Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1089

Search results for: Coastal planning

1089 Coastal Ecological Sensitivity and Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Sea Level Change in Apodi River (Atlantic Ocean), Northeast Brazil

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Venerando Eustáquio Amaro, Helenice Vital

Abstract:

The present study has been carried out with a view to calculate the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to know the high and low sensitive areas and area of inundation due to future SLR. Both conventional and remotely sensed data were used and analyzed through the modelling technique. Out of the total study area, 8.26% is very high risk, 14.21% high, 9.36% medium, 22.46% low and 7.35% in the very low vulnerable category, due to costal components. Results of the inundation analysis indicate that 225.2 km² and 397 km² of the land area will be submerged by flooding at 1m and 10m inundation levels. The most severely affected sectors are expected to be the residential, industrial and recreational areas. As this coast is planned for future coastal developmental activities, measures such as industrializations, building regulation, urban growth planning and agriculture, development of an integrated coastal zone management, strict enforcement of the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act, monitoring of impacts and further research in this regard are recommended for the study area.

Keywords: Coastal planning, land use, satellite data, vulnerability.

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1088 The Taiwanese Institutional Arrangement for Coastal Management Due to Climate Change

Authors: Wen-Hong Liu, Hao-Tang Jhan, Kun-Lung Lin, Meng-Tsung Lee

Abstract:

Weather disaster events were frequent and caused loss of lives and property in Taiwan recently. Excessive concentration of population and lacking of integrated planning led to Taiwanese coastal zone face the impacts of climate change directly. Comparing to many countries which have already set up legislation, competent authorities and national adaptation strategies, the ability of coastal management adapting to climate change is still insufficient in Taiwan. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a complete institutional arrangement for coastal management due to climate change in order to protect environment and sustain socio-economic development. This paper firstly reviews the impact of climate change on Taiwanese coastal zone. Secondly, development of Taiwanese institutional arrangement of coastal management is introduced. Followed is the analysis of four dimensions of legal basis, competent authority, scientific and financial support and international cooperations of institutional arrangement. The results show that Taiwanese government shall: 1) integrate climate change issue into Coastal Act, Wetland Act and territorial planning Act and pass them; 2) establish the high level competent authority for coastal management; 3) set up the climate change disaster coordinate platform; 4) link scientific information and decision markers; 5) establish the climate change adjustment fund; 6) participate in international climate change organizations and meetings actively; 7) cooperate with near countries to exchange experiences.

Keywords: Climate Change, Coastal Zone Management, Institution Arrangement, Adaptation.

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1087 Coastal Resources Spatial Planning and Potential Oil Risk Analysis: Case Study of Misratah’s Coastal Resources, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg, Kevin Lynch, Mark Johnson

Abstract:

The goal of the Libyan Environmental General Authority (EGA) and National Oil Corporation (Department of Health, Safety & Environment) during the last 5 years has been to adopt a common approach to coastal and marine spatial planning. Protection and planning of the coastal zone is a significant for Libya, due to the length of coast and, the high rate of oil export, and spills’ potential negative impacts on coastal and marine habitats. Coastal resource scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term and short-term consequences of oil spill impact and available response options that would provide an integrated perspective on mitigation. To investigate that, this paper reviews the Misratah coastal parameters to present the physical and human controls and attributes of coastal habitats as the first step in understanding how they may be damaged by an oil spill. This paper also investigates costal resources, providing a better understanding of the resources and factors that impact the integrity of the ecosystem. Therefore, the study described the potential spatial distribution of oil spill risk and the coastal resources value, and also created spatial maps of coastal resources and their vulnerability to oil spills along the coast. This study proposes an analysis of coastal resources condition at a local level in the Misratah region of the Mediterranean Sea, considering the implementation of coastal and marine spatial planning over time as an indication of the will to manage urban development. Oil spill contamination analysis and their impact on the coastal resources depend on (1) oil spill sequence, (2) oil spill location, (3) oil spill movement near the coastal area. The resulting maps show natural, socio-economic activity, environmental resources along of the coast, and oil spill location. Moreover, the study provides significant geodatabase information which is required for coastal sensitivity index mapping and coastal management studies. The outcome of study provides the information necessary to set an Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Misratah shoreline, which can be used for management of coastal resources and setting boundaries for each coastal sensitivity sectors, as well as to help planners measure the impact of oil spills on coastal resources. Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were used in order to store and illustrate the spatial convergence of existing socio-economic activities such as fishing, tourism, and the salt industry, and ecosystem components such as sea turtle nesting area, Sabkha habitats, and migratory birds feeding sites. These geodatabases help planners investigate the vulnerability of coastal resources to an oil spill.

