Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Md. Fazlul Karim

80 Tsunami Modelling using the Well-Balanced Scheme

Authors: Ahmad Izani M. Ismail, Md. Fazlul Karim, Mai Duc Thanh

Abstract:

A well balanced numerical scheme based on stationary waves for shallow water flows with arbitrary topography has been introduced by Thanh et al. [18]. The scheme was constructed so that it maintains equilibrium states and tests indicate that it is stable and fast. Applying the well-balanced scheme for the one-dimensional shallow water equations, we study the early shock waves propagation towards the Phuket coast in Southern Thailand during a hypothetical tsunami. The initial tsunami wave is generated in the deep ocean with the strength that of Indonesian tsunami of 2004.

Keywords: Tsunami study, shallow water, conservation law, well-balanced scheme, topography. Subject classification: 86 A 05, 86 A 17.

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79 A Boundary Fitted Nested Grid Model for Modelling Tsunami Propagation of 2004 Indonesian Tsunami along Southern Thailand

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Esa Al-Islam

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a boundary fitted nested grid (BFNG) model to compute tsunami propagation of 2004 Indonesian tsunami in Southern Thailand coastal waters. We develop a numerical model employing the shallow water nested model and an orthogonal boundary fitted grid to investigate the tsunami impact on the Southern Thailand due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Comparisons of water surface elevation obtained from numerical simulations and field measurements are made.

Keywords: Boundary-fitted nested grid model, finite difference method, Indonesian tsunami of 2004, Southern Thailand.

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78 A Boundary Fitted Nested Grid Model for Tsunami Computation along Penang Island in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Ahmad Izani Ismail, Mohammed Ashaque Meah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of a 2-D boundary fitted and nested grid (BFNG) model to compute the tsunami propagation of Indonesian tsunami 2004 along the coastal region of Penang in Peninsular Malaysia.

In the presence of a curvilinear coastline, boundary fitted grids are suitable to represent the model boundaries accurately. On the other hand, when large gradient of velocity within a confined area is expected, the use of a nested grid system is appropriate to improve the numerical accuracy with the least grid numbers.

This paper constructs a shallow water nested and orthogonal boundary fitted grid model and presents computational results of the tsunami impact on the Penang coast due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. The results of the numerical simulations are compared with available data.

Keywords: Boundary Fitted Nested Model, Tsunami, Penang Island, 2004 Indonesian Tsunami.

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77 A Shallow Water Model for Computing Inland Inundation Due to Indonesian Tsunami 2004 Using a Moving Coastal Boundary

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Mohammed Ashaque Meah, Ahmad Izani M. Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for estimating the extent of inland inundation due to Indonesian tsunami of 2004 along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. The model consists of the shallow water equations together with open and coastal boundary conditions. In order to route the water wave towards the land, the coastal boundary is treated as a time dependent moving boundary. For computation of tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave is generated in the deep ocean with the strength of the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Several numerical experiments are carried out by changing the slope of the beach to examine the extent of inundation with slope. The simulated inundation is found to decrease with the increase of the slope of the orography. Correlation between inundation / recession and run-up are found to be directly proportional to each other.

Keywords: Inland Inundation, Shallow Water Equations, Tsunami, Moving Coastal Boundary.

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76 Combined Effect of Moving and Open Boundary Conditions in the Simulation of Inland Inundation Due to Far Field Tsunami

Authors: M. Ashaque Meah, Md. Fazlul Karim, M. Shah Noor, Nazmun Nahar Papri, M. Khalid Hossen, M. Ismoen

Abstract:

Tsunami and inundation modelling due to far field tsunami propagation in a limited area is a very challenging numerical task because it involves many aspects such as the formation of various types of waves and the irregularities of coastal boundaries. To compute the effect of far field tsunami and extent of inland inundation due to far field tsunami along the coastal belts of west coast of Malaysia and Southern Thailand, a formulated boundary condition and a moving boundary condition are simultaneously used. In this study, a boundary fitted curvilinear grid system is used in order to incorporate the coastal and island boundaries accurately as the boundaries of the model domain are curvilinear in nature and the bending is high. The tsunami response of the event 26 December 2004 along the west open boundary of the model domain is computed to simulate the effect of far field tsunami. Based on the data of the tsunami source at the west open boundary of the model domain, a boundary condition is formulated and applied to simulate the tsunami response along the coastal and island boundaries. During the simulation process, a moving boundary condition is initiated instead of fixed vertical seaside wall. The extent of inland inundation and tsunami propagation pattern are computed. Some comparisons are carried out to test the validation of the simultaneous use of the two boundary conditions. All simulations show excellent agreement with the data of observation.

