**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1721

# Search results for: Linear dichroism (LD)

##### 1721 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based On Polarization-Holographic Grating

**Authors:**
Barbara Kilosanidze,
George Kakauridze,
Levan Nadareishvili,
Yuri Mshvenieradze

**Abstract:**

A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarizationholographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

**Keywords:**
Birefringence,
graded oriented polymers,
linear
dichroism,
optical polymers,
optical anisotropy,
polarization-holographic
grating,

##### 1720 Comparative DNA Binding of Iron and Manganese Complexes by Spectroscopic and ITC Techniques and Antibacterial Activity

**Authors:**
Maryam Nejat Dehkordi,
Per Lincoln,
Hassan Momtaz

**Abstract:**

Interaction of Schiff base complexes of Iron and Manganese: Iron [N, N’ Bis (5- (triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) chloride, [Fe Salen]Cl; Manganese [N, N’ Bis (5- (triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) acetate, were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry techniques (ITC). The absorbance spectra of complexes have shown hyper and hypochromism in the presence of DNA that is indication of interaction of complexes with DNA. The linear dichroism (LD) measurements confirmed the bending of DNA in the presence of complexes. Furthermore, Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments approved that complexes bound to DNA on the base of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. More, ITC profile exhibits the existence of two binding phases for the complexes. Antibacterial activity of ligand and complexes were tested in vitro to evaluate their activity against the gram positive and negative bacteria.

**Keywords:**
Schiff base complexes,
Linear dichroism (LD),
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).

##### 1719 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Partial Linear Regression Model,
Linear RegressionModel,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 1718 Simplex Method for Fuzzy Variable Linear Programming Problems

**Authors:**
S.H. Nasseri,
E. Ardil

**Abstract:**

Fuzzy linear programming is an application of fuzzy set theory in linear decision making problems and most of these problems are related to linear programming with fuzzy variables. A convenient method for solving these problems is based on using of auxiliary problem. In this paper a new method for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems directly using linear ranking functions is proposed. This method uses simplex tableau which is used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy variable linear programming,
fuzzy number,
ranking function,
simplex method.

##### 1717 Molecular Dynamics and Circular Dichroism Studies on Aurein 1.2 and Retro Analog

**Authors:**
Safyeh Soufian,
Hoosein Naderi-Manesh,
Abdoali Alizadeh,
Mohammad Nabi Sarbolouki

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Antimicrobial peptides,
retro,
molecular dynamic,
circular dichroism.

##### 1716 Bi-linear Complementarity Problem

**Authors:**
Chao Wang,
Ting-Zhu Huang Chen Jia

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a new linear complementarity problem named as bi-linear complementarity problem (BLCP) and the method for solving BLCP. In addition, the algorithm for error estimation of BLCP is also given. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is efficient.

**Keywords:**
Bi-linear complementarity problem,
Linear complementarity
problem,
Extended linear complementarity problem,
Error
estimation,
P-matrix,
M-matrix.

##### 1715 Two-dimensional Differential Transform Method for Solving Linear and Non-linear Goursat Problem

**Authors:**
H. Taghvafard,
G. H. Erjaee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quadrature,
Spline interpolation,
Trapezoidal rule,
Numericalintegration,
Error analysis.

##### 1714 Modified Buck Boost Circuit for Linear and Non-Linear Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

**Authors:**
I Made Darmayuda,
Chai Tshun Chuan Kevin,
Je Minkyu

**Abstract:**

Plenty researches have reported techniques to harvest energy from piezoelectric transducer. In the earlier years, the researches mainly report linear energy harvesting techniques whereby interface circuitry is designed to have input impedance that match with the impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In recent years non-linear techniques become more popular. The non-linear technique employs voltage waveform manipulation to boost the available-for-extraction energy at the time of energy transfer. The fact that non-linear energy extraction provides larger available-for-extraction energy doesn’t mean the linear energy extraction is completely obsolete. In some scenarios, such as where initial power is not available, linear energy extraction is still preferred. A modified Buck Boost circuit which is capable of harvesting piezoelectric energy using both linear and non-linear techniques is reported in this paper. Efficiency of at least 64% can be achieved using this circuit. For linear extraction, the modified Buck Boost circuit is controlled using a fix frequency and duty cycle clock. A voltage sensor and a pulse generator are added as the controller for the non-linear extraction technique.

**Keywords:**
Buck boost,
energy harvester,
linear energy harvester,
non-linear energy harvester,
piezoelectric,
synchronized charge extraction.

##### 1713 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

**Authors:**
Baoguang Tian,
Nan Chen

**Abstract:**

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

**Keywords:**
Linear weighted regression,
Relative efficiency,
Mean matrix,
Trace.

##### 1712 Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates

**Authors:**
Boukhzer Abdenbi,
El Bikri Khalid,
Benamar Rhali

**Abstract:**

In the present study, the problem of geometrically non-linear free vibrations of functionally graded rectangular plates (FGRP) is studied. The theoretical model, previously developed and based on Hamilton’s principle, is adapted here to determine the fundamental non-linear mode shape of these plates. Frequency parameters, displacements and stress are given for various power-law distributions of the volume fractions of the constituents and various aspect ratios. Good agreement with previous published results is obtained in the case of linear and non-linear analyses.

