Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 132

Search results for: Osama M. Hussain

132 Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN

Authors: Ammar Abbas, Ibrahim M. Hussain, Osama M. Hussain

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.

Keywords: Wireless, IEEE 802.11e, EDCA, Throughput, QoS, MAC.

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131 Role of Credit on Production Efficiency of Farming Sector in Pakistan(A Data Envelopment Analysis)

Authors: Saima Ayaz, Zakir Hussain, Maqbool Hussain Sial

Abstract:

The study identified the sources of production inefficiency of the farming sector in district Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was utilized at farm level survey data of 300 farmers for the year 2009. The overall mean efficiency score was 0.78 indicating 22 percent inefficiency of the sample farmers. Computed efficiency scores were then regressed on farm specific variables using Tobit regression analysis. Farming experience, education, access to farming credit, herd size and number of cultivation practices showed constructive and significant effect on the farmer-s technical efficiency.

Keywords: Agricultural credit, DEA, Technical efficiency, Tobit analysis

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130 Role of Investment in the Course of Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Maqbool Hussain Sial, Maaida Hussain Hashmi, Sofia Anwar

Abstract:

The present research was focused to investigate the role of investment in the course of economic growth with reference to Pakistan. The study analyzed the role of the public and private investment and impact of the political and macroeconomic uncertainty on economic growth of Pakistan by using the vector autoregressive approach (VAR). In long-run both public and private investment showed a positive impact on economic growth but the growth was largely driven by private investment as compared to public investment. Government consumption expenditure, economic uncertainty and political instability hampered the economic growth of Pakistan. In short-run the private investment positively influences the growth but there was negative and insignificant effect of the public investment and government consumption expenditure on the growth. There was a positive relationship found between economic uncertainty (proxy for inflation) and GDP in short run.

Keywords: Investment, Government Consumption, Growth, Co-integration, Pakistan.

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129 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

Abstract:

In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: Electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification.

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128 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: Construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun.

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127 Environmental Effects on Energy Consumption of Smart Grid Consumers

Authors: S. M. Ali, A. Salam Khan, A. U. Khan, M. Tariq, M. S. Hussain, B. A. Abbasi, I. Hussain, U. Farid

Abstract:

Environment and surrounding plays a pivotal rule in structuring life-style of the consumers. Living standards intern effect the energy consumption of the consumers. In smart grid paradigm, climate drifts, weather parameter and green environmental directly relates to the energy profiles of the various consumers, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Considering above factors helps policy in shaping utility load curves and optimal management of demand and supply. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop correlation models of load and weather parameters and critical analysis of the factors effecting energy profiles of smart grid consumers. In this paper, we elaborated various environment and weather parameter factors effecting demand of consumers. Moreover, we developed correlation models, such as Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, an inter-relation between dependent (load) parameter and independent (weather) parameters. Furthermore, we validated our discussion with real-time data of Texas State. The numerical simulations proved the effective relation of climatic drifts with energy consumption of smart grid consumers.

Keywords: Climatic drifts, correlation analysis, energy consumption, smart grid, weather parameter.

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126 New Newton's Method with Third-order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Osama Yusuf Ababneh

Abstract:

For the last years, the variants of the Newton-s method with cubic convergence have become popular iterative methods to find approximate solutions to the roots of non-linear equations. These methods both enjoy cubic convergence at simple roots and do not require the evaluation of second order derivatives. In this paper, we present a new Newton-s method based on contra harmonic mean with cubically convergent. Numerical examples show that the new method can compete with the classical Newton's method.

Keywords: Third-order convergence, non-linear equations, root finding, iterative method.

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125 Pontrjagin Duality and Codes over Finite Commutative Rings

Authors: Khalid Abdelmoumen, Mustapha Najmeddine, Hussain Ben-Azza

Abstract:

We present linear codes over finite commutative rings which are not necessarily Frobenius. We treat the notion of syndrome decoding by using Pontrjagin duality. We also give a version of Delsarte-s theorem over rings relating trace codes and subring subcodes.

Keywords: Codes, Finite Rings, Pontrjagin Duality, Trace Codes.

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124 Certain Estimates of Oscillatory Integrals and Extrapolation

Authors: Hussain Al-Qassem

Abstract:

In this paper we study the boundedness properties of certain oscillatory integrals with polynomial phase. We obtain sharp estimates for these oscillatory integrals. By the virtue of these estimates and extrapolation we obtain Lp boundedness for these oscillatory integrals under rather weak size conditions on the kernel function.

Keywords: Fourier transform, oscillatory integrals, Orlicz spaces, Block spaces, Extrapolation, Lp boundedness.

