Search results for: Rashid Ahmad Khan
675 Root Growth of Morus alba as Affected by Size of Cuttings and Polythene Low Tunnel
Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Tahir Siddiqui, Rashid Ahmad Khan, Tahir Munir Butt
An effort to find out the smaller size of cuttings for propagation of Morus alba was made in experimental area Department of Forestry, Range Management and Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Different size of cuttings i.e. 2", 4", 6" and 8" were planted in polythene tubes of 3.5"x7". The effort was also made to compare the performance of cuttings in open air and in polythene low tunnel. Root length, number of root branches, root diameter and root fresh and dry weight were found maximum in two inches cuttings while minimum in four inches cuttings. Root growth was found maximum in open air as compared to under polythene sheet.
Keywords: cutting sizes Morus alba, Open air and polythene sheet, root growthProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2809
674 Operational Representation of Certain Hypergeometric Functions by Means of Fractional Derivatives and Integrals
Authors: Manoj Singh, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan
The investigation in the present paper is to obtain certain types of relations for the well known hypergeometric functions by employing the technique of fractional derivative and integral.
Keywords: Fractional Derivatives and Integrals, Hypergeometric functions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
673 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics
Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad
In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.
Keywords: Partial discharges, condition monitoring, MPD 540, cavities/defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1971
672 Bilinear and Bilateral Generating Functions for the Gauss’ Hypergeometric Polynomials
Authors: Manoj Singh, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan
The object of the present paper is to investigate several general families of bilinear and bilateral generating functions with different argument for the Gauss’ hypergeometric polynomials.
Keywords: Appell’s functions, Gauss hypergeometric functions, Heat polynomials, Kampe’ de Fe’riet function, Laguerre polynomials, Lauricella’s function, Saran’s functions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1445
671 Investigation of Time Delay Factors in Global Software Development
Authors: Khalid Khan, Atique Ahmad Zafar, Mohammed A. Alnuem, Hashim Khan
Abstract:Global Software Development (GSD) projects are passing through different boundaries of a company, country and even in other continents where time zone differs between both sites. Beside many benefits of such development, research declared plenty of negative impacts on these GSD projects. It is important to understand problems which may lie during the execution of GSD project with different time zones. This research project discussed and provided different issues related to time delays in GSD projects. In this paper, authors investigated some of the time delay factors which usually lie in GSD projects with different time zones. This investigation is done through systematic review of literature. Furthermore, the practices to overcome these delay factors which have already been reported in literature and GSD organizations are also explored through literature survey and case studies.
Keywords: Case Studies, Global Software Development, Global Software Engineering, Temporal Difference, Time DelayProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
670 Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation
Authors: Fatima Rasool, Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Haji M. S. Khan, Shujaat A. Khan, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman
This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.
Keywords: Metoprolol tartrate, Dissolution, Bioavailability, Validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2434
669 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)
Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan
In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.
Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2012
668 Convergence of a One-step Iteration Scheme for Quasi-asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings
Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan
In this paper, we use a one-step iteration scheme to approximate common fixed points of two quasi-asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. We prove weak and strong convergence theorems in a uniformly convex Banach space. Our results generalize the corresponding results of Yao and Chen  to a wider class of mappings while extend those of Khan, Abbas and Khan  to an improved one-step iteration scheme without any condition and improve upon many others in the literature.
Keywords: One-step iteration scheme, asymptotically quasi non expansive mapping, common fixed point, condition (a'), weak and strong convergence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1327
667 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN
Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar
Abstract:This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.
Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1827
666 Chattering-free Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System
Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim
In this paper, a few chattering-free Sliding Mode Controllers (SMC) are proposed to stabilize an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with gyroscopic effect that is proportional to the rotor speed. The improved switching terms of the controller inherited from the saturation-type function and boundary layer control technique is shown to be able to achieve bounded and asymptotic stability, respectively, while the chattering effect in the input is attenuated. This is proven to be advantageous for AMB system since minimization of chattering results in optimized control effort. The performance of each controller is demonstrated via result of simulation in which the measurement of the total consumed energy and maximum control magnitude of each controller illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding Mode Control (SMC), chattering-free SMC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2018
665 Bowden Cable Based Powered Ball and Socket Wrist Actuator
Authors: Samee Ahmad, Adnan Masood, Umar S. Khan
Abstract:A 2-Degrees of freedom powered prosthetic wrist actuator has been proposed that can provide the Abduction/Adduction & Flexion/Extension movements of the human wrist. The basic structure of the actuator is a Ball and Socket joint and the force is transmitted from the DC geared servo motors to the joint through the Bowden cables. The proposed design is capable of providing the required DOF in both axes i.e. 85° & 90° in flexion extension axis. The size and weight of the actuator lies within the ranges of an average human being-s wrist.
