Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: L-shaped Slots

35 CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

Authors: K. Vasudeva Karanth, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.

Keywords: Boundary layer suction converging slot, Flowseparation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jetsand wakes.

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34 Design a single-phase BLDC Motor and Finite- Element Analysis of Stator Slots Structure Effects on the Efficiency

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

In this paper effect of stator slots structure and switching angle on a cylindrical single-phase brushless direct current motor (BLDC) is analyzed. BLDC motor with three different structures for stator slots is designed by using RMxprt software and efficiency of BLDC motor for different structures in full-load condition has been presented. Then the BLDC motor in different conditions by using Maxwell 3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. At the end with the use of MATLAB software influence of switching angle on motor performance investigated and optimal angle has been determined. The results indicate that with correct choosing of stator slots structure and switching angle, maximum efficiency can be found.

Keywords: Permanent magnets, Switching angle, BLDC motor

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33 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach

Abstract:

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design consist of a rectangular patch with symmetric l-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875 – 7.115 GHz) with stable radiation pattern is achieved. The proposed antenna has excellent characteristics, low profile and costeffective compared to existing UWB antennas. The UWB antenna is designed and analyzed using CST Microwave Studio in transient mode to verify antenna parameters improvements.

Keywords: UWB Planar Antenna, L-shaped Slots, Wireless Applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST Microwave Studio.

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32 Dynamic TDMA Slot Reservation Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: S. M. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule. A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme, which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization, be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

Keywords: TDMA, cognitive radio, ad hoc networks, QoSguarantee, dynamic frame length.

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31 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: Feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots.

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30 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.

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29 Enhanced Performance of Fading Dispersive Channel Using Dynamic Frequency Hopping(DFH)

Authors: Walid M. Saad

Abstract:

techniques are examined to overcome the performance degradation caused by the channel dispersion using slow frequency hopping (SFH) with dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) pattern adaptation. In DFH systems, the frequency slots are selected by continuous quality monitoring of all frequencies available in a system and modification of hopping patterns for each individual link based on replacing slots which its signal to interference ratio (SIR) measurement is below a required threshold. Simulation results will show the improvements in BER obtained by DFH in comparison with matched frequency hopping (MFH), random frequency hopping (RFH) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in multipath slowly fading dispersive channels using a generalized bandpass two-path transfer function model, and will show the improvement obtained according to the threshold selection.

Keywords: code division multiple access (CDMA), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), dynamic channel assignment, frequency hopping, matched frequency hopping (MFH).

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28 Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation

Authors: A. Q. Ahmed, S. Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to validate the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. A case study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of calculation for the cooling coil load in Stratified Air Distribution (STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4% energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat sources.

Keywords: Air conditioning, Displacement ventilation, Energy saving, Thermal comfort.

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27 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey

Abstract:

The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: Antenna, antenna arrays, multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, millimeter wave bands, slot antenna, flush installation, directivity, open waveguide, conformal antennas.

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26 Thermal Analysis of Circular Pin-fin with Rectangular Slot at the Center by Forced Convection

Authors: Kavita H. Dhanawade, Hanamant S. Dhanawade, Ajay Kashikar, Shweta Matey, Mahesh Bhadane, Sunny Sarraf

Abstract:

Extended surfaces are commonly used in practice to enhance heat transfer. Most of the engineering problems require high performance heat transfer components with light weight, volumes, accommodating shapes, costs and reliability depending on industrial applications. This paper reports an experimental analysis to investigate heat transfer enhancement by forced convection using different sizes of pin-fin with rectangular slots at the center. The cross sectional area of the oblong duct was 200 mm x 80 mm. The info utilized in performance analysis was obtained experimentally for material, aluminum at 200 Watts heat input varying velocity 1 m/s to 5 m/s. Using the Taguchi experimental design method, optimum design parameters and their levels were analysed. Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as a performance characteristic parameter. An An L9 (33) orthogonal array was designated as an experimental proposal. Optimum results were found by experimenting. It is observed that pin-fins with different slots sizes have a better impact on Nusselt Number.

Keywords: Heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt Number, pin-fin, forced convection.

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25 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range.

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24 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: Virtual container yard, imbalance, management, inventory.

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23 Mathematical Modeling of Elastically Creeping State of Arbitrarily Orientated Cavities in the Transversally Isotropic Massif

Authors: N. Azhikhanov, T. Turimbetov, Zh. Masanov, N. Zhunisov

Abstract:

It can be determined in preference between representative mechanical and mathematical model of elasticcreeping deformation of transversally isotropic array with doubly periodic system of tilted slots, and offer of the finite elements calculation scheme, and inspection of the states of two diagonal arbitrary profile cavities of deep inception, and in setting up the tense and dislocation fields distribution nature in computing processes.

Keywords: Mathematical model, tunnel, transversally isotropic, finite elements.

