ghana.

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38 The Role of Counselling Psychology on Expatriate Adjustment in East Asia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Panagiotis Platanitis

Abstract:

Purpose: This research paper seeks to review the empirical studies in the field of expatriate adjustment in East Asia in order to produce a thematic understanding of the current adjustment challenges, thus enabling practitioners to enrich their knowledge. Background: Learning to live, work, and function in a country and culture vastly different from that of one’s upbringing can pose some unique challenges in terms of adaptation and adjustment. This has led to a growing body of research about the adjustment of expatriate workers. Adjustment itself has been posited as a three-dimensional construct; work adjustment, interaction adjustment and general or cultural adjustment. Methodology: This qualitative systematic review has been conducted on all identified peer-reviewed empirical studies related to expatriate adjustment in East Asia. Five electronic databases (PsychInfo, Emerald, Scopus, EBSCO and JSTOR) were searched to December 2015. Out of 625 identified records, thorough evaluation for eligibility resulted in 15 relevant studies being subjected to data analysis. The quality of the identified research was assessed according to the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields. The data were analysed by means of thematic synthesis for systematic reviews of qualitative research. Findings: Data analysis revealed five key themes. The themes developed were: (1) personality traits (2) types of adjustment, (3) language, (4) culture and (5) coping strategies. Types of adjustment included subthemes such as: Interaction, general, work, psychological, sociocultural and cross-cultural adjustment. Conclusion: The present review supported previous literature on the different themes of adjustment and it takes the focus from work and general adjustment to the psychological challenges and it introduces the psychological adjustment. It also gives a different perspective about the use of cross-cultural training and the coping strategies expatriates use when they are abroad. This review helps counselling psychologists to understand the importance of a multicultural approach when working with expatriates and also to be aware of what expatriates might face when working and living in East Asia.

Keywords: Expatriates, adjustment, East Asia, counselling psychology.

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37 Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment

Authors: E. Fosch-Villaronga

Abstract:

This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment (CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments [Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)] fall behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.

Keywords: Ethics, Impact Assessment, Law, Personal Care Robots.

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36 Cultivating a Successful Academic Career in Higher Education Institutes: The 10 X C Model

Authors: S. Zamir

Abstract:

The modern era has brought with it significant organizational changes. These changes have not bypassed the academic world, and along with the old academic bonds that include a world of knowledge and ethics, academic faculty members are required more than ever not only to survive in the academic world, but also to thrive and flourish and position themselves as modern and opinionated academicians. Based upon the writings of organizational consultants, the article suggests a 10 X C model for cultivating an academic backbone, as well as emphasizing its input to the professional growth of university and college academics: Competence, Calculations of pain & gain, Character, Commitment, Communication, Curiosity, Coping, Courage, Collaboration and Celebration.

Keywords: Academic career, academicians, higher education, the 10xC Model.

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