Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Petrochemical

40 Hydrogen Integration in Petrochemical Complexes, Using Modified Automated Targeting Method

Authors: M. Shariati, N. Tahouni, A. Khoshgard, M.H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Owing to extensive use of hydrogen in refining or petrochemical units, it is essential to manage hydrogen network in order to make the most efficient utilization of hydrogen. On the other hand, hydrogen is an important byproduct not properly used through petrochemical complexes and mostly sent to the fuel system. A few works have been reported in literature to improve hydrogen network for petrochemical complexes. In this study a comprehensive analysis is carried out on petrochemical units using a modified automated targeting technique which is applied to determine the minimum hydrogen consumption. Having applied the modified targeting method in two petrochemical cases, the results showed a significant reduction in required fresh hydrogen.

Keywords: Automated targeting, Hydrogen network, Petrochemical, Process integration.

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39 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.

Keywords: Cases analysis, corrosion, failure, petrochemical industry.

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38 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment and Wastewater from the Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies- Iran

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, A. Halim Sulaiman, Rosli Hashim, Ahmad Savari, Belin Tavakoly Sany T Mohamad Taqi Jafarzadeh, Reza Khani Jazani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani

Abstract:

The present study was performed in Musa bay (northern part of the Persian Gulf) around the coastal area of Bandare-Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies. Sediment samples and effluent samples were collected from the selected stations, from June 2009 to June 2010. The samples were analyzed to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. The average level of TPH concentration in the study area was more than the natural background value at all of the stations, especially at station BI1 which was the main effluent outlet of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company. Also the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon was monitored in the effluents of aforementioned petrochemical companies and the results showed that the concentration of TPH in the effluents of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company was greater than Razi petrochemical company which is may be related to the products of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (aromatics, polymers, chemicals, fuel).

Keywords: Musa bay, Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies, TPH

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37 Integrating Wearable Devices in Real-Time Computer Applications of Petrochemical Systems

Authors: Paul B. Stone, Subhashini Ganapathy, Mary E. Fendley, Layla Akilan

Abstract:

As notifications become more common through mobile devices, it is important to understand the impact of wearable devices for improved user experience of man-machine interfaces. This study examined the use of a wearable device for a real-time system using a computer simulated petrochemical system. The key research question was to determine how using information provided by the wearable device can improve human performance through measures of situational awareness and decision making. Results indicate that there was a reduction in response time when using the watch and there was no difference in situational awareness. Perception of using the watch was positive, with 83% of users finding value in using the watch and receiving haptic feedback.

Keywords: computer applications, haptic feedback, petrochemical systems, situational awareness, wearable technology

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36 Optimizing Boiler Combustion System in a Petrochemical Plant Using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Yul Y. Nazaruddin, Anas Y. Widiaribowo, Satriyo Nugroho

Abstract:

Boiler is one of the critical unit in a petrochemical plant. Steam produced by the boiler is used for various processes in the plant such as urea and ammonia plant. An alternative method to optimize the boiler combustion system is presented in this paper. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) approach is applied to model the boiler using real-time operational data collected from a boiler unit of the petrochemical plant. Nonlinear equation obtained is then used to optimize the air to fuel ratio using Genetic Algorithm, resulting an optimal ratio of 15.85. This optimal ratio is then maintained constant by ratio controller designed using inverse dynamics based on ANFIS. As a result, constant value of oxygen content in the flue gas is obtained which indicates more efficient combustion process.

Keywords: ANFIS, boiler, combustion process, genetic algorithm, optimization.