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22 E-Appointment Scheduling (EAS)

Authors: Noraziah Ahmad, Roslina Mohd Sidek, Mohd Affendy Omardin

Abstract:

E-Appointment Scheduling (EAS) has been developed to handle appointment for UMP students, lecturers in Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering (FCSSE) and Student Medical Center. The schedules are based on the timetable and university activities. Constraints Logic Programming (CLP) has been implemented to solve the scheduling problems by giving recommendation to the users in part of determining any available slots from the lecturers and doctors- timetable. By using this system, we can avoid wasting time and cost because this application will set an appointment by auto-generated. In addition, this system can be an alternative to the lecturers and doctors to make decisions whether to approve or reject the appointments.

Keywords: EAS, Constraint Logic Programming, PHP, Apache.

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21 Power Minimization in Decode-and-XOR-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks

Authors: Dong-Woo Lim, Chang-Jae Chun, Hyung-Myung Kim

Abstract:

We consider a two-way relay network where two sources exchange information. A relay helps the two sources exchange information using the decode-and-XOR-forward protocol. We investigate the power minimization problem with minimum rate constraints. The system needs two time slots and in each time slot the required rate pair should be achievable. The power consumption is minimized in each time slot and we obtained the closed form solution. The simulation results confirm that the proposed power allocation scheme consumes lower total power than the conventional schemes.

Keywords: Decode-and-XOR-forward, power minimization, two-way relay

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20 A Microwave Bandstop Filter Using Defected Microstrip Structure

Authors: H. Elftouh, N. T. Amar, M. Aghoutane, M. Boussouis

Abstract:

In this paper, two bandstop filters resonating at 5.25 GHz and 7.3 GHz using Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) are discussed. These slots are incorporated in the feed lines of filters to perform a serious LC resonance property in certain frequency and suppress the spurious signals. Therefore, this method keeps the filter size unchanged and makes a resonance frequency that is due to the abrupt change of the current path of the filter. If the application requires elimination of this band of frequencies, additional filter elements are required, which can only be accomplished by adding this DMS element resonant at desired frequency band rejection. The filters are optimized and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) tool.

Keywords: Defected microstrip structure, microstrip filters, passive filter.

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19 Solving Machine Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: S. G. Ponnambalam, Low Seng Kiat

Abstract:

In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve machine loading problem in flexible manufacturing system (FMS), with bicriterion objectives of minimizing system unbalance and maximizing system throughput in the occurrence of technological constraints such as available machining time and tool slots. A mathematical model is used to select machines, assign operations and the required tools. The performance of the PSO is tested by using 10 sample dataset and the results are compared with the heuristics reported in the literature. The results support that the proposed PSO is comparable with the algorithms reported in the literature.

Keywords: Machine loading problem, FMS, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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18 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components as well as the introduction of the bars skew in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars are neglected.

Keywords: Modelling, MWFA, Skew effect, Squirrel cage induction motor, Spectral domain.

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17 Feature-Based Machining using Macro

Authors: M. Razak, A. Jusoh, A. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents an on-going research work on the implementation of feature-based machining via macro programming. Repetitive machining features such as holes, slots, pockets etc can readily be encapsulated in macros. Each macro consists of methods on how to machine the shape as defined by the feature. The macro programming technique comprises of a main program and subprograms. The main program allows user to select several subprograms that contain features and define their important parameters. With macros, complex machining routines can be implemented easily and no post processor is required. A case study on machining of a part that comprised of planar face, hole and pocket features using the macro programming technique was carried out. It is envisaged that the macro programming technique can be extended to other feature-based machining fields such as the newly developed STEP-NC domain.

Keywords: Feature-based machining, CNC, Macro, STEP-NC.

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16 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular.

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15 Microstrip Slot Antenna for Triple Band Application in Wireless Communication

Authors: Biplab Bag

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of a coaxial feed single layer rectangular microstrip patch antenna for three different wireless communication band applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate Roger RT/duroid 5880 having permittivity of about 2.2 and tangent loss of 0.0009. The characteristics of the substrate are designed and to evaluate the performance of modeled antenna using HFSS v.11 EM simulator, from Ansoft. The proposed antenna has small in size and operates at 2.25GHz, 3.76GHz and 5.23GHz suitable for mobile satellite service (MSS) network, WiMAX and WLAN applications. The dimension of the patch and slots are optimized to obtain these desired functional frequency ranges. The simulation results with frequency response, radiation pattern and return loss, VSWR, Input Impedance are presented with appropriate table and graph.

Keywords: Microstrip, Tangent Loss, MSS, WiMAX, WLAN, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss, VSWR.

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14 An Improved STBC Structure and Transmission Scheme for High Rate and Reliability in OFDMA Cooperative Communication

Authors: Hyoung-Muk Lim, Won-Jun Choi, Jae-Seon Yoon, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Space-time block code(STBC) has been studied to get full diversity and full rate in multiple input multiple output(MIMO) system. Achieving full rate is difficult in cooperative communications due to the each user consumes the time slots for transmitting information in cooperation phase. So combining MIMO systems with cooperative communications has been researched for full diversity and full rate. In orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system, it is an alternative way that each user shares their allocated subchannels instead of using the MIMO system to improve the transmission rate. In this paper, a Decode-and-forward (DF) based cooperative communication scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme has improved transmission rate and reliability in multi-path fading channel of the OFDMA up-link condition by modified STBC structure and subchannel sharing.

Keywords: cooperation, improved rate, OFDMA, STBC.

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13 Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya, Shobhit K. Patel

Abstract:

The microstrip antennas area has seen some inventive work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. A novel and simple wideband monopole antenna is presented printed on a single dielectric substrate which is fed by a 50 ohm microstrip line having a low-profile antenna structure with two parallel s-shaped meandered line of same size. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube. In this research, S–form microstrip patch antenna is designed from measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application (GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency band at 1.5 GHz, the simulated results for main parameters such as return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns, and gains are also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas, in simplicity design and supply, can satisfy GPS application. Two parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path, introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube.

Keywords: Bandwidth, electrically small antenna, microstrip patch antenna, GPS.

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12 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan

Abstract:

Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, content analysis, gender, prime time.

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11 High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

Authors: H. S. Haroyan, V. R. Tadevosyan

Abstract:

High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on finite element method (FEM) has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Keywords: Broadband antenna, high gain, slot nano-antenna, plasmonics.

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10 Water Boundary Layer Flow Over Rotating Sphere with Mass Transfer

Authors: G. Revathi, P. Saikrishnan

Abstract:

An analysis is performed to study the influence of nonuniform double slot suction on a steady laminar boundary layer flow over a rotating sphere when fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are inverse linear functions of temperature. Nonsimilar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate to the exact point of separation. The difficulties arising at the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate, at the edges of the slot and at the point of separation have been overcome by applying an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique and an appropriate selection of the finer step sizes along the stream-wise direction. The present investigation shows that the point of ordinary separation can be delayed by nonuniform double slot suction if the mass transfer rate is increased and also if the slots are positioned further downstream. In addition, the investigation reveals that double slot suction is found to be more effective compared to a single slot suction in delaying ordinary separation. As rotation parameter increase the point of separation moves upstream direction.

Keywords: Boundary layer, suction, mass transfer, rotating sphere.

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9 Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

Authors: A. Jabbari, M. Shakeri, A. Nabavi

Abstract:

In this paper, a tooth shape optimization method for cogging torque reduction in Permanent Magnet (PM) motors is developed by using the Reduced Basis Technique (RBT) coupled by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Design of Experiments (DOE) methods. The primary objective of the method is to reduce the enormous number of design variables required to define the tooth shape. RBT is a weighted combination of several basis shapes. The aim of the method is to find the best combination using the weights for each tooth shape as the design variables. A multi-level design process is developed to find suitable basis shapes or trial shapes at each level that can be used in the reduced basis technique. Each level is treated as a separated optimization problem until the required objective – minimum cogging torque – is achieved. The process is started with geometrically simple basis shapes that are defined by their shape co-ordinates. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the tooth shape optimization of a 8-poles/12-slots PM motor.

Keywords: PM motor, cogging torque, tooth shape optimization, RBT, FEA, DOE.

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8 Selection the Optimum Cooling Scheme for Generators based on the Electro-Thermal Analysis

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

Optimal selection of electrical insulations in electrical machinery insures reliability during operation. From the insulation studies of view for electrical machines, stator is the most important part. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electro-thermal stresses. In the first step of the study, a part of the whole structure of machine in which covers the general characteristics of the machine is chosen, then based on the electromagnetic analysis (finite element method), the machine operation is simulated. In the simulation results, the temperature distribution of the total structure is presented simultaneously by using electro-thermal analysis. The results of electro-thermal analysis can be used for designing an optimal cooling system. In order to design, review and comparing the cooling systems, four wiring structures in the slots of Stator are presented. The structures are compared to each other in terms of electrical, thermal distribution and remaining life of insulation by using Finite Element analysis. According to the steps of the study, an optimization algorithm has been presented for selection of appropriate structure.

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method, electro thermal

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7 Reinforcement Learning-Based Coexistence Interference Management in Wireless Body Area Networks

Authors: Izaz Ahmad, Farhatullah, Shahbaz Ali, Farhad Ali, Faiza, Hazrat Junaid, Farhan Zaid

Abstract:

Current trends in remote health monitoring to monetize on the Internet of Things applications have been raised in efficient and interference free communications in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) scenario. Co-existence interference in WBANs have aggravates the over-congested radio bands, thereby requiring efficient Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) strategies and improve interference management. Existing solutions utilize simplistic heuristics to approach interference problems. The scope of this research article is to investigate reinforcement learning for efficient interference management under co-existing scenarios with an emphasis on homogenous interferences. The aim of this paper is to suggest a smart CSMA/CA mechanism based on reinforcement learning called QIM-MAC that effectively uses sense slots with minimal interference. Simulation results are analyzed based on scenarios which show that the proposed approach maximized Average Network Throughput and Packet Delivery Ratio and minimized Packet Loss Ratio, Energy Consumption and Average Delay.

Keywords: WBAN, IEEE 802.15.4 Standard, CAP Super-frame, Q-Learning.

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6 Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff, R. Rousta, R. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Keywords: Permeable breakwater, double vertical slotted walls, semi-analytical model, transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient.

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