Keywords: Actuator, Ball & Socket, Bowden Cable, Prosthetic, WristProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3376
664 Application of H2 -based Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System
Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim
In this paper, application of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique for an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed is considered. The gyroscopic effect and mass imbalance inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Transformation of the AMB dynamic model into regular system shows that these gyroscopic effect and imbalance lie in the mismatched part of the system. A H2-based sliding surface is designed which bound the mismatched parts. The solution of the surface parameter is obtained using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.
Keywords: Active magnetic bearing, sliding mode control, linear matrix inequality, mismatched uncertainty and imbalance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1467
663 Urdu Nastaleeq Optical Character Recognition
Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Inam Shamsher, Awais Adnan
Abstract:This paper discusses the Urdu script characteristics, Urdu Nastaleeq and a simple but a novel and robust technique to recognize the printed Urdu script without a lexicon. Urdu being a family of Arabic script is cursive and complex script in its nature, the main complexity of Urdu compound/connected text is not its connections but the forms/shapes the characters change when it is placed at initial, middle or at the end of a word. The characters recognition technique presented here is using the inherited complexity of Urdu script to solve the problem. A word is scanned and analyzed for the level of its complexity, the point where the level of complexity changes is marked for a character, segmented and feeded to Neural Networks. A prototype of the system has been tested on Urdu text and currently achieves 93.4% accuracy on the average.
Keywords: Cursive Script, OCR, Urdu.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2659
662 Outage Capacity Analysis for Next Generation Wireless Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Ahmad Fartheen Khan
In recent times, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has received significant attention as an upcoming candidate in the world of 5G systems. The main reason for getting NOMA in 5G is because of its capacity to provide services to many users who have the same time and frequency resources. It is best used as "multiple-input, multiple-output" (MIMO) technology. In this paper, we are going to investigate outage probability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target rate user. These methods will be implemented using cooperative communication and fair power allocation, respectively.
Keywords: Non-orthogonal Multiple Access, Fair Power Allocation, Outage Probability, Target Rate User, Cooperative Communication, massive multiple input multiple output, MIMO, Successive Interference Cancellation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 72
661 Asymptotic Stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing System using LMI-based Sliding Mode Control
Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim
In this paper, stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed using Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique is considered. The gyroscopic effect inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Also, transformation of the AMB dynamic model into a new class of uncertain system shows that this gyroscopic effect lies in the mismatched part of the system matrix. Moreover, the current gain parameter is allowed to be varied in a known bound as an uncertainty in the input matrix. SMC design method is proposed in which the sufficient condition that guarantees the global exponential stability of the reduced-order system is represented in Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Then, a new chattering-free control law is established such that the system states are driven to reach the switching surface and stay on it thereafter. The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.
Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding ModeControl (SMC), Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI), mismatcheduncertainty.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1426
660 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge
Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq
Abstract:Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.
Keywords: Crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputtering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1236
659 Stabilization of Angular-Shaped Riprap under Overtopping Flows
Authors: Dilavar Khan, Z. Ahmad
Abstract:Riprap is mostly used to prevent erosion by flows down the steep slopes in river engineering. A total of 53 stability tests performed on angular riprap with a median stone size ranging from 15 to 278 mm and slope ranging from 1 to 40% are used in this study. The existing equations for the prediction of medium size of angular stones are checked for their accuracy using the available data. Predictions of median size using these equations are not satisfactory and results show deviation by more than ±20% from the observed values. A multivariable power regression analysis is performed to propose a new equation relating the median size with unit discharge, bed slope, riprap thickness and coefficient of uniformity. The proposed relationship satisfactorily predicts the median angular stone size with ±20% error. Further, the required size of the rounded stone is more than the angular stone for the same unit discharge and the ratio increases with unit discharge and also with embankment slope of the riprap.
Keywords: Angularity, Gradation, Riprap, StabilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2351
658 Design and Implementation of a Neural Network for Real-Time Object Tracking
Authors: Javed Ahmed, M. N. Jafri, J. Ahmad, Muhammad I. Khan
Real-time object tracking is a problem which involves extraction of critical information from complex and uncertain imagedata. In this paper, we present a comprehensive methodology to design an artificial neural network (ANN) for a real-time object tracking application. The object, which is tracked for the purpose of demonstration, is a specific airplane. However, the proposed ANN can be trained to track any other object of interest. The ANN has been simulated and tested on the training and testing datasets, as well as on a real-time streaming video. The tracking error is analyzed with post-regression analysis tool, which finds the correlation among the calculated coordinates and the correct coordinates of the object in the image. The encouraging results from the computer simulation and analysis show that the proposed ANN architecture is a good candidate solution to a real-time object tracking problem.