Keywords: Coastal and marine spatial planning advancement training, GIS mapping, human uses, ecosystem components, Misratah coast, Libyan, oil spill.

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1086 Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

Authors: Sun Jiaojiao, Fu Jiayan

Abstract:

At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combining regional environmental with economic ability along the coastal area, then authors put forward the system planning framework, construction strategy and the evaluation index system, in order to seek the way of building urban sustainability along coastal area in China.

Keywords: Urban sustainability, coastal areas, construction strategy, evaluation index system.

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1085 Determining the Spatial Vulnerability Levels and Typologies of Coastal Cities to Climate Change: Case of Turkey

Authors: Mediha B. Sılaydın Aydın, Emine D. Kahraman

Abstract:

One of the important impacts of climate change is the sea level rise. Turkey is a peninsula, so the coastal areas of the country are threatened by the problem of sea level rise. Therefore, the urbanized coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. At the aim of enhancing spatial resilience of urbanized areas, this question arises: What should be the priority intervention subject in the urban planning process for a given city. To answer this question, by focusing on the problem of sea level rise, this study aims to determine spatial vulnerability typologies and levels of Turkey coastal cities based on morphological, physical and social characteristics. As a method, spatial vulnerability of coastal cities is determined by two steps as level and type. Firstly, physical structure, morphological structure and social structure were examined in determining spatial vulnerability levels. By determining these levels, most vulnerable areas were revealed as a priority in adaptation studies. Secondly, all parameters are also used to determine spatial typologies. Typologies are determined for coastal cities in order to use as a base for urban planning studies. Adaptation to climate change is crucial for developing countries like Turkey so, this methodology and created typologies could be a guide for urban planners as spatial directors and an example for other developing countries in the context of adaptation to climate change. The results demonstrate that the urban settlements located on the coasts of the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean respectively, are more vulnerable than the cities located on the Black Sea’s coasts to sea level rise.

Keywords: Climate change, coastal cities, sea level rise, urban land use planning, vulnerability.

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1084 Assessment of Vulnerability and Risk of Taijiang Coastal Areas to Climatic Changes

Authors: Yu-Chen Lin, Tzong-Yeang Lee

Abstract:

This study aims to assess the vulnerability and risk of the coastal areas of Taijiang to abnormal oceanographic phenomena. In addition, this study aims to investigate and collect data regarding the disaster losses, land utilization, and other social, economic, and environmental issues in these coastal areas to construct a coastal vulnerability and risk map based on the obtained climate-change risk assessment results. Considering the indexes of the three coastal vulnerability dimensions, namely, man-made facilities, environmental geography, and social economy, this study adopted the equal weighting process and Analytic Hierarchy Process to analyze the vulnerability of these coastal areas to disasters caused by climatic changes. Among the areas with high coastal vulnerability to climatic changes, three towns had the highest coastal vulnerability and four had the highest relative vulnerability. Areas with lower disaster risks were found to be increasingly vulnerable to disasters caused by climatic changes as time progresses.

Keywords: Climate change, coastal disaster, risk, vulnerability

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1083 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: Consolidation, coastal embankments, settlement, numerical methods, finite elements method.

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1082 Coastline Change at Koh Tao Island, Thailand

Authors: Cherdvong Saengsupavanich

Abstract:

Human utilizes coastal resources as well as deteriorates them. Coastal tourism may degrade the environment if poorly managed. This research investigated the shoreline change at Koa Toa Island, one of the most famous tourist destinations. Aerial photographs and satellite images from three different periods were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the noticeable shoreline change before and after the tourism on the island had expanded. Between 1995 and 2002 when the tourism on Koh Toa Island was not intensive, sediment deposition occurred along most of the coastline. However, after the tourism had grown during 2002 to 2015, the coast evidently experienced less deposition and more erosion. The erosion resulted from less land-based sediment being provided to the littoral system. If the coastline of Koh Toa Island is not carefully sustained, the tourism will disappear along with the beautiful beach.  

Keywords: Coastal erosion, coastal tourism, Koh Toa Island, Thailand, coastal engineering and management.

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1081 Land Use Changes in Two Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Do Urban Areas Matter?