**Keywords:**
Non-linear vibration,
functionally graded materials,
rectangular plates.

##### 1711 Simplex Method for Solving Linear Programming Problems with Fuzzy Numbers

**Authors:**
S. H. Nasseri,
E. Ardil,
A. Yazdani,
R. Zaefarian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy number linear programming,
rankingfunction,
simplex method.

##### 1710 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

**Authors:**
R. B. Ogunrinde,
C. C. Jibunoh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Spectral decomposition,
eigenvalues of the Jacobian,
linear RHS,
homogeneous linear systems.

##### 1709 Development of Admire Longitudinal Quasi-Linear Model by using State Transformation Approach

**Authors:**
Jianqiao. Yu,
Jianbo. Wang,
Xinzhen. He

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a longitudinal quasi-linear model for the ADMIRE model. The ADMIRE model is a nonlinear model of aircraft flying in the condition of high angle of attack. So it can-t be considered to be a linear system approximately. In this paper, for getting the longitudinal quasi-linear model of the ADMIRE, a state transformation based on differentiable functions of the nonscheduling states and control inputs is performed, with the goal of removing any nonlinear terms not dependent on the scheduling parameter. Since it needn-t linear approximation and can obtain the exact transformations of the nonlinear states, the above-mentioned approach is thought to be appropriate to establish the mathematical model of ADMIRE. To verify this conclusion, simulation experiments are done. And the result shows that this quasi-linear model is accurate enough.

**Keywords:**
quasi-linear model,
simulation,
state transformation approach,
the ADMIRE model.

##### 1708 Asymptotic Stability of Input-saturated System with Linear-growth-bound Disturbances via Variable Structure Control: An LMI Approach

**Authors:**
Yun Jong Choi,
Nam Woong,
PooGyeon Park

**Abstract:**

Variable Structure Control (VSC) is one of the most useful tools handling the practical system with uncertainties and disturbances. Up to now, unfortunately, not enough studies on the input-saturated system with linear-growth-bound disturbances via VSC have been presented. Therefore, this paper proposes an asymp¬totic stability condition for the system via VSC. The designed VSC controller consists of two control parts. The linear control part plays a role in stabilizing the system, and simultaneously, the nonlinear control part in rejecting the linear-growth-bound disturbances perfectly. All conditions derived in this paper are expressed with Linear Matrices Inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved with an LMI toolbox in MATLAB.

**Keywords:**
Input saturation,
linear-growth bounded disturbances,
linear matrix inequality (LMI),
variable structure control

##### 1707 Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm

**Authors:**
Hazem Al-Mofleh,
John Daniels,
Joseph McKean

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-Linear Wilcoxon,
robust estimation,
Variogram
estimation.

##### 1706 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın,
Bilgin Senel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Semi-parametric regression,
Penalized LeastSquares,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 1705 Algorithms for the Fast Computation of PWL and PHL Transforms

**Authors:**
Fituri H Belgassem,
Abdulbasit Nigrat,
Seddeeq Ghrari

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the construction of fast algorithms for the computation of Periodic Walsh Piecewise-Linear PWL transform and the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear PHL transform will be presented. Algorithms for the computation of the inverse transforms are also proposed. The matrix equation of the PWL and PHL transforms are introduced. Comparison of the computational requirements for the periodic piecewise-linear transforms and other orthogonal transforms shows that the periodic piecewise-linear transforms require less number of operations than some orthogonal transforms such as the Fourier, Walsh and the Discrete Cosine transforms.

**Keywords:**
Piece wise linear transforms,
Fast transforms,
Fast algorithms.

##### 1704 A Model-following Adaptive Controller for Linear/Nonlinear Plantsusing Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

**Authors:**
Yuichi Masukake,
Yoshihisa Ishida

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear/nonlinear plants,
neural networks,
radial basisfunction networks.

##### 1703 Use of Linear Programming for Optimal Production in a Production Line in Saudi Food Co.

**Authors:**
Qasim M. Kriri

**Abstract:**

Few Saudi Arabia production companies face financial profit issues until this moment. This work presents a linear integer programming model that solves a production problem of a Saudi Food Company in Saudi Arabia. An optimal solution to the above-mentioned problem is a Linear Programming solution. In this regard, the main purpose of this project is to maximize profit. Linear Programming Technique has been used to derive the maximum profit from production of natural juice at Saudi Food Co. The operations of production of the company were formulated and optimal results are found out by using Lindo Software that employed Sensitivity Analysis and Parametric linear programming in order develop Linear Programming. In addition, the parameter values are increased, then the values of the objective function will be increased.