Keywords: Open boundary condition, moving boundary condition, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids, far field tsunami, Shallow Water Equations, tsunami source, Indonesian tsunami of 2004.

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75 Tsunami Inundation Modeling in a Boundary Fitted Curvilinear Grid Model Using the Method of Lines Technique

Authors: M. Ashaque Meah, M. Shah Noor, M Asif Arefin, Md. Fazlul Karim

Abstract:

A numerical technique in a boundary-fitted curvilinear grid model is developed to simulate the extent of inland inundation along the coastal belts of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand due to 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. Tsunami propagation and run-up are also studied in this paper. The vertically integrated shallow water equations are solved by using the method of lines (MOL). For this purpose the boundary-fitted grids are generated along the coastal and island boundaries and the other open boundaries of the model domain. A transformation is used to the governing equations so that the transformed physical domain is converted into a rectangular one. The MOL technique is applied to the transformed shallow water equations and the boundary conditions so that the equations are converted into ordinary differential equations initial value problem. Finally the 4th order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. The moving boundary technique is applied instead of fixed sea side wall or fixed coastal boundary to ensure the movement of the coastal boundary. The extent of intrusion of water and associated tsunami propagation are simulated for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand. The simulated results are compared with the results obtained from a finite difference model and the data available in the USGS website. All simulations show better approximation than earlier research and also show excellent agreement with the observed data.

Keywords: Open boundary condition, moving boundary condition, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids, far field tsunami, Shallow Water Equations, tsunami source, Indonesian tsunami of 2004.

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74 Cognitive Relaying in Interference Limited Spectrum Sharing Environment: Outage Probability and Outage Capacity

Authors: Md Fazlul Kader, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a cognitive relay network (CRN) in which the primary receiver (PR) is protected by peak transmit power ¯PST and/or peak interference power Q constraints. In addition, the interference effect from the primary transmitter (PT) is considered to show its impact on the performance of the CRN. We investigate the outage probability (OP) and outage capacity (OC) of the CRN by deriving closed-form expressions over Rayleigh fading channel. Results show that both the OP and OC improve by increasing the cooperative relay nodes as well as when the PT is far away from the SR.

Keywords: Cognitive relay, outage, interference limited, decode-and-forward (DF).

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73 Verifying X.509 Certificates on Smart Cards

Authors: Olaf Henniger, Karim Lafou, Dirk Scheuermann, Bruno Struif

Abstract:

This paper presents a smart-card applet that is able to verify X.509 certificates and to use the public key contained in the certificate for verifying digital signatures that have been created using the corresponding private key, e.g. for the purpose of authenticating the certificate owner against the card. The approach has been implemented as an operating prototype on Java cards.

Keywords: Public key cryptographic applications, smart cards.

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72 Classification of Attaks over Cloud Environment

Authors: Karim Abouelmehdi, Loubna Dali, Elmoutaoukkil Abdelmajid, Hoda Elsayed Eladnani Fatiha, Benihssane Abderahim

Abstract:

The security of cloud services is the concern of cloud service providers. In this paper, we will mention different classifications of cloud attacks referred by specialized organizations. Each agency has its classification of well-defined properties. The purpose is to present a high-level classification of current research in cloud computing security. This classification is organized around attack strategies and corresponding defenses.

Keywords: Cloud computing, security, classification, risk.