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123 Analysis of Rural Roads in Developing Countries Using Principal Component Analysis and Simple Average Technique in the Development of a Road Safety Performance Index

Authors: Muhammad Tufail, Jawad Hussain, Hammad Hussain, Imran Hafeez, Naveed Ahmad

Abstract:

Road safety performance index is a composite index which combines various indicators of road safety into single number. Development of a road safety performance index using appropriate safety performance indicators is essential to enhance road safety. However, a road safety performance index in developing countries has not been given as much priority as needed. The primary objective of this research is to develop a general Road Safety Performance Index (RSPI) for developing countries based on the facility as well as behavior of road user. The secondary objectives include finding the critical inputs in the RSPI and finding the better method of making the index. In this study, the RSPI is developed by selecting four main safety performance indicators i.e., protective system (seat belt, helmet etc.), road (road width, signalized intersections, number of lanes, speed limit), number of pedestrians, and number of vehicles. Data on these four safety performance indicators were collected using observation survey on a 20 km road section of the National Highway N-125 road Taxila, Pakistan. For the development of this composite index, two methods are used: a) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and b) Equal Weighting (EW) method. PCA is used for extraction, weighting, and linear aggregation of indicators to obtain a single value. An individual index score was calculated for each road section by multiplication of weights and standardized values of each safety performance indicator. However, Simple Average technique was used for weighting and linear aggregation of indicators to develop a RSPI. The road sections are ranked according to RSPI scores using both methods. The two weighting methods are compared, and the PCA method is found to be much more reliable than the Simple Average Technique.

Keywords: Aggregation, index score, indicators, principal component analysis, weighting.

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122 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves andgeneralizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: iterativeprocess is faster, operators are more general. At the end, we indicatethat the results can also be proved with the iterative process witherror terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence.

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121 Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imaging analyzing strategy based on image refinement, reflection polarity and reflection amplitude that would ease the process of interpreting the collected raw radargram image.

Keywords: Water Networks, Leakage, Water pipelines, Ground Penetrating Radar.

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120 Preliminary Study for Separation of Heavy Rare Earth Concentrates from Egyptian Crude Monazite

Authors: Sherien H. Ahmed, Osama S. Helaly, Mohamed S. Abd El-Ghany

Abstract:

Heavy rare earth (HRE) oxalate concentrates were prepared from the Egyptian crude monazite sand (graded about 47%). The concentrates were specified quantitatively for their constituents of individual rare earth elements using ion chromatograph (IC) and qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the other major constituents. The 1st concentrate was composed of 10.5% HREE where 7.25% of them represented yttrium. The 2nd concentrate contained about 41.7% LREE, 17.5% HREE and 13.6% Th. The LREE involved 18.3% Ce, 10.5% La and 8% Nd while the HREE were 8.7% Y, 3.5% Gd and 2.9% Dy. The 3rd concentrate was containing about 8.0% LREE (3.7% Ce, 2.0% La and 1.5% Nd), 10.2% HREE (6.4% yttrium and 2.0% Dy) and 2.1% uranium. The final concentrate comprised 0.84% uranium beside iron, chromium and traces of REE.

Keywords: Oxalic Acid Precipitation, Rare Earth Concentrates, Thorium, Uranium.

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119 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.

Keywords: Image encryption, security analysis.

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118 Two-step Iterative Process For Common Fixed Points of Two Asymptotically Quasi-nonexpansive Mappings

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider an iteration process for approximating common fixed points of two asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and we prove some strong and weak convergence theorems for such mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces.

Keywords: Asypmtotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings, Commonfixed point, Strong and weak convergence, Iteration process.

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117 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman

Abstract:

An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: Active slat, flow control.

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116 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective non-destructive, noninvasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: Thermography, Leakage, Water pipelines, Thermograms.

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115 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq

Abstract:

Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, metric dimension, honeycomb network, line graph.

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114 IKEv1 and IKEv2: A Quantitative Analyses

Authors: H.Soussi, M.Hussain, H.Afifi, D.Seret

Abstract:

Key management is a vital component in any modern security protocol. Due to scalability and practical implementation considerations automatic key management seems a natural choice in significantly large virtual private networks (VPNs). In this context IETF Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the most promising protocol under permanent review. We have made a humble effort to pinpoint IKEv2 net gain over IKEv1 due to recent modifications in its original structure, along with a brief overview of salient improvements between the two versions. We have used US National Institute of Technology NIIST VPN simulator to get some comparisons of important performance metrics.

Keywords: Quantitative Analyses, IKEv1, IKEv2, NIIST.