Authors: L. Salvati, D. Smiraglia, S. Bajocco, M. Munafò

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LULCC) occurred in the urban coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin in the last thirty years. LULCC were assessed diachronically (1975-2006) in two urban areas, Rome (Italy) and Athens (Greece), by using CORINE land cover maps. In strictly coastal territories a persistent growth of built-up areas at the expenses of both agricultural and forest land uses was found. On the contrary, a different pattern was observed in the surrounding inland areas, where a high conversion rate of the agricultural land uses to both urban and forest land uses was recorded. The impact of city growth on the complex pattern of coastal LULCC is finally discussed.

Keywords: Land use changes, coastal region, Rome, Attica, southern Europe.

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1080 People Empowerment in Livelihood Activities toward Sustainable Coastal Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Achmad Zamroni, Masahiro Yamao

Abstract:

Coastal resource management, community empowerment and socio economic development are the cornerstones for uplifting the lives of coastal area inhabitants. This paper aims to identify the positive impacts of coastal management projects toward fishermen-s economic well-being, to analyze the role of fishermen and their families in effecting economic change and to analyze the roles of stakeholders in managing coastal resources. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were prepared to obtain qualitative data, and interviews were conducted with fishermen. Findings show that community empowerment and conservation of coastal resources through local and central government projects have exerted positive impact on the coastal community. Some activities involved women who are more active particularly in “off-fishing" season. Traditionally, local fishermen together with local stakeholders have set up a zoning system to minimize conflicts between fishermen. In addition, zoning is used to protect certain ecosystems that can provide benefits well into the future.

Keywords: Economic development, Off-fishing, Resource management, Stakeholders' participation, Women's participation

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1079 Modeling Methodologies for Optimization and Decision Support on Coastal Transport Information System (Co.Tr.I.S.)

Authors: Vassilios Moussas, Dimos N. Pantazis, Panagiotis Stratakis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the optimization methodology developed in the frame of a Coastal Transport Information System. The system will be used for the effective design of coastal transportation lines and incorporates subsystems that implement models, tools and techniques that may support the design of improved networks. The role of the optimization and decision subsystem is to provide the user with better and optimal scenarios that will best fulfill any constrains, goals or requirements posed. The complexity of the problem and the large number of parameters and objectives involved led to the adoption of an evolutionary method (Genetic Algorithms). The problem model and the subsystem structure are presented in detail, and, its support for simulation is also discussed.

Keywords: Coastal transport, modeling, optimization.

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1078 Predicting and Mitigating Dredging DispersionImpact: A Case of Phuket Port, Thailand

Authors: Cherdvong Saengsupavanich

Abstract:

Dredging activities inevitably cause sediment dispersion. In certain locations, where there are important ecological areas such as mangroves or coral reefs, carefully planning the dredging can significantly reduce negative impacts. This article utilizes the dredging at Phuket port, Thailand, as a case study to demonstrate how computer simulations can be helpful to protect existing coral reefs. A software package named MIKE21 was applied. Necessary information required by the simulations was gathered. After calibrating and verifying the model, various dredging scenario were simulated to predict spoil movement. The simulation results were used as guidance to setting up an environmental measure. Finally, the recommendation to dredge during flood tide with silt curtains installed was made.

Keywords: Coastal simulation, Dredging, Environmentalprotection, Port. Coastal engineering, Thailand

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1077 A Shallow Water Model for Computing Inland Inundation Due to Indonesian Tsunami 2004 Using a Moving Coastal Boundary

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Mohammed Ashaque Meah, Ahmad Izani M. Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for estimating the extent of inland inundation due to Indonesian tsunami of 2004 along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. The model consists of the shallow water equations together with open and coastal boundary conditions. In order to route the water wave towards the land, the coastal boundary is treated as a time dependent moving boundary. For computation of tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave is generated in the deep ocean with the strength of the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Several numerical experiments are carried out by changing the slope of the beach to examine the extent of inundation with slope. The simulated inundation is found to decrease with the increase of the slope of the orography. Correlation between inundation / recession and run-up are found to be directly proportional to each other.

Keywords: Inland Inundation, Shallow Water Equations, Tsunami, Moving Coastal Boundary.

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1076 Summarizing Data Sets for Data Mining by Using Statistical Methods in Coastal Engineering

Authors: Yunus Doğan, Ahmet Durap

Abstract:

Coastal regions are the one of the most commonly used places by the natural balance and the growing population. In coastal engineering, the most valuable data is wave behaviors. The amount of this data becomes very big because of observations that take place for periods of hours, days and months. In this study, some statistical methods such as the wave spectrum analysis methods and the standard statistical methods have been used. The goal of this study is the discovery profiles of the different coast areas by using these statistical methods, and thus, obtaining an instance based data set from the big data to analysis by using data mining algorithms. In the experimental studies, the six sample data sets about the wave behaviors obtained by 20 minutes of observations from Mersin Bay in Turkey and converted to an instance based form, while different clustering techniques in data mining algorithms were used to discover similar coastal places. Moreover, this study discusses that this summarization approach can be used in other branches collecting big data such as medicine.