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71 Toward a New Simple Analytical Formulation of Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Gunawan Nugroho, Ahmed M. S. Ali, Zainal A. Abdul Karim

Abstract:

Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed in this work. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved analytically. The Mathematical derivation shows that the solutions for the zero and constant pressure gradients are similar. Descriptions of the proposed formulation and validation against two laminar experiments and three different turbulent flow cases are reported in this paper. Even though, the analytical solution is derived for nonreacting flows, it could reproduce trends for cases including combustion.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes Equations, potential function, turbulent flows.

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70 Evaluation of a PSO Approach for Optimum Design of a First-Order Controllers for TCP/AQM Systems

Authors: Sana Testouri, Karim Saadaoui, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method for determining the optimal parameters of a first-order controller for TCP/AQM system. The model TCP/AQM is described by a second-order system with time delay. First, the analytical approach, based on the D-decomposition method and Lemma of Kharitonov, is used to determine the stabilizing regions of a firstorder controller. Second, the optimal parameters of the controller are obtained by the PSO algorithm. Finally, the proposed method is implemented in the Network Simulator NS-2 and compared with the PI controller.

Keywords: AQM, first-order controller, time delay, stability, PSO.

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69 Investigation into the Bond between CFRP and Steel Plates

Authors: S. Fawzia, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

The use of externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) reinforcement has proven to be an effective technique to strengthen steel structures. An experimental study on CFRP bonded steel plate with double strap joint has been conducted and specimens are tested under tensile loadings. An empirical model has been developed using stress-based approach to predict ultimate capacity of the CFRP bonded steel structure. The results from the model are comparable with the experimental result with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: Carbon fibre reinforced polymer, shear stress, slip, effective bond, steel structure.

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68 Variational Iteration Method for Solving Systems of Linear Delay Differential Equations

Authors: Sara Barati, Karim Ivaz

Abstract:

In this paper, using a model transformation approach a system of linear delay differential equations (DDEs) with multiple delays is converted to a non-delayed initial value problem. The variational iteration method (VIM) is then applied to obtain the approximate analytical solutions. Numerical results are given for several examples involving scalar and second order systems. Comparisons with the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) verify that this method is very effective and convenient.

Keywords: Variational iteration method, delay differential equations, multiple delays, Runge-Kutta method.

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67 Natural Discovery: Electricity Potential from Vermicompost (Waste to Energy)

Authors: R. A. Karim, N. M. A. Ghani, N. N. S. Nasari

Abstract:

Wastages such as grated coconut meat, spent tea and used sugarcane had contributed negative impacts to the environment. Vermicomposting method is fully utilized to manage the wastes towards a more sustainable approach. The worms that are used in the vermicomposting are Eisenia foetida and Eudrillus euginae. This research shows that the vermicompost of wastages has voltage of electrical energy and is able to light up the Light-Emitting Diode (LED) device. Based on the experiment, the use of replicated and double compartments of the component will produce double of voltage. Hence, for conclusion, this harmless and low cost technology of vermicompost can act as a dry cell in order to reduce the usage of hazardous chemicals that can contaminate the environment.

Keywords: Wastages, vermiconpose, worm, voltage, organic cell.

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66 Statistical Computational of Volatility in Financial Time Series Data

Authors: S. Al Wadi, Mohd Tahir Ismail, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

Abstract:

It is well known that during the developments in the economic sector and through the financial crises occur everywhere in the whole world, volatility measurement is the most important concept in financial time series. Therefore in this paper we discuss the volatility for Amman stocks market (Jordan) for certain period of time. Since wavelet transform is one of the most famous filtering methods and grows up very quickly in the last decade, we compare this method with the traditional technique, Fast Fourier transform to decide the best method for analyzing the volatility. The comparison will be done on some of the statistical properties by using Matlab program.

Keywords: Fast Fourier transforms, Haar wavelet transform, Matlab (Wavelet tools), stocks market, Volatility.