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113 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Authors: Osama Terra, Mariesa Nel, Hatem Hussein

Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has a crucial role for the accurate determination of fault locations and the accurate calculation of loss budget of long-haul optical fibre links during installation and repair. A comparison has been made between the Egyptian National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt) and the National Metrology institute of South Africa (NMISA-South Africa) for the calibration of an OTDR. The distance and the attenuation scales of a transfer OTDR have been calibrated by both institutes using their standards according to the standard IEC 61746-1 (2009). The results of this comparison have been compiled in this report.

Keywords: OTDR calibration, recirculating loop, concatenated method, standard fibre.

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112 A Nonlinear ODE System for the Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force – A New Approach

Authors: Osama A. Marzouk

Abstract:

We propose a reduced-ordermodel for the instantaneous hydrodynamic force on a cylinder. The model consists of a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which can be integrated in time to yield very accurate histories of the resultant force and its direction. In contrast to several existing models, the proposed model considers the actual (total) hydrodynamic force rather than its perpendicular or parallel projection (the lift and drag), and captures the complete force rather than the oscillatory part only. We study and provide descriptions of the relationship between the model parameters, evaluated utilizing results from numerical simulations, and the Reynolds number so that the model can be used at any arbitrary value within the considered range of 100 to 500 to provide accurate representation of the force without the need to perform timeconsuming simulations and solving the partial differential equations (PDEs) governing the flow field.

Keywords: reduced-order model, wake oscillator, nonlinear, ODEsystem

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111 Computer Aided Language Learning System for Arabic for Second Language Learners

Authors: Osama Abufanas

Abstract:

This paper aims to build an Arabic learning language tool using Flash CS4 professional software with action script 3.0 programming language, based on the Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL) material. An extra intention is to provide a primary tool and focus on learning Arabic as a second language to adults. It contains letters, words and sentences at the first stage. This includes interactive practices, which evaluates learners’ comprehension of the Arabic language. The system was examined and it was found that the language structure was correct and learners were satisfied regarding the system tools. The learners found the system tools efficient and simple to use. The paper's main conclusion illustrates that CALL can be applied without any hesitation to second language learners

Keywords: Arabic Language, Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL), Learner, Material.

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110 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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109 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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108 Practical Experiences as Part of Project Management Course

Authors: H. Hussain, N. H. Mohamad

Abstract:

Practical experiences have been one of the successful criteria for the Project Management course for the art and design students. There are series of events that the students have to undergo as part of their practical exercises in the learning context for Project Management courses. These series have been divided into few mini programs that involved the whole individual in each group. Therefore, the events have been one of the bench marks for these students. Through the practical experience, the task that has been given to individual has been performed according to the needs of professional practice and ethics.

Keywords: Practical experiences, project management, art and design students, events, programs.

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107 The Best Methods of Motivating and Encouraging the Students to Study: A Case Study

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam, Osama K. El-Hafy

Abstract:

With lack of student motivation, there will be a little or no real learning in the class and this directly effects student achievement and test scores. Some students are naturally motivated to learn, but many students are not motivated, they do care little about learning and need their instructors to motivate them. Thus, motivating students is part of the instructor’s job. It’s a tough task to motivate students and make them have more attention and enthusiasm. As a part of this research, a questionnaire has been distributed among a sample of 155 students out of 1502 students from Foundation Program at Qatar University. The questionnaire helped us to determine some methods to motivate the students and encourage them to study such as variety of teaching activities, encouraging students to participate during the lectures, creating intense competition between the students, using instructional technology, not using grades as a threat and respecting the students and treating them in a good manner. Accordingly, some hypotheses are tested and some recommendations are presented.

Keywords: Learning, motivating, student, teacher, testing hypotheses.

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106 A Theoretical Study of the SI Engine Performance Operating with Different Fuels

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal

Abstract:

The intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different fuels type on engine performance for different engine speed. Brake Power, Brake Torque, and specific fuel consumption were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying fuel type on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for one-cylinder spark ignition engine has been built and calculated.

The analysis of the results shows that for methanol the power increases about 30% at 1000 rpm and 16% at 6000 rpm comparing with methane. For the same compared fuels the increment in fuel consumption is about 100% at 1000 rpm and 115% at 6000 rpm. The increment in brake thermal efficiency for gasoline is around 11% comparing with methane at 1000 rpm and 7% for methanol comparing with methane at 4000 rpm.

Keywords: Natural gas fuel, spark ignition engines, performance, engine simulation.

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105 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: Neural network, rule extraction, rule insertion, self-organizing map.

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104 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading Hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54%) and Penicillium commune (48%) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has capability of degradation and can be utilize for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: Fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS.

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103 Hit-or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Authors: Osama Mohamed Elrajubi, Idris El-Feghi, Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer

Abstract:

This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Keywords: Hit-or/and-Miss Operator/Transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing.

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