Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Urdu OCR.

10 Segmentation Free Nastalique Urdu OCR

Authors: Sobia T. Javed, Sarmad Hussain, Ameera Maqbool, Samia Asloob, Sehrish Jamil, Huma Moin

Abstract:

The electronically available Urdu data is in image form which is very difficult to process. Printed Urdu data is the root cause of problem. So for the rapid progress of Urdu language we need an OCR systems, which can help us to make Urdu data available for the common person. Research has been carried out for years to automata Arabic and Urdu script. But the biggest hurdle in the development of Urdu OCR is the challenge to recognize Nastalique Script which is taken as standard for writing Urdu language. Nastalique script is written diagonally with no fixed baseline which makes the script somewhat complex. Overlap is present not only in characters but in the ligatures as well. This paper proposes a method which allows successful recognition of Nastalique Script.

Keywords: HMM, Image processing, Optical CharacterRecognition, Urdu OCR.

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9 Urdu Nastaleeq Optical Character Recognition

Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Inam Shamsher, Awais Adnan

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Urdu script characteristics, Urdu Nastaleeq and a simple but a novel and robust technique to recognize the printed Urdu script without a lexicon. Urdu being a family of Arabic script is cursive and complex script in its nature, the main complexity of Urdu compound/connected text is not its connections but the forms/shapes the characters change when it is placed at initial, middle or at the end of a word. The characters recognition technique presented here is using the inherited complexity of Urdu script to solve the problem. A word is scanned and analyzed for the level of its complexity, the point where the level of complexity changes is marked for a character, segmented and feeded to Neural Networks. A prototype of the system has been tested on Urdu text and currently achieves 93.4% accuracy on the average.

Keywords: Cursive Script, OCR, Urdu.

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8 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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7 OCR For Printed Urdu Script Using Feed Forward Neural Network

Authors: Inam Shamsher, Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Awais Adnan

Abstract:

This paper deals with an Optical Character Recognition system for printed Urdu, a popular Pakistani/Indian script and is the third largest understandable language in the world, especially in the subcontinent but fewer efforts are made to make it understandable to computers. Lot of work has been done in the field of literature and Islamic studies in Urdu, which has to be computerized. In the proposed system individual characters are recognized using our own proposed method/ algorithms. The feature detection methods are simple and robust. Supervised learning is used to train the feed forward neural network. A prototype of the system has been tested on printed Urdu characters and currently achieves 98.3% character level accuracy on average .Although the system is script/ language independent but we have designed it for Urdu characters only.

Keywords: Algorithm, Feed Forward Neural Networks, Supervised learning, Pattern Matching.

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6 A Framework for Urdu Language Translation using LESSA

Authors: Imran Sarwar Bajwa

Abstract:

Internet is one of the major sources of information for the person belonging to almost all the fields of life. Major language that is used to publish information on internet is language. This thing becomes a problem in a country like Pakistan, where Urdu is the national language. Only 10% of Pakistan mass can understand English. The reason is millions of people are deprived of precious information available on internet. This paper presents a system for translation from English to Urdu. A module LESSA is used that uses a rule based algorithm to read the input text in English language, understand it and translate it into Urdu language. The designed approach was further incorporated to translate the complete website from English language o Urdu language. An option appears in the browser to translate the webpage in a new window. The designed system will help the millions of users of internet to get benefit of the internet and approach the latest information and knowledge posted daily on internet.

Keywords: Natural Language Translation, Text Understanding, Knowledge extraction, Text Processing

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5 Multi Language Text Editor for Burushaski and Urdu through Unicode

Authors: Irfan Qadir Baig, Muhammad Sharif, Aman Ullah Khan

Abstract:

This paper introduces an isolated and unique ancient language Burushaski, spoken in Hunza, Nagar, Yasin and parts of Gilgit in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It explains the working mechanism of Multi Language Text Editor for Urdu and Burushaski. It is developed under the use of ISO/IEC 10646 Unicode standards for Urdu and Burushaski open-type fonts. It gives an ample opportunity to this regional ancient language to have a modern Information technology for its promotion and preservation. The main objective of this research paper is to help preserve the heritage of such rare languages and give smart way of automation. It also facilitates to those who are interested in undertaking research on Burushaski or keen to trace fonatic relationship between the national Urdu language and Burushaski. Since this editor covers both Burushaski and Urdu so it can play an important role to introduce Burusho linguistic culture to the world at large. Precisely, as a result of this research paper, Burushaski publication through IT means would be possible.

Keywords: Burushaski, Bri Naqsh, Unicode, Burusho, Hunza, Meshaski.

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4 Extracting Multiword Expressions in Machine Translation from English to Urdu using Relational Data Approach

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Uzair Muhammad, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS (stands for Parts of Speech) Tagging forUrdu, Expert Systems.

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3 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.

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2 A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions

Authors: Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub, Manal Mohammad Fattani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new steganography approach suitable for Arabic texts. It can be classified under steganography feature coding methods. The approach hides secret information bits within the letters benefiting from their inherited points. To note the specific letters holding secret bits, the scheme considers the two features, the existence of the points in the letters and the redundant Arabic extension character. We use the pointed letters with extension to hold the secret bit 'one' and the un-pointed letters with extension to hold 'zero'. This steganography technique is found attractive to other languages having similar texts to Arabic such as Persian and Urdu.

Keywords: Arabic text, Cryptography, Feature coding, Information security, Text steganography, Text watermarking.

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1 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan

Abstract:

Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, content analysis, gender, prime time.

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