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35 Investigating the Effect of Uncertainty on a LP Model of a Petrochemical Complex: Stability Analysis Approach

Authors: Abdallah Al-Shammari

Abstract:

This study discusses the effect of uncertainty on production levels of a petrochemical complex. Uncertainly or variations in some model parameters, such as prices, supply and demand of materials, can affect the optimality or the efficiency of any chemical process. For any petrochemical complex with many plants, there are many sources of uncertainty and frequent variations which require more attention. Many optimization approaches are proposed in the literature to incorporate uncertainty within the model in order to obtain a robust solution. In this work, a stability analysis approach is applied to a deterministic LP model of a petrochemical complex consists of ten plants to investigate the effect of such variations on the obtained optimal production levels. The proposed approach can determinate the allowable variation ranges of some parameters, mainly objective or RHS coefficients, before the system lose its optimality. Parameters with relatively narrow range of variations, i.e. stability limits, are classified as sensitive parameters or constraints that need accurate estimate or intensive monitoring. These stability limits offer easy-to-use information to the decision maker and help in understanding the interaction between some model parameters and deciding when the system need to be re-optimize. The study shows that maximum production of ethylene and the prices of intermediate products are the most sensitive factors that affect the stability of the optimum solution

Keywords: Linear programming, Petrochemicals, stability analysis, uncertainty

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34 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: W. Mughees, M. Al-Ahmad, M. Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: Minimization, Water Pinch, Water Management, Pollution Prevention.

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33 Effect of Isfahan Refinery, Power Plant and Petrochemical on Borkhar District Soil

Authors: A. Gandomkar

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate regional soil Borkhar of the metals Lead has been made. In this field study fires visits to the regions. The limit of this study located in the East refineries, petrochemical and power plant to 20 km was selected. The 41 soil samples from depths of 0 to 10 cm in area and were randomized. Soil samples were transported to the laboratory and by air was dry and passed through 2-mil thickness sieve. In the laboratory of physical and chemical characteristics and concentrations of total absorption was measured. The results showed that the amount of lead in soil in many parts of the range higher than the standard limit. Survey maps show that the lead spatial distribution of the region does not special pattern.

Keywords: Soil Pollution, Heavy Metals, Borkhar District, Soil Sampling.

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32 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: Spent industrial soil, spent molecular sieve, spent normal ¬formyl -morpholine solvent.

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31 Thermodynamic Modeling of the High Temperature Shift Converter Reactor Using Minimization of Gibbs Free Energy

Authors: H. Zare Aliabadi

Abstract:

The equilibrium chemical reactions taken place in a converter reactor of the Khorasan Petrochemical Ammonia plant was studied using the minimization of Gibbs free energy method. In the minimization of the Gibbs free energy function the Davidon– Fletcher–Powell (DFP) optimization procedure using the penalty terms in the well-defined objective function was used. It should be noted that in the DFP procedure along with the corresponding penalty terms the Hessian matrices for the composition of constituents in the Converter reactor can be excluded. This, in fact, can be considered as the main advantage of the DFP optimization procedure. Also the effect of temperature and pressure on the equilibrium composition of the constituents was investigated. The results obtained in this work were compared with the data collected from the converter reactor of the Khorasan Petrochemical Ammonia plant. It was concluded that the results obtained from the method used in this work are in good agreement with the industrial data. Notably, the algorithm developed in this work, in spite of its simplicity, takes the advantage of short computation and convergence time.

Keywords: Gibbs free energy, converter reactors, Chemical equilibrium

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30 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar

Abstract:

Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The role of microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Treatment using microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida (P. putida), pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of P. putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. From mercury nitrate solution, a mercuryresistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce from ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 89%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P. putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury removal is a potential bioremediation for wastewater especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical wastewater.

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29 Rheology of Composites with Nature Vegetal Origin Fibers

Authors: J. Bobek, M. Seidl, P. Lenfeld, L. Behálek, A. Ausperger

Abstract:

Conventional materials like glass, wood or metals replacement with polymer materials is still continuing. More simple thus cheaper production is the main reason. However due to high energy and petrochemical prices are polymer prices increasing too. That´s why various kinds of fillers are used to make polymers cheaper. Of course target is to maintain or improve properties of these compounds. In this paper are solved rheology issues of polymers compounded with vegetal origin fibers.

