The Potential of Hybrid Microgrids for Mitigating Power Outage in Lebanon
Lebanon electricity crisis continues to escalate. Rationing hours still apply across the country but with different rates. The capital Beirut is subjected to 3 hours cut while other cities, town and villages may endure 9 to 14 hours of power shortage. To mitigate this situation, private diesel generators distributed illegally all over the country are being used to bridge the gap in power supply. Almost each building in large cities has its own generator and individual villages may have more than one generator supplying their loads. These generators together with their private networks form incomplete and ill-designed and managed microgrids (MG) but can be further developed to become renewable energy-based MG operating in island- or grid-connected modes. This paper will analyze the potential of introducing MG to help resolve the energy crisis in Lebanon. It will investigate the usefulness of developing MG under the prevailing situation of existing private power supply service providers and in light of the developed national energy policy that supports renewable energy development. A case study on a distribution feeder in a rural area will be analyzed using HOMER software to demonstrate the usefulness of introducing photovoltaic (PV) arrays along the existing diesel generators for all the stakeholders; namely, the developers, the customers, the utility and the community at large. Policy recommendations regarding MG development in Lebanon will be presented on the basis of the accumulated experience in private generation and the privatization and public-private partnership laws.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3298727Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 363
 S. Shezan, S. Julai, M. Kibria, K. Ullah, R. Saidur, W. Chong and R. Akikur, "Performance analysis of an off-grid wind-PV (photovoltaic)-diesel-battery hybrid energy system feasible for remote areas," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 125, pp. 121-132, 2016.
 Kaabeche and R. Ibtiouen. Techno-economic optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel/battery generation in a stand-alone power system. Solar Energy, vol. 103, pp. 171-182, 2014.
 Steven Griffiths. A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region. Energy Policy 102 (2017) 249–269.
 Jaesung Jung, Michael Villaran. Optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75 (2017) 180–191.
 B. Madaci, R. Chenni, E. Kurt and K. E. Hemsas, "Design and control of a stand-alone hybrid power system," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 29, pp. 12485-12496, 2016.
 Raji Atia and Noboru Yamada. Sizing and Analysis of Renewable Energy and Battery Systems in Residential Microgrids. IEEE Transactions On Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 3, May 2016.
 Fares, D., S. H. Karaki and R. Chedid, 2011. Design and Simulation of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System. IEEE Power & Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI 2011), Urbana Champaign, Illinois.
 S. Bahramara, M. P. Moghaddam and M. Haghifam. Optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems using HOMER: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 62, pp. 609-620, 2016.
 Saeed Hasanvand, Majid Nayeripour, Eberhard Waffenschmidt, Hossein Fallahzadeh-Abarghouei. A new approach to transform an existing distribution network into a set of micro-grids for enhancing reliability and sustainability. Applied Soft Computing 52 (2017) 120–134.
 Xiaojuan Han, Hua Zhang, Xiaoling Yu, Lina Wang. Economic evaluation of grid-connected micro-grid system with photovoltaic and energy storage under different investment and financing models. Applied Energy 184 (2016) 103–118.
 Lei Wu, Tom Ortmeyer, Jie Li. The community microgrid distribution system of the future. The Electricity Journal 29 (2016) 16–21.
 Peigen Tian, Xi Xiao, Kui Wang, Ruoxing Ding. A Hierarchical Energy Management System Based on Hierarchical Optimization for Microgrid Community Economic Operation. IEEE Transactions On Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 5, September 2016.
 Emi Minghui Guia, Mark Diesendorf, Iain MacGill. Distributed energy infrastructure paradigm: Community microgrids in a new institutional economics context. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 72 (2017) 1355–1365.
 Peigen Tian, Xi Xiao, Ying Chen, Tianjun Jing, Xiuqiong Huang, Nazhi. The key technologies and analysis of research state of microgrid community. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 121 (2017) 56–63.
 Won-Poong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Dong-Jun Won. Coordination Strategy for Optimal Scheduling of Multiple Microgrids Based on Hierarchical System. Energies 2017, 10, 1336. doi:10.3390/en10091336.
 J. Khoury, R. Mbayed, G. Salloum, E. Monmasson, J. Guerrero. Review on the integration of photovoltaic renewable energy in developing countries—Special attention to the Lebanese case. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) 562–575.
 Nathaniel J. Williams, Paulina Jaramillo, Jay Taneja, Taha Selim Ustun. Enabling private sector investment in microgrid-based rural electriﬁcation in developing countries: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52 (2015) 1268–1281.
 Oussama Ibrahim, Farouk Fardoun, Rafic Younes, Hasna Louahlia-Gualous. Energy status in Lebanon and electricity generation reform plan based on cost and pollution optimization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 20 (2013) 255–278.
 Lebanon: Energy sector in urgent need of a reform. http://www.folkecenter.dk/mediafiles/folkecenter/pdf/LEBANON.pdf.
 H.A. Hamdan, R.F. Ghajar, R.B. Chedid. A simulation model for reliability-based appraisal of an energy policy: The case of Lebanon. Energy Policy 45 (2012) 293–303.
 R. H. El-Fadel, G. P. Hammond, H. A. Harajli, C. I. Jones, V. K. Kabakian, A. B. Winnett. The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development. Energy Policy 38 (2010) 751–761.
 World Bank, 2008. Republic of Lebanon Electricity Sector: Public Expenditure Review, Report no. 41421-LB. World Bank, Washington.
 Adnan Zein, Ghassan Bazzoun. Integration of Photo voltaic Generators into Existing Diesel Mini-Grids in Lebanon. 25th International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM), 2013.
 R. Chedid, I. Baydoun, S. Eid, S. Tarhini, R. Ghajar. Techno-Economic Analysis of a PV Generator Operating in a Hybrid Diesel-Unreliable Grid System. 2015 International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP).
 Ali Assi and Omar Al-Kaaki. Introducing Micro-grids in Lebanon Renewable-Based Microgrids to Replace Diesel Generators. 2016 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries (REDEC), 2016.
 W. Thornton. Strategic Niche Management of the Solar Electricity sector in Lebanon. CEDRO report. Exchange issue 22. July 2016. www.cedro-undp.org.
 Hassan Harajli, Fabiana Gordon. Willingness to pay for green power in an unreliable electricity sector: Part 2. The case of the Lebanese commercial sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 1643–1649.
 Leila Dagher, Hassan Harajli. Willingness to pay for green power in an unreliable electricity sector: Part 1. The case of the Lebanese residential sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 1634–1642.
 Dana Abi Ghanem. Energy, the city and everyday life: Living with power outages in post-war Lebanon. Energy Research & Social Science. In press, corrected proof, Available online 26 November 2017.
 MEW. Policy paper for the electricity sector. Report #1. Beirut: Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW). 2010.