Search results for: Fida Hussain Siddiqui
118 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects
Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui
Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.
Keywords: Construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 760
117 Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN
Authors: Ammar Abbas, Ibrahim M. Hussain, Osama M. Hussain
The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.
Keywords: Wireless, IEEE 802.11e, EDCA, Throughput, QoS, MAC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
116 Role of Credit on Production Efficiency of Farming Sector in Pakistan(A Data Envelopment Analysis)
Authors: Saima Ayaz, Zakir Hussain, Maqbool Hussain Sial
Abstract:The study identified the sources of production inefficiency of the farming sector in district Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was utilized at farm level survey data of 300 farmers for the year 2009. The overall mean efficiency score was 0.78 indicating 22 percent inefficiency of the sample farmers. Computed efficiency scores were then regressed on farm specific variables using Tobit regression analysis. Farming experience, education, access to farming credit, herd size and number of cultivation practices showed constructive and significant effect on the farmer-s technical efficiency.
Keywords: Agricultural credit, DEA, Technical efficiency, Tobit analysisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2196
115 Role of Investment in the Course of Economic Growth in Pakistan
Authors: Maqbool Hussain Sial, Maaida Hussain Hashmi, Sofia Anwar
Abstract:The present research was focused to investigate the role of investment in the course of economic growth with reference to Pakistan. The study analyzed the role of the public and private investment and impact of the political and macroeconomic uncertainty on economic growth of Pakistan by using the vector autoregressive approach (VAR). In long-run both public and private investment showed a positive impact on economic growth but the growth was largely driven by private investment as compared to public investment. Government consumption expenditure, economic uncertainty and political instability hampered the economic growth of Pakistan. In short-run the private investment positively influences the growth but there was negative and insignificant effect of the public investment and government consumption expenditure on the growth. There was a positive relationship found between economic uncertainty (proxy for inflation) and GDP in short run.
Keywords: Investment, Government Consumption, Growth, Co-integration, Pakistan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1990
114 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning
Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul
Abstract:In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.
Keywords: Electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1871
113 Environmental Effects on Energy Consumption of Smart Grid Consumers
Authors: S. M. Ali, A. Salam Khan, A. U. Khan, M. Tariq, M. S. Hussain, B. A. Abbasi, I. Hussain, U. Farid
Environment and surrounding plays a pivotal rule in structuring life-style of the consumers. Living standards intern effect the energy consumption of the consumers. In smart grid paradigm, climate drifts, weather parameter and green environmental directly relates to the energy profiles of the various consumers, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Considering above factors helps policy in shaping utility load curves and optimal management of demand and supply. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop correlation models of load and weather parameters and critical analysis of the factors effecting energy profiles of smart grid consumers. In this paper, we elaborated various environment and weather parameter factors effecting demand of consumers. Moreover, we developed correlation models, such as Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, an inter-relation between dependent (load) parameter and independent (weather) parameters. Furthermore, we validated our discussion with real-time data of Texas State. The numerical simulations proved the effective relation of climatic drifts with energy consumption of smart grid consumers.
Keywords: Climatic drifts, correlation analysis, energy consumption, smart grid, weather parameter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1533
112 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)
Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr
Abstract:The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.
Keywords: Adhesive joint, carbon reinforced aluminium laminate, CARALL, fiber metal laminates, spews.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 814
111 Navigation and Self Alignment of Inertial Systems using Nonlinear H∞ Filters
Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng
Abstract:Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) play a vital role along with global positioning devices in navigation of autonomous vehicles .These sensors are low cost ,easily available but depict colored noises and unpredictable discontinuities .Conventional filters like Kalman filters and Sigma point filters are not able to cope with nonwhite noises. This research has utilized H∞ filter in nonlinear frame work both with Kalman filter and Unscented filter for navigation and self alignment of an airborne vehicle. The system is simulated for colored noises and discontinuities and results are compared with not robust nonlinear filters. The results are found 40%-70% more robust against colored noises and discontinuities.
Keywords: filtering, integrated navigation, MEMS, nonlinearfiltering, self alignmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
110 Pontrjagin Duality and Codes over Finite Commutative Rings
Authors: Khalid Abdelmoumen, Mustapha Najmeddine, Hussain Ben-Azza
Abstract:We present linear codes over finite commutative rings which are not necessarily Frobenius. We treat the notion of syndrome decoding by using Pontrjagin duality. We also give a version of Delsarte-s theorem over rings relating trace codes and subring subcodes.
Keywords: Codes, Finite Rings, Pontrjagin Duality, Trace Codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1668
109 Certain Estimates of Oscillatory Integrals and Extrapolation
Authors: Hussain Al-Qassem
Abstract:In this paper we study the boundedness properties of certain oscillatory integrals with polynomial phase. We obtain sharp estimates for these oscillatory integrals. By the virtue of these estimates and extrapolation we obtain Lp boundedness for these oscillatory integrals under rather weak size conditions on the kernel function.
Keywords: Fourier transform, oscillatory integrals, Orlicz spaces, Block spaces, Extrapolation, Lp boundedness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1133
108 Robust Integrated Navigation of a Low Cost System
Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng
Abstract:Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors. H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50% more robust towards increased level of colored noises.
Keywords: H∞ filter, MEMS, GPS, Nonlinear system, robust system, Square root unscented filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1621
107 Analysis of Rural Roads in Developing Countries Using Principal Component Analysis and Simple Average Technique in the Development of a Road Safety Performance Index
Authors: Muhammad Tufail, Jawad Hussain, Hammad Hussain, Imran Hafeez, Naveed Ahmad
Road safety performance index is a composite index which combines various indicators of road safety into single number. Development of a road safety performance index using appropriate safety performance indicators is essential to enhance road safety. However, a road safety performance index in developing countries has not been given as much priority as needed. The primary objective of this research is to develop a general Road Safety Performance Index (RSPI) for developing countries based on the facility as well as behavior of road user. The secondary objectives include finding the critical inputs in the RSPI and finding the better method of making the index. In this study, the RSPI is developed by selecting four main safety performance indicators i.e., protective system (seat belt, helmet etc.), road (road width, signalized intersections, number of lanes, speed limit), number of pedestrians, and number of vehicles. Data on these four safety performance indicators were collected using observation survey on a 20 km road section of the National Highway N-125 road Taxila, Pakistan. For the development of this composite index, two methods are used: a) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and b) Equal Weighting (EW) method. PCA is used for extraction, weighting, and linear aggregation of indicators to obtain a single value. An individual index score was calculated for each road section by multiplication of weights and standardized values of each safety performance indicator. However, Simple Average technique was used for weighting and linear aggregation of indicators to develop a RSPI. The road sections are ranked according to RSPI scores using both methods. The two weighting methods are compared, and the PCA method is found to be much more reliable than the Simple Average Technique.
Keywords: Aggregation, index score, indicators, principal component analysis, weighting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 366
106 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process
Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan
In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves andgeneralizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: iterativeprocess is faster, operators are more general. At the end, we indicatethat the results can also be proved with the iterative process witherror terms.
Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1591
105 Automatic Classification of Initial Categories of Alzheimer's Disease from Structural MRI Phase Images: A Comparison of PSVM, KNN and ANN Methods
Authors: Ahsan Bin Tufail, Ali Abidi, Adil Masood Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahzad Younis
An early and accurate detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important stage in the treatment of individuals suffering from AD. We present an approach based on the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) phase images to distinguish between normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients with clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 1. Independent component analysis (ICA) technique is used for extracting useful features which form the inputs to the support vector machines (SVM), K nearest neighbour (kNN) and multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers to discriminate between the three classes. The obtained results are encouraging in terms of classification accuracy and effectively ascertain the usefulness of phase images for the classification of different stages of Alzheimer-s disease.
Keywords: Biomedical image processing, classification algorithms, feature extraction, statistical learning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2603
104 Discovery of Fuzzy Censored Production Rules from Large Set of Discovered Fuzzy if then Rules
Authors: Tamanna Siddiqui, M. Afshar Alam
Abstract:Censored Production Rule is an extension of standard production rule, which is concerned with problems of reasoning with incomplete information, subject to resource constraints and problem of reasoning efficiently with exceptions. A CPR has a form: IF A (Condition) THEN B (Action) UNLESS C (Censor), Where C is the exception condition. Fuzzy CPR are obtained by augmenting ordinary fuzzy production rule “If X is A then Y is B with an exception condition and are written in the form “If X is A then Y is B Unless Z is C. Such rules are employed in situation in which the fuzzy conditional statement “If X is A then Y is B" holds frequently and the exception condition “Z is C" holds rarely. Thus “If X is A then Y is B" part of the fuzzy CPR express important information while the unless part acts only as a switch that changes the polarity of “Y is B" to “Y is not B" when the assertion “Z is C" holds. The proposed approach is an attempt to discover fuzzy censored production rules from set of discovered fuzzy if then rules in the form: A(X) ÔçÆ B(Y) || C(Z).
Keywords: Uncertainty Quantification, Fuzzy if then rules, Fuzzy Censored Production Rules, Learning algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1375
103 Two-step Iterative Process For Common Fixed Points of Two Asymptotically Quasi-nonexpansive Mappings
Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan
Abstract:In this paper, we consider an iteration process for approximating common fixed points of two asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and we prove some strong and weak convergence theorems for such mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces.
Keywords: Asypmtotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings, Commonfixed point, Strong and weak convergence, Iteration process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1381
102 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks
Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq
Abstract:Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.
Keywords: Resolving set, metric dimension, honeycomb network, line graph.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 575
101 Root Growth of Morus alba as Affected by Size of Cuttings and Polythene Low Tunnel
Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Tahir Siddiqui, Rashid Ahmad Khan, Tahir Munir Butt
An effort to find out the smaller size of cuttings for propagation of Morus alba was made in experimental area Department of Forestry, Range Management and Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Different size of cuttings i.e. 2", 4", 6" and 8" were planted in polythene tubes of 3.5"x7". The effort was also made to compare the performance of cuttings in open air and in polythene low tunnel. Root length, number of root branches, root diameter and root fresh and dry weight were found maximum in two inches cuttings while minimum in four inches cuttings. Root growth was found maximum in open air as compared to under polythene sheet.
Keywords: cutting sizes Morus alba, Open air and polythene sheet, root growthProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2810
100 IKEv1 and IKEv2: A Quantitative Analyses
Authors: H.Soussi, M.Hussain, H.Afifi, D.Seret
Key management is a vital component in any modern security protocol. Due to scalability and practical implementation considerations automatic key management seems a natural choice in significantly large virtual private networks (VPNs). In this context IETF Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the most promising protocol under permanent review. We have made a humble effort to pinpoint IKEv2 net gain over IKEv1 due to recent modifications in its original structure, along with a brief overview of salient improvements between the two versions. We have used US National Institute of Technology NIIST VPN simulator to get some comparisons of important performance metrics.
Keywords: Quantitative Analyses, IKEv1, IKEv2, NIIST.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4436
99 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis
Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan
Abstract:Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.
Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal PlaneProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2568
98 Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays under Hot Bomb Conditions
Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, F. Noor, M. J. Rashid
It has experimentally been proved that the performance of compression ignition (C.I.) engine is spray characteristics related. In modern diesel engine the spray formation and the eventual combustion process are the vital processes that offer more challenges towards enhancing the engine performance. In the present work the numerical simulation has been carried out for evaporating diesel sprays using Fluent software. For computational fluid dynamics simulation “Meshing” is done using Gambit software before transmitting it into Fluent. The simulation is carried out using hot bomb conditions under varying chamber conditions such as gas pressure, nozzle diameter and fuel injection pressure. For comparison purpose, the numerical simulations the chamber conditions were kept the same as that of the experimental data. At varying chamber conditions the spray penetration rates are compared with the existing experimental results.
Keywords: Evaporating diesel sprays, Penetration rates, Hot bomb conditions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2070
97 Practical Experiences as Part of Project Management Course
Authors: H. Hussain, N. H. Mohamad
Abstract:Practical experiences have been one of the successful criteria for the Project Management course for the art and design students. There are series of events that the students have to undergo as part of their practical exercises in the learning context for Project Management courses. These series have been divided into few mini programs that involved the whole individual in each group. Therefore, the events have been one of the bench marks for these students. Through the practical experience, the task that has been given to individual has been performed according to the needs of professional practice and ethics.
Keywords: Practical experiences, project management, art and design students, events, programs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 848
96 A Novel Approach for Tracking of a Mobile Node Based on Particle Filter and Trilateration
Authors: Muhammad Haroon Siddiqui, Muhammad Rehan Khalid
Abstract:This paper evaluates the performance of a novel algorithm for tracking of a mobile node, interms of execution time and root mean square error (RMSE). Particle Filter algorithm is used to track the mobile node, however a new technique in particle filter algorithm is also proposed to reduce the execution time. The stationary points were calculated through trilateration and finally by averaging the number of points collected for a specific time, whereas tracking is done through trilateration as well as particle filter algorithm. Wi-Fi signal is used to get initial guess of the position of mobile node in x-y coordinates system. Commercially available software “Wireless Mon" was used to read the WiFi signal strength from the WiFi card. Visual Cµ version 6 was used to interact with this software to read only the required data from the log-file generated by “Wireless Mon" software. Results are evaluated through mathematical modeling and MATLAB simulation.
Keywords: Particle Filter, Tracking, Wireless Local Area Network, WiFi, TrilaterationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1891
95 Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network
Authors: Zaki Ahmad Khan, Jamshed Siddiqui, Abdus Samad
Abstract:The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear types of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.
Keywords: Dynamic algorithm, Load imbalance, Mapping, Task scheduling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
94 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method
Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana
Abstract:The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.
Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
93 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm
Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan
In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.
Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
92 Segmentation Free Nastalique Urdu OCR
Authors: Sobia T. Javed, Sarmad Hussain, Ameera Maqbool, Samia Asloob, Sehrish Jamil, Huma Moin
Abstract:The electronically available Urdu data is in image form which is very difficult to process. Printed Urdu data is the root cause of problem. So for the rapid progress of Urdu language we need an OCR systems, which can help us to make Urdu data available for the common person. Research has been carried out for years to automata Arabic and Urdu script. But the biggest hurdle in the development of Urdu OCR is the challenge to recognize Nastalique Script which is taken as standard for writing Urdu language. Nastalique script is written diagonally with no fixed baseline which makes the script somewhat complex. Overlap is present not only in characters but in the ligatures as well. This paper proposes a method which allows successful recognition of Nastalique Script.
Keywords: HMM, Image processing, Optical CharacterRecognition, Urdu OCR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1977
91 Effects of Dust on the Performance of PV Panels
Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Haizatul H. Hussain, Nik Siti H. Nik Leh, Mohd S. I. Razali
Abstract:Accumulation of dust from the outdoor environment on the panels of solar photovoltaic (PV) system is natural. There were studies that showed that the accumulated dust can reduce the performance of solar panels, but the results were not clearly quantified. The objective of this research was to study the effects of dust accumulation on the performance of solar PV panels. Experiments were conducted using dust particles on solar panels with a constant-power light source, to determine the resulting electrical power generated and efficiency. It was found from the study that the accumulated dust on the surface of photovoltaic solar panel can reduce the system-s efficiency by up to 50%.
Keywords: Dust, Photovoltaic, Solar Energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 13307
90 Disinfection of Water by Adsorption with Electrochemical Regeneration
Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown
Abstract:Arvia®, a spin-out company of University of Manchester, UK is commercialising a water treatment technology for the removal of low concentrations of organics from water. This technology is based on the adsorption of organics onto graphite based adsorbents coupled with their electrochemical regeneration in a simple electrochemical cell. In this paper, the potential of the process to adsorb microorganisms and electrochemically disinfect them present in water has been demonstrated. Bench scale experiments have indicated that the process of adsorption using graphite adsorbents with electrochemical regeneration can be used for water disinfection effectively. The most likely mechanisms of disinfection of water through this process include direct electrochemical oxidation and electrochemical chlorination.
Keywords: Arvia, Adsorption, Electrochemical Regeneration, NyexProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1988
89 A Coherent Relationship between EconomicGrowth and Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
Authors: T. Hussain, M. W. Siddiqi, A. Iqbal
Abstract:The study is aimed to test causal relationship between growth and unemployment, using time series data for Pakistan from 1972 to 2006. Growth is considered to be a pathway to decrease the level of unemployment. Unemployment is a social and political issue. It is a phenomenon where human resources are wasted leading to deacceleration in growth. Johanson Cointegration shows that there is long run relationship between growth and unemployment. For short run dynamics and causality, the study utilizes Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results of VECM indicate that there is short and long run causal relation between growth and unemployment including capital, labor and human capital as explanatory variables.
Keywords: Economic Growth, Unemployment, Cointegrationand Causality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2936