Keywords: Image processing, machine vision, neural networks, real-time object tracking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3380
657 Mobile Learning Implementation: Students- Perceptions in UTP
Authors: Ahmad Sobri bin Hashim, Wan Fatimah Bt. Wan Ahmad, Rohiza Bt. Ahmad
Abstract:Mobile Learning (M-Learning) is a new technology which is to enhance current learning practices and activities for all people especially students and academic practitioners UTP is currently, implemented two types of learning styles which are conventional and electronic learning. In order to improve current learning approaches, it is necessary for UTP to implement m-learning in UTP. This paper presents a study on the students- perceptions on mobile utilization in the learning practices in UTP. Besides, this paper also presents a survey that was conducted among 82 students from System Analysis and Design (SAD) course in UTP. The survey includes basic information of mobile devices that have been used by the students, opinions on current learning practices and also the opinions regarding the m-learning implementation in the current learning practices especially in SAD course. Based on the results of the survey, majority of the students are using the mobile devices that can support m-learning environment. Other than that, students also agreed that current learning practices are ineffective and they believe that m-learning utilization can improve the effectiveness of current learning practices.
Keywords: m-learning, conventional learning, electronic learning, mobile devices.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2080
656 OCR For Printed Urdu Script Using Feed Forward Neural Network
Authors: Inam Shamsher, Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Awais Adnan
Abstract:This paper deals with an Optical Character Recognition system for printed Urdu, a popular Pakistani/Indian script and is the third largest understandable language in the world, especially in the subcontinent but fewer efforts are made to make it understandable to computers. Lot of work has been done in the field of literature and Islamic studies in Urdu, which has to be computerized. In the proposed system individual characters are recognized using our own proposed method/ algorithms. The feature detection methods are simple and robust. Supervised learning is used to train the feed forward neural network. A prototype of the system has been tested on printed Urdu characters and currently achieves 98.3% character level accuracy on average .Although the system is script/ language independent but we have designed it for Urdu characters only.
Keywords: Algorithm, Feed Forward Neural Networks, Supervised learning, Pattern Matching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2868
655 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes
Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari
Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.
Keywords: Feature Extraction, Internal Features, Punch Shapes, Sheet metal, STEP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1469
654 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming
Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad
Abstract:Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.
Keywords: Breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration (FNA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 594
653 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials
Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi
Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.
Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1531
652 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features
Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan
Abstract:Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.
Keywords: Pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1095
651 Extended Cubic B-spline Interpolation Method Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems
Authors: Nur Nadiah Abd Hamid, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail
Linear two-point boundary value problem of order two is solved using extended cubic B-spline interpolation method. There is one free parameters, λ, that control the tension of the solution curve. For some λ, this method produced better results than cubic B-spline interpolation method.
Keywords: two-point boundary value problem, B-spline, extendedcubic B-spline.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2042
650 Representing Shared Join Points with State Charts: A High Level Design Approach
Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Khalid Abdullah, Khalid Rashid, Hafiz Farooq Ahmad
Abstract:Aspect Oriented Programming promises many advantages at programming level by incorporating the cross cutting concerns into separate units, called aspects. Join Points are distinguishing features of Aspect Oriented Programming as they define the points where core requirements and crosscutting concerns are (inter)connected. Currently, there is a problem of multiple aspects- composition at the same join point, which introduces the issues like ordering and controlling of these superimposed aspects. Dynamic strategies are required to handle these issues as early as possible. State chart is an effective modeling tool to capture dynamic behavior at high level design. This paper provides methodology to formulate the strategies for multiple aspect composition at high level, which helps to better implement these strategies at coding level. It also highlights the need of designing shared join point at high level, by providing the solutions of these issues using state chart diagrams in UML 2.0. High level design representation of shared join points also helps to implement the designed strategy in systematic way.
Keywords: Aspect Oriented Software Development, Shared Join Points.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1565
649 Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network
Authors: Zaki Ahmad Khan, Jamshed Siddiqui, Abdus Samad
Abstract:The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear types of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.
Keywords: Dynamic algorithm, Load imbalance, Mapping, Task scheduling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
648 Replicating Data Objects in Large-scale Distributed Computing Systems using Extended Vickrey Auction
Authors: Samee Ullah Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad
Abstract:This paper proposes a novel game theoretical technique to address the problem of data object replication in largescale distributed computing systems. The proposed technique draws inspiration from computational economic theory and employs the extended Vickrey auction. Specifically, players in a non-cooperative environment compete for server-side scarce memory space to replicate data objects so as to minimize the total network object transfer cost, while maintaining object concurrency. Optimization of such a cost in turn leads to load balancing, fault-tolerance and reduced user access time. The method is experimentally evaluated against four well-known techniques from the literature: branch and bound, greedy, bin-packing and genetic algorithms. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach outperforms the four techniques in both the execution time and solution quality.
Keywords: Auctions, data replication, pricing, static allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1372
647 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu
Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan
Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).
Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2210
646 Extracting Multiword Expressions in Machine Translation from English to Urdu using Relational Data Approach
Authors: Kashif Bilal, Uzair Muhammad, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan
Abstract:Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.
Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS (stands for Parts of Speech) Tagging forUrdu, Expert Systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2234