Keywords: Clustering algorithms, coastal engineering, data mining, data summarization, statistical methods.

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1075 Using Model to Plan of Strategic Objectives

Authors: Terezie Bartusková, Jitka Baňařová, Zuzana Kusněřová

Abstract:

Importance of strategic planning is unquestionable. However, the practical implementation of a strategic plan faces too many obstacles. The aim of the article is explained the importance of strategic planning and to find how companies in Moravian-Silesian Region deal with strategic planning, and to introduce the model, which helps to set strategic goals in financial indicators area. This model should be part of the whole process of strategic planning and can be use to predict the future values of financial indicators of the company with regard to the factor, which influence these indicators.

Keywords: Planning of Potentials, Planning of Strategic Objectives, Portfolio Planning, Significant Factors, Strategic Planning.

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1074 Determination of the Economic Planning Depth for Assembly Process Planning

Authors: A. Kampker, P. Burggräf, Y. Bäumers

Abstract:

In order to be competitive, companies have to reduce their production costs while meeting increasing quality requirements. Therefore, companies try to plan their assembly processes as detailed as possible. However, increasing product individualization leading to a higher number of variants, smaller batch sizes and shorter product life cycles raise the question to what extent the effort of detailed planning is still justified. An important approach in this field of research is the concept of determining the economic planning depth for assembly process planning based on production specific influencing factors. In this paper first solution hypotheses as well as a first draft of the resulting method will be presented.

Keywords: Assembly process planning, economic planning depth, planning benefit, planning effort.

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1073 Corrosion Monitoring of Weathering Steel in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Environment

Authors: Ch. Thee, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke

Abstract:

The atmospheres in many cities along the coastal lines in the world have been rapidly changed to coastal-industrial atmosphere. Hence, it is vital to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel exposed to this kind of environment. In this present study, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrography (EIS) and film thickness measurement were applied to monitor the corrosion behavior of weathering steel covered with a thin layer of the electrolyte in a wet-dry cyclic condition, simulating a coastal-industrial environment at 25oC and 60% RH. The results indicate that in all cycles, the corrosion rate increases during the drying process due to an increase in anion concentration and an acceleration of oxygen diffusion enhanced by the effect of the thinning out of the electrolyte. During the wet-dry cyclic corrosion test, the long-term corrosion behavior of this steel depends on the periods of exposure. Corrosion process is first accelerated and then decelerated. The decelerating corrosion process is contributed to the formation of the protective rust, favored by the wet-dry cycle and the acid regeneration process during the rusting process.

Keywords: Atmospheric corrosion, EIS, low alloy, rust.

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1072 Recursive Filter for Coastal Displacement Estimation

Authors: Efstratios Doukakis, Nikolaos Petrelis

Abstract:

All climate models agree that the temperature in Greece will increase in the range of 1° to 2°C by the year 2030 and mean sea level in Mediterranean is expected to rise at the rate of 5 cm/decade. The aim of the present paper is the estimation of the coastline displacement driven by the climate change and sea level rise. In order to achieve that, all known statistical and non-statistical computational methods are employed on some Greek coastal areas. Furthermore, Kalman filtering techniques are for the first time introduced, formulated and tested. Based on all the above, shoreline change signals and noises are computed and an inter-comparison between the different methods can be deduced to help evaluating which method is most promising as far as the retrieve of shoreline change rate is concerned.

Keywords: Climate Change, Coastal Displacement, KalmanFilter

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1071 Structure and Functions of Urban Surface Water System in Coastal Areas: The Case of Almere

Authors: Tao Zou, Zhengnan Zhou

Abstract:

In the context of global climate change, flooding and sea level rise is increasingly threatening coastal urban areas, in which large population is continuously concentrated. Dutch experiences in urban water system management provide high reference value for sustainable coastal urban development projects. Preliminary studies shows the urban water system in Almere, a typical Dutch polder city, have three kinds of operational modes, achieving functions as: (1) coastline control – strong multiple damming system prevents from storm surges and maintains sufficient capacity upon risks; (2) high flexibility – large area and widely scattered open water system greatly reduce local runoff and water level fluctuation; (3) internal water maintenance – weir and sluice system maintains relatively stable water level, providing excellent boating and landscaping service, coupling with water circulating model maintaining better water quality. Almere has provided plenty of hints and experiences for ongoing development of coastal cities in emerging economies.