Keywords: Vegetal, fibers, polymer, rheology

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28 Silicone on Blending Vegetal Petrochemical Based Polyurethane

Authors: Flora E. Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The aim is to understand the impact of Silicone on synthesizing polyurethane in differentiate volume of molding. The method used was one step process, which is simultaneously caried out a blending polyol (petroleum polyol and soybean polyol), a TDI (2,4):MDI (4,4-) (80:20), a distilled water, and a silicone. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are polymer density, compressive strength, and cellular structures. It is found that density of polyurethane using silicone with volume of molding either 250 ml or 500 ml is lower than without using silicone.

Keywords: soybean, petro, silicone, polyurethane

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27 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: Ethylene dichloride, purification, EDC, simulation.

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26 Energy Consumption and Surface Finish Analysis of Machining Ti6Al4V

Authors: Salman Pervaiz, Ibrahim Deiab, Amir Rashid, Mihai Nicolescu, Hossam Kishawy

Abstract:

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions impose major threat to global warming potential (GWP). Unfortunately manufacturing sector is one of the major sources that contribute towards the rapid increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In manufacturing sector electric power consumption is the major driver that influences CO2 emission. Titanium alloys are widely utilized in aerospace, automotive and petrochemical sectors because of their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Titanium alloys are termed as difficult to cut materials because of their poor machinability rating. The present study analyzes energy consumption during cutting with reference to material removal rate (MRR). Surface roughness was also measured in order to optimize energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission, Ti6Al4V.

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25 Microbial Leaching Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Iron Oxidizing Bacteria

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Dong J. Kim, Jong G. Ahn, Seoung W. Lee

Abstract:

Spent petroleum catalyst from Korean petrochemical industry contains trace amount of metals such as Ni, V and Mo. Therefore an attempt was made to recover those trace metal using bioleaching process. Different leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size of spent catalyst particle were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency. All the three metal ions like Ni, V and Mo followed dual kinetics, i.e., initial faster followed by slower rate. The percentage of leaching efficiency of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. In addition, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was observed due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst.

Keywords: Bioleaching, diffusion control, shrinking core, spentpetroleum catalyst.

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24 Feedstock Effects on Selecting the Appropriate Coil Configuration for Cracking Furnaces

Authors: Ramin Karimzadeh, Nazi Rahimi, Mohammad Ghashghaee

Abstract:

In the present research, steam cracking of two types of feedstocks i.e., naphtha and ethane is simulated for Pyrocrack1-1 and 2/2 coil configurations considering two key parameters of coil outlet temperature (COT) and coil capacity using a radical based kinetic model. The computer model is confirmed using the industrial data obtained from Amirkabir Petrochemical Complex. The results are in good agreement with performance data for naphtha cracking in a wide range of severity (0.4-0.7), and for ethane cracking on various conversions (50-70). It was found that Pyrocrack2-2 coil type is an appropriate choice for steam cracking of ethane at reasonable ethylene yield while resulting in much lower tube wall temperature while Pyrocrack1-1 coil type is a proper selection for liquid feedstocks i.e. naphtha. It can be used for cracking of liquid feedstocks at optimal ethylene yield whereas not exceeding the allowable maximum tube temperature.

Keywords: Coil configuration, Ethane, Naphtha, Steamcracking.

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23 Designing a Single-Floor Structure for the Control Room of a Petroleum Refinery and Assessing the Resistance of Such a Structure against Gas Explosion Load

Authors: Amin Lotfi Eghlim, Mehran pourgholi

Abstract:

Explosion occurs due to sudden release of energy. Common examples of explosion include chemical, atomic, heat, and pressure tank (due to ignition) explosions. Petroleum, gas, and petrochemical industries operations are threatened by natural risks and processes. Fires and explosions are the greatest process risks which cause financial damages. This study aims at designing a single-floor structure for the control room of a petroleum refinery to be resistant against gas explosion loads, and the information related to the structure specifications have been provided regarding the fact that the structure is made on the ground's surface. In this research, the lateral stiffness of single pile is calculated by SPPLN.FOR computer program, and its value for 13624 KN/m single pile has been assessed. The analysis used due to the loading conditions, is dynamic nonlinear analysis with direct integration method.

