Determining the Spatial Vulnerability Levels and Typologies of Coastal Cities to Climate Change: Case of Turkey
One of the important impacts of climate change is the sea level rise. Turkey is a peninsula, so the coastal areas of the country are threatened by the problem of sea level rise. Therefore, the urbanized coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. At the aim of enhancing spatial resilience of urbanized areas, this question arises: What should be the priority intervention subject in the urban planning process for a given city. To answer this question, by focusing on the problem of sea level rise, this study aims to determine spatial vulnerability typologies and levels of Turkey coastal cities based on morphological, physical and social characteristics. As a method, spatial vulnerability of coastal cities is determined by two steps as level and type. Firstly, physical structure, morphological structure and social structure were examined in determining spatial vulnerability levels. By determining these levels, most vulnerable areas were revealed as a priority in adaptation studies. Secondly, all parameters are also used to determine spatial typologies. Typologies are determined for coastal cities in order to use as a base for urban planning studies. Adaptation to climate change is crucial for developing countries like Turkey so, this methodology and created typologies could be a guide for urban planners as spatial directors and an example for other developing countries in the context of adaptation to climate change. The results demonstrate that the urban settlements located on the coasts of the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean respectively, are more vulnerable than the cities located on the Black Sea’s coasts to sea level rise.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128163Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 962
 J.A. Church, P.U. Clark, A. Cazenave, J.M. Gregory, S. Jevrejeva, A. Levermann, M.A. Merrifield, G.A. Milne, R.S. Nerem, P.D. Nunn, A.J. Payne, W.T. Pfeffer, D. Stammer and A.S. Unnikrishnan, “Sea Level Change”, in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA., 2013, pp.1137-1216.
 P.P. Wong, I.J. Losada, J.-P. Gattuso, J. Hinkel, A. Khattabi, K.L. McInnes, Y. Saito, and A. Sallenger, “Coastal systems and low-lying areas”, in Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2014, pp.361-409.
 R.J. Nicholls, P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C.D. Woodroffe, “Coastal systems and low-lying areas”, in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007, pp.315-356.
 G. Mcgranahan, D. Balk, and B. Anderson, “The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones”, Environment and Urbanization, vol. 19, no.1, pp. 17-37, 2007.
 A. Revi, D.E. Satterthwaite, F. Aragón-Durand, J. Corfee-Morlot, R.B.R. Kiunsi, M. Pelling, D.C. Roberts, and W. Solecki, “Urban areas”, in Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A:Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, cT.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2014, pp.535-612.
 H. Bulkeley, “A changing climate for spatial planning”, Planning Theory & Practice, vol.7, no.2, pp. 203-214, 2006.
 E. Wilson, “Adapting to climate change at the local level: The spatial planning response”, Local Environment, vol.11, no.6, pp. 609-625, 2006.
 D. Brown, “Making the linkages between climate change adaptation and spatial planning in Malawi”, Environmental Science and Policy, 14, pp. 940-949, 2011.
 S. Greiving and M. Fleischhauer, “National climate change adaptation strategies of European States from a spatial planning and development perspective”, European Planning Studies, vol.20, no.1, 27-48, 2012.
 I.M. Picketts, S.J. Déry, and J.A. Curry, “Incorporating climate change adaptation into local plans”, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol.57, no.7, pp. 984-1002, 2014.
 A. Macintosh, A. Foerster, and J. McDonald, “Policy design, spatial planning and climate change adaptation: a case study from Australia”, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol.58, no.8, pp. 1432-1453, 2015.
 D.C. Roy and T. Blaschke, “Spatial vulnerability assessment of floods in the coastal regions of Bangladesh”, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, vol.6, no.1, pp. 21-44, 2015.
 Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Zhao, S. Ma, H. Cao, and J. Cao, “Assessing spatial vulnerability from rapid urbanization to inform coastal urban regional planning”, Ocean & Coastal Management, 123, pp. 53-65, 2016.
 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment. First National Communication of Turkey on Climate Change, Ankara, 2007.
 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, Turkey’s Fifth National Communication Under the UNFCCC, Ankara, 2013.
 E.D. Kahraman and M.B.S. Aydın, “1/100 000 ölçekli Çevre Düzen iPlanlarının kıyı bölgelerine yönelik mekansal gelişim kararlarının saptanması”, in TÜCAUM VIII. Coğrafya Sempozyumu, Ankara, 2014, pp. 65-71.
 S.H. Schneider, S. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C.H.D. Magadza, M. Oppenheimer, A.B. Pittock, A. Rahman, J.B. Smith, A. Suarez and F. Yamin, “Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change”, in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 779-810.
 V. De Leon and J. Carlos, Vulnerability: a conceptional and methodological review. UNU-EHS, 2006.
 S.F. Balica, N. Douben, and N.G. Wright, “Flood vulnerability indices at varying spatial scales”, Water Science and Technology, vol.60, no.10, pp. 2571-2580, 2009.
 C. Sullivan and J. Meigh, “Targeting attention on local vulnerabilities using an integrated index approach: the example of the climate vulnerability index”, Water Science and Technology, vol.51, no.5, pp. 69-78, 2005.
 S.F. Balica, G. Nigel, and F. Van Der Meulen, A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts”, Natural Hazards, vol.64, no.1, pp. 73-105, 2012.
 N.B. Avşar, Ş.H. Kutoğlu, B. Erol, and S. Jin, “Coastal risk analysis of the Black Sea under the sea level rise”, FIG Working Week 2015 From the Wisdom of the Ages to the Challenges of the Modern World, Sophia, Bulgaria, 2015.
 “Illerin Yukseklik Ozellikleri (Rakimlari),” accessed May 10, 2016, http://www.ozelliklerinedir.com/illerin-yukseklik-ozellikleri-rakimlari/
 “Digital Elevation Map (DEM) Data-CGIAR SRTM (3 seconds resolution),” DIVA-GIS, accessed May 20, 2016, http://www.diva-gis.org/Data.
 “Open Street Map (OSM) Data-turkey-latest.osm.bz2,” GEOFABRIK, accessed May 20, 2016, http://download.geofabrik.de/europe/turkey.html.
 M.B.S. Aydın and E.D. Kahraman, 2016, Measurement of city area, coastline and distance from the sea via Google Earth PRO.
 “İllerde Yaşam Endeksi, 2015,” TURKSTAT, accessed July 19, 2016, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24561
 “Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları (M),” TURKSTAT, accessed May 10, 2016, https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=95&locale=tr
 “Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları, 2015,” TURKSTAT, accessed July 15, 2016, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=21507
 “Dünya Nüfus Günü, 2015,” TURKSTAT, accessed July 15, 2016, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18617
 E.M. Humin and G. Gurran, “Urban form and climate change: Balancing adaptation and mitigation in the U.S. and Australia”, Habitat International, 33, pp.238-245.