Keywords: Coastal area, resilience, sustainable urban watersystem, water circulation.

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1070 Evaluation of the Beach Erosion Process in Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba: Effects of Different Hurricane Trajectories

Authors: Ana Gabriela Diaz, Luis Fermín Córdova, Jr., Roberto Lamazares

Abstract:

The island of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles, is located in the tropical North Atlantic. It is annually affected by numerous weather events, which have caused severe damage to our coastal areas. In the same way that many other coastlines around the world, the beautiful beaches of the Hicacos Peninsula also suffer from erosion. This leads to a structural regression of the coastline. If measures are not taken, the hotels will be exposed to the advance of the sea, and it will be a serious problem for the economy. With the aim of studying the intensity of this type of activity, specialists of group of coastal and marine engineering from CIH, in the framework of the research conducted within the project MEGACOSTAS 2, provide their research to simulate extreme events and assess their impact in coastal areas, mainly regarding the definition of flood volumes and morphodynamic changes in sandy beaches. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of the process of Varadero beach erosion (the coastal sector has an important impact in the country's economy) on the Hicacos Peninsula for different paths of hurricanes. The mathematical model XBeach, which was integrated into the Coastal engineering system introduced by the project of MEGACOSTA 2 to determine the area and the more critical profiles for the path of hurricanes under study, was applied. The results of this project have shown that Center area is the greatest dynamic area in the simulation of the three paths of hurricanes under study, showing high erosion volumes and the greatest average length of regression of the coastline, from 15- 22 m.

Keywords: Beach, erosion, mathematical model, coastal areas.

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1069 Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages’ Conservation Planning

Authors: Xing Zhang

Abstract:

Since the State Council of China issued the Regulations on the Conservation of Historical Cultural Towns and Villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of "overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages" is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.

Keywords: Conservation planning, planning by stages, planning implementation, zoning guidelines.

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1068 Good Urban Planning and Management: New Aspects and Methodologies

Authors: Fattaneh Daneshmand Malayeri

Abstract:

In this paper, in addition to introducing good urban planning and its effects on globalization, some new methodologies in urban management and another urban aspects has been presented. Some new concerns in increasing of urban population , metropolitans and its relations on big problems has been focused in this paper. It is very important matter that future urban planning with based on globalization will be with full of basically changes in its management and perspectives.

Keywords: Urban planning, urban management, good governance, globalization, metropolitan, strategic planning

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1067 The Relationship between Spatial Planning and Transportation Planning in Southern Africa and its Consequences for Human Settlement

Authors: David Dewar

Abstract:

The paper reviews the relationship between spatial and transportation planning in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region of Sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that most urbanisation in the region has largely occurred subsequent to the 1950s and, accordingly, urban development has been profoundly and negatively affected by the (misguided) spatial and institutional tenets of modernism. It demonstrates how a considerable amount of the poor performance of these settlements can be directly attributed to this. Two factors in particular about the planning systems are emphasized: the way in which programmatic land-use planning lies at the heart of both spatial and transportation planning; and the way on which transportation and spatial planning have been separated into independent processes. In the final section, the paper identifies ways of improving the planning system. Firstly, it identifies the performance qualities which Southern African settlements should be seeking to achieve. Secondly, it focuses on two necessary arenas of change: the need to replace programmatic land-use planning practices with structuralspatial approaches; and it makes a case for making urban corridors a spatial focus of integrated planning, as a way of beginning the restructuring and intensification of settlements which are currently characterised by sprawl, fragmentation and separation

Keywords: Corridors, modernism, programmatic planning, structural-spatial planning

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1066 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Making Mechanisms in New Era: Between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Z. Liu, K. Cao

Abstract:

Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning making. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds between western and Chinese in a new way nowadays.

Keywords: Differentiation, Tianjin China, Melbourne Australia, strategic planning.