Keywords: Gas Explosion Load, Petroleum Refinery, Single-Floor Structure

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22 Preparation and Properties of Biopolymer from L-Lactide (LL) and ε-Caprolactone (CL)

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, K. Iamma, K. Kongcharoen, K. Cheunsakulpong

Abstract:

Biopolymers have gained much attention as ecofriendly alternatives to petrochemical-based plastics because they are biodegradable and can be produced from renewable feedstocks. One class of biopolyester with many potential environmentally friendly applications is polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). The PLA/PCL biodegradable copolyesters were synthesized by bulk ring-opening copolymerization of successively added Llactide (LL) and ε-caprolactone (CL) in the presence of toluene, using 1-hexanol as initiator and stannous octoate (Sn(Oct)2) as catalyst. Reaction temperature, reaction time and amount of catalyst were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the %conversion increased with increases in reaction temperature and reaction time, but after a critical amount of catalyst was reached the %conversion decreased. The yield of PLA/PCL biopolymer achieved 98.02% at the reaction temperature 160 °C, amount of catalyst 0.3 mol% and reaction time of 48 h. In addition, the thermal properties of the product were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: Biopolymer, Polylactic Acid (PLA), Polycaprolactone (PCL), L-Lactide (LL), ε-Caprolactone (CL)

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21 Vibration Analysis of an Alstom Typhoon Gas Turbine Power Plant Related to Iran Oil Industry

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis is the most important factor in preventive maintenance. Gas turbine vibration analysis is also one of the most challenging categories in most critical equipment monitoring systems. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of this kind of equipment developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, too much operation condition consideration in this kind of equipment should be adjusted properly like inlet and outlet pressure and temperature for both turbine and compressor. In this paper the most important tools and hypothesis used for analyzing of gas turbine power plants discussed in details through a real case history related to an Alstom Typhoon gas turbine power plant in Iran oil industries. In addition, the basic principal of vibration behavior caused by mechanical unbalance in gas turbine rotor discussed in details.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, gas turbine, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), phase angle.

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20 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: Biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace.

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19 An Experimental Study on Effects of Applying the Pulsating Flow to a Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed

Authors: Rezvan Alamian, Alireza Baniassadi, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi

Abstract:

There have been widespread applications of fluidized beds in industries which are related to the combination of gas-solid particles during the last decade. For instance, in order to crack the catalyses in petrochemical industries or as a drier in food industries. High capacity of fluidized bed in heat and mass transfer has made this device very popular. In order to achieve a higher efficiency of fluidized beds, a particular attention has been paid to beds with pulsating air flow. In this paper, a fluidized bed device with pulsating flow has been designed and constructed. Size of particles have been used during the test are in the range of 40 to 100μm. The purpose of this experimental test is to investigate the air flow regime, observe the particles- movement and measure the pressure loss along the bed. The effects of pulsation can be evaluated by comparing the results for both continuous and pulsating flow. Results of both situations are compared for various gas speeds. Moreover the above experiment is numerically simulated by using Fluent software and its numerical results are compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: Fluidized bed, pulsating flow, gas-solid particles, pressure loss, experiments, Fluent.

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18 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler depends on rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (Fin Per Inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on heat transfer, and pressure drop in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI=12 and then decreased gradually to FPI=15, and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI)

Keywords: Air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop.