**Keywords:**
Parameter linear programming,
objective function,
sensitivity analysis,
optimize profit.

##### 1702 Recognition and Reconstruction of Partially Occluded Objects

**Authors:**
Michela Lecca,
Stefano Messelodi

**Abstract:**

A new automatic system for the recognition and re¬construction of resealed and/or rotated partially occluded objects is presented. The objects to be recognized are described by 2D views and each view is occluded by several half-planes. The whole object views and their visible parts (linear cuts) are then stored in a database. To establish if a region R of an input image represents an object possibly occluded, the system generates a set of linear cuts of R and compare them with the elements in the database. Each linear cut of R is associated to the most similar database linear cut. R is recognized as an instance of the object 0 if the majority of the linear cuts of R are associated to a linear cut of views of 0. In the case of recognition, the system reconstructs the occluded part of R and determines the scale factor and the orientation in the image plane of the recognized object view. The system has been tested on two different datasets of objects, showing good performance both in terms of recognition and reconstruction accuracy.

**Keywords:**
Occluded Object Recognition,
Shape Reconstruction,
Automatic Self-Adaptive Systems,
Linear Cut.

##### 1701 Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods for Solving Linear System

**Authors:**
Guangbin Wang,
Ning Zhang,
Fuping Tan

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax = b, where A is a monotone matrix or an H-matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.

**Keywords:**
Parallel,
alternating two-stage,
convergence,
linear system.

##### 1700 Determination of Geometric Dimensions of a Double Sided Linear Switched Reluctance Motor

**Authors:**
Dursun M.,
Koc F.,
Ozbay H.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear switched reluctance motor,
sliding door,
elevator door,
linear motor design.

##### 1699 Economic Dispatch Fuzzy Linear Regression and Optimization

**Authors:**
A. K. Al-Othman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Economic Dispatch,
Fuzzy Linear Regression (FLP)and Optimization.

##### 1698 On the Solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems

**Authors:**
Hsuan-Ku Liu

**Abstract:**

A linear system is called a fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) if quantities in this system are all fuzzy numbers. For the FFLS, we investigate its solution and develop a new approximate method for solving the FFLS. Observing the numerical results, we find that our method is accurate than the iterative Jacobi and Gauss- Seidel methods on approximating the solution of FFLS.

**Keywords:**
Fully fuzzy linear equations,
iterative method,
homotopy perturbation method,
approximate solutions.

##### 1697 Using Finite Element Method for Determination of Poles Number in Optimal Design of Linear Motor

**Authors:**
Abdolamir Nekoubin

**Abstract:**

One of Effective parameters on the performance of linear induction motors is number of poles which must be selected and optimized to increase power efficiency and motor performance significantly. In this paper a double-sided linear induction motor with different poles number by using MAXWELL3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. Then for dynamic simulation, linear motor by using MATLAB software is simulated. The results show that by adding poles number, system time response is increased and motor after more time reaches to steady state. Also propulsion force of motor is increased.

**Keywords:**
Linear motor,
poles number,
finite element method.

##### 1696 Delay-independent Stabilization of Linear Systems with Multiple Time-delays

**Authors:**
Ping He,
Heng-You Lan,
Gong-Quan Tan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear system,
Delay-independent stabilization,
Lyapunovfunctional,
Riccati algebra matrix equation.

##### 1695 Image Segmentation by Mathematical Morphology: An Approach through Linear, Bilinear and Conformal Transformation

**Authors:**
Dibyendu Ghoshal,
Pinaki Pratim Acharjya

**Abstract:**

Image segmentation process based on mathematical morphology has been studied in the paper. It has been established from the first principles of the morphological process, the entire segmentation is although a nonlinear signal processing task, the constituent wise, the intermediate steps are linear, bilinear and conformal transformation and they give rise to a non linear affect in a cumulative manner.

**Keywords:**
Image segmentation,
linear transform,
bilinear transform,
conformal transform,
mathematical morphology.

##### 1694 Online Robust Model Predictive Control for Linear Fractional Transformation Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities

**Authors:**
Peyman Sindareh Esfahani,
Jeffery Kurt Pieper

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the *l*_{2}-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.

**Keywords:**
Linear fractional transformation,
linear matrix inequality,
robust model predictive control,
state feedback control.

##### 1693 A Note on the Convergence of the Generalized AOR Iterative Method for Linear Systems

**Authors:**
Zhong-xi Gao,
Hou-biao Li

**Abstract:**

Recently, some convergent results of the generalized AOR iterative (GAOR) method for solving linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices are presented in [Darvishi, M.T., Hessari, P.: On convergence of the generalized AOR method for linear systems with diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. Appl. Math. Comput. 176, 128-133 (2006)] and [Tian, G.X., Huang, T.Z., Cui, S.Y.: Convergence of generalized AOR iterative method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant cofficient matrices. J. Comp. Appl. Math. 213, 240-247 (2008)]. In this paper, we give the convergence of the GAOR method for linear systems with strictly doubly diagonally dominant matrix, which improves these corresponding results.

**Keywords:**
Diagonally dominant matrix,
GAOR method,
Linear
system,
Convergence

##### 1692 Approximation Approach to Linear Filtering Problem with Correlated Noise

**Authors:**
Hong Son Hoang,
Remy Baraille

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear dynamical system,
filtering,
minimum meansquare filter,
correlated noise