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1065 Analytical Model for Brine Discharges from a Sea Outfall with Multiport Diffusers

Authors: Anton Purnama

Abstract:

Multiport diffusers are the effective engineering devices installed at the modern marine outfalls for the steady discharge of effluent streams from the coastal plants, such as municipal sewage treatment, thermal power generation and seawater desalination. A mathematical model using a two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation based on a flat seabed and incorporating the effect of a coastal tidal current is developed to calculate the compounded concentration following discharges of desalination brine from a sea outfall with multiport diffusers. The analytical solutions are computed graphically to illustrate the merging of multiple brine plumes in shallow coastal waters, and further approximation will be made to the maximum shoreline's concentration to formulate dilution of a multiport diffuser discharge.

Keywords: Desalination brine discharge, mathematical model, multiport diffuser, two sea outfalls.

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1064 Modeling and Optimization of Aggregate Production Planning - A Genetic Algorithm Approach

Authors: B. Fahimnia, L.H.S. Luong, R. M. Marian

Abstract:

The Aggregate Production Plan (APP) is a schedule of the organization-s overall operations over a planning horizon to satisfy demand while minimizing costs. It is the baseline for any further planning and formulating the master production scheduling, resources, capacity and raw material planning. This paper presents a methodology to model the Aggregate Production Planning problem, which is combinatorial in nature, when optimized with Genetic Algorithms. This is done considering a multitude of constraints of contradictory nature and the optimization criterion – overall cost, made up of costs with production, work force, inventory, and subcontracting. A case study of substantial size, used to develop the model, is presented, along with the genetic operators.

Keywords: Aggregate Production Planning, Costs, and Optimization.

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1063 Problems that Impede Sustainable Tourism Development in Egypt

Authors: Essam Abdel-Salam Gouda

Abstract:

This paper analysis the tourism development on the Red Sea in Egypt (west bank) and the needed ongoing action toward a sustainable approach. It addresses, at the first, the development's evolution occurred in the coastal area, the environmental effects it left, and how to minimize those impacts in the future. The second main point is dealing with the most important issues that hinder the achievement of sustainable tourism development on the Red Sea coast and how we can overcome them in the future.

Keywords: Coastal management, Environment, Red Sea, Sustainable tourism.

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1062 Design Exploration on Mixed-Use Development of Island House: Take the Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese as an Example

Authors: Fu Jiayan, Wang Zhu, Sun Jiaojiao

Abstract:

Mixed-use development is one of the most important trends in new island house transformation along southeast coastal area in China. Unique island geographical environment and profound fishing village culture coexist for a long time in this. With artistic creation for the purpose of the "live-work" houses are in a large number of emergence, however, still lack of systematic strategy. Based on space effect from marine resources to regional human settlements, this article teases out the evolution regularity of island settlement context and architectural form, then, puts forward the formation mechanism and construction model of art island houses. Thereby, to further explore space design method and site creation strategy of mixed-use development.

Keywords: Mixed-use, Island House, Art Creation, Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese.

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1061 Numerical Analysis of Wave and Hydrodynamic Models for Energy Balance and Primitive Equations

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Usa W. Humphries, Prungchan Wongwises, Suphat Vongvisessomjai, Wiriya Lueangaram

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of wave and hydrodynamic models is used to investigate the influence of WAve and Storm Surge (WASS) in the regional and coastal zones. The numerical analyzed system consists of the WAve Model Cycle 4 (WAMC4) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) which used to solve the energy balance and primitive equations respectively. The results of both models presented the incorporated surface wave in the regional zone affected the coastal storm surge zone. Specifically, the results indicated that the WASS generally under the approximation is not only the peak surge but also the coastal water level drop which can also cause substantial impact on the coastal environment. The wave–induced surface stress affected the storm surge can significantly improve storm surge prediction. Finally, the calibration of wave module according to the minimum error of the significant wave height (Hs) is not necessarily result in the optimum wave module in the WASS analyzed system for the WASS prediction.

Keywords: energy balance equation, numerical analysis, primitiveequation, storm surge, wave.

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1060 Modeling User Behaviour by Planning

Authors: Alfredo Milani, Silvia Suriani

Abstract:

A model of user behaviour based automated planning is introduced in this work. The behaviour of users of web interactive systems can be described in term of a planning domain encapsulating the timed actions patterns representing the intended user profile. The user behaviour recognition is then posed as a planning problem where the goal is to parse a given sequence of user logs of the observed activities while reaching a final state. A general technique for transforming a timed finite state automata description of the behaviour into a numerical parameter planning model is introduced. Experimental results show that the performance of a planning based behaviour model is effective and scalable for real world applications. A major advantage of the planning based approach is to represent in a single automated reasoning framework problems of plan recognitions, plan synthesis and plan optimisation.

Keywords: User behaviour, Timed Transition Automata, Automated Planning.

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