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17 Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, Reza Khani Jazani, Rosli Hashim , Ahmad Savari, Belin Tavakoly Sany, Parastoo Parivar, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani

Abstract:

This study investigated the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of the Musa Bay (around the PETZONE coastal area) from Feb 2010 to Jun 2010. Concentrations of PAHs recorded in the Musa Bay sediments ranged from 537.89 to 26,659.06 ng/g dry weight with a mean value of 3990.74 ng/g. the highest concentration of PAHs was observed at station 4, which is located near the aromatic outlet of Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (station 4: BI-PC Aromatic effluent outlet) in which its concentration level was more than the NOAA sediment quality guideline value (ERL= 4022 ng/g dry weight). Owing to the concentration of PAHs in the study area, its concentration level was still meet the NOAA sediment quality guideline value (ERL: 4022 ng/g dry weight); however, according to the PELq factor, slightly adverse biological effects are associated with the exposure to PAHs levels in the study area (0.1< PELq= 0.24 > 0.5).

Keywords: Musa Bay, PAHs, PETZONE, NOAA, PELq.

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16 Static Priority Approach to Under-Frequency Based Load Shedding Scheme in Islanded Industrial Networks: Using the Case Study of Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd - FFL

Authors: S. H. Kazmi, T. Ahmed, K. Javed, A. Ghani

Abstract:

In this paper static scheme of under-frequency based load shedding is considered for chemical and petrochemical industries with islanded distribution networks relying heavily on the primary commodity to ensure minimum production loss, plant downtime or critical equipment shutdown. A simplistic methodology is proposed for in-house implementation of this scheme using underfrequency relays and a step by step guide is provided including the techniques to calculate maximum percentage overloads, frequency decay rates, time based frequency response and frequency based time response of the system. Case study of FFL electrical system is utilized, presenting the actual system parameters and employed load shedding settings following the similar series of steps. The arbitrary settings are then verified for worst overload conditions (loss of a generation source in this case) and comprehensive system response is then investigated.

Keywords: Islanding, under-frequency load shedding, frequency rate of change, static UFLS.

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15 Implementation of a New Neural Network Function Block to Programmable Logic Controllers Library Function

Authors: Hamid Abdi, Abolfazl Salami, Abolfazl Ahmadi

Abstract:

Programmable logic controllers are the main controllers in the today's industries; they are used for several applications in industrial control systems and there are lots of examples exist from the PLC applications in industries especially in big companies and plants such as refineries, power plants, petrochemical companies, steel companies, and food and production companies. In the PLCs there are some functions in the function library in software that can be used in PLC programs as basic program elements. The aim of this project are introducing and implementing a new function block of a neural network to the function library of PLC. This block can be applied for some control applications or nonlinear functions calculations after it has been trained for these applications. The implemented neural network is a Perceptron neural network with three layers, three input nodes and one output node. The block can be used in manual or automatic mode. In this paper the structure of the implemented function block, the parameters and the training method of the network are presented by considering the especial method of PLC programming and its complexities. Finally the application of the new block is compared with a classic simulated block and the results are presented.

Keywords: Programmable Logic Controller, PLC Programming, Neural Networks, Perception Network, Intelligent Control.

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14 Methyltrioctylammonium Chloride as a Separation Solvent for Binary Mixtures: Evaluation Based on Experimental Activity Coefficients

Authors: B. Kabane, G. G. Redhi

Abstract:

An ammonium based ionic liquid (methyltrioctylammonium chloride) [N8 8 8 1] [Cl] was investigated as an extraction potential solvent for volatile organic solvents (in this regard, solutes), which includes alkenes, alkanes, ketones, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrahydrofuran (THF), alcohols, thiophene, water and acetonitrile based on the experimental activity coefficients at infinite THF measurements were conducted by the use of gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures (313.15 to 343.15) K. Experimental data of activity coefficients obtained across the examined temperatures were used in order to calculate the physicochemical properties at infinite dilution such as partial molar excess enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy term. Capacity and selectivity data for selected petrochemical extraction problems (heptane/thiophene, heptane/benzene, cyclohaxane/cyclohexene, hexane/toluene, hexane/hexene) were computed from activity coefficients data and compared to the literature values with other ionic liquids. Evaluation of activity coefficients at infinite dilution expands the knowledge and provides a good understanding related to the interactions between the ionic liquid and the investigated compounds.

Keywords: Separation, activity coefficients, ionic liquid, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, capacity.

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13 Digital Transformation of Payment Systems Using Field Service Management

Authors: Hamze Torabian, Mohammad Mehrabioun Mohammadi

Abstract:

Like many other industries, the payment industry has been affected by digital transformation. The importance of digital transformation in the payment industry is very crucial. Because the payment industry is considered a leading industry in digital and emerging technologies, and the digitalization of other industries such as retail, health, and telecommunication, it also depends on the growth rate of digitalized payment systems. One of the technological innovations in service management is Field Service Management (FSM). Despite the widespread use of FSM in various industries such as petrochemical, health, maintenance, etc., this technology can also be recruited in the payment industry, transforming the payment industry into a more agile and efficient one. Accordingly, the present study pays close attention to the application of FSM in the payment industry. Given the importance of merchants' bargaining power in the payment industry, this study aims to use FSM in the digital transformation initiative with a targeted focus on providing real-time services to merchants. The research method consists of three parts. Firstly, conducting the review of past research, applications of FSM in the payment industry are considered. In the next step, merchants' benefits such as emotional, functional, economic, and social benefits in using FSM are identified using in-depth interviews and content analysis methods. The related business model in helping the payment industry transforming into a more agile and efficient industry is considered in the following step. The results revealed the 10 main pillars required to realize the digital transformation of payment systems using FSM.

Keywords: Digital transformation, field service management, merchant support systems, payment industry.

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12 A Hybrid Neural Network and Traditional Approach for Forecasting Lumpy Demand

Authors: A. Nasiri Pour, B. Rostami Tabar, A.Rahimzadeh

Abstract:

Accurate demand forecasting is one of the most key issues in inventory management of spare parts. The problem of modeling future consumption becomes especially difficult for lumpy patterns, which characterized by intervals in which there is no demand and, periods with actual demand occurrences with large variation in demand levels. However, many of the forecasting methods may perform poorly when demand for an item is lumpy. In this study based on the characteristic of lumpy demand patterns of spare parts a hybrid forecasting approach has been developed, which use a multi-layered perceptron neural network and a traditional recursive method for forecasting future demands. In the described approach the multi-layered perceptron are adapted to forecast occurrences of non-zero demands, and then a conventional recursive method is used to estimate the quantity of non-zero demands. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, their forecasts were compared to those obtained by using Syntetos & Boylan approximation, recently employed multi-layered perceptron neural network, generalized regression neural network and elman recurrent neural network in this area. The models were applied to forecast future demand of spare parts of Arak Petrochemical Company in Iran, using 30 types of real data sets. The results indicate that the forecasts obtained by using our proposed mode are superior to those obtained by using other methods.

Keywords: Lumpy Demand, Neural Network, Forecasting, Hybrid Approach.

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11 Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils

Authors: S K Sharma, N S Sehkon, S Deswal, Siby John

Abstract:

The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its presence in industrial effluents has lead to a growing concern about the fate and effects of Copper in the environment. Percolation of industrial effluents through soils leads to contamination of ground water and soils. The transport of heavy metals and their diffusion into the soils has therefore, drawn the attention of the researchers. In this study, an attempt has been made to delineate the mechanisms of transport and fate of copper in terrestrial environment. Column studies were conducted using perplex glass square column of dimension side 15 cm and 1.35 m long. The soil samples were collected from a natural drain near Mohali (India). The soil was characterized to be poorly graded sandy loam. The soil was compacted to the field dry density level of about 1.6 g/cm3. Break through curves for different depths of the column were plotted. The results of the column study indicated that the copper has high tendency to flow in the soils and fewer tendencies to get absorbed on the soil particles. The t1/2 estimates obtained from the studies can be used for design copper laden wastewater disposal systems.

Keywords: Column study, copper, soil, transport.

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