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65 New Scheme in Determining nth Order Diagrams for Cross Multiplication Method via Combinatorial Approach

Authors: Sharmila Karim, Haslinda Ibrahim, Zurni Omar

Abstract:

In this paper, a new recursive strategy is proposed for determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of $n$th order diagrams. The generalization of $n$th diagram for cross multiplication method were proposed by Pavlovic and Bankier but the specific rule of determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams for square matrix is yet to be discovered. Thus using combinatorial approach, $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams will be presented as $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ starter sets. These starter sets will be generated based on exchanging one element. The advantages of this new strategy are the discarding process was eliminated and the sign of starter set is alternated to each others.

Keywords: starter sets, permutation, exchanging one element, determinant

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64 Reliability and Validity of the Masculine Subordination to Women Stress Scale in a Rural Bangladesh Sample

Authors: K. M. Rabiul Karim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Masculine Subordination-to-women Stress Scale (MSS) in the rural Bangladeshi population. The scale was validated using a sample of 342 Bangladeshi married men from 5 northwest villages of the country. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a single-factorial structure of the scale: masculine subordination-to-women stress. The MSS also showed adequate reliability and concurrent validity. It appears that the MSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure masculine subordination-to-women stress for Bangladeshi men. However, further study of the scale is imperative.

Keywords: Reliability, Validity, Masculine Subordination-to-women Stress, and Bangladeshi Rural Men.

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63 The Effective of Classroom Management on Nurturing

Authors: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this paper is to explain the impact of successful classroom management on the academic achievements of students, the importance of positive relationship between teacher and students, among students, between teacher and parents. Effective communication plays an important role to encourage students study hard and learn materials which are covered by the teacher in the class. Friendly relationships among students other than their preferred friends help them to have team working and be socialized. In addition, a well-organized classroom arrangement enhances students learning. As the consequence of successful classroom management students should feel responsibility and need to feel it. The one who is responsible to provide a comfortable environment and help students learn is the manager of the classroom who is named Teacher.

Keywords: Classroom management, positive relationship, effective communication, teacher, student.

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62 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane

Abstract:

Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: Distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL.

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61 Dimensional Variations of Cement Matrices in the Presence of Metal Fibers

Authors: Fatima Setti, Ezziane Karim, Setti Bakhti, Negadi Kheira

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present and to analyze the feasibility of using steel fibers as reinforcement in the cementations matrix to minimize the effect of free shrinkage which is a major cause of cracks that have can observe on concrete structures, also to improve the mechanical resistances of this concrete reinforced. The experimental study was performed on specimens with geometric characteristics adapted to the testing. The tests of shrinkage apply on prismatic specimens, equipped with rods fixed to the ends with different dosages of fibers, it should be noted that the fibers used are hooked end of 50mm length and 67 slenderness. The results show that the compressive strength and flexural strength increases as the degree of incorporation of fibbers increases. And the shrinkage deformations are generally less important for fibers-reinforced concrete to those appearing in the concrete without fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, Steel fibers, Compression, Flexural, Deformation.

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60 A Case Study of an Online Assignment Submission System at UOM

Authors: V. Ramnarain-Seetohul, J. Abdool Karim, A. Amir

Abstract:

Almost all universities include some form of assignment in their courses. The assignments are either carried out in either in groups or individually. To effectively manage these submitted assignments, a well-designed assignment submission system is needed, hence the need for an online assignment submission system to facilitate the distribution, and collection of assignments on due dates. The objective of such system is to facilitate interaction of lecturers and students for assessment and grading purposes. The aim of this study was to create a web based online assignment submission system for University of Mauritius. The system was created to eliminate the traditional process of giving an assignment and collecting the answers for the assignment. Lecturers can also create automated assessment to assess the students online. Moreover, the online submission system consists of an automatic mailing system which acts as a reminder for students about the deadlines of the posted assignments. System was tested to measure its acceptance rate among both student and lecturers.

Keywords: Assignment, assessment, online, submission

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59 The Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Synchronized Chaotic Chen System in CDMA Satellite Channel

Authors: Salah Salmi, Karim Kemih, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

Synchronization is a difficult problem in CDMA satellite communications. Due to the influence of additive noise and fading in the mobile channel, it is not easy to keep up with the attenuation and offset. This paper considers a recently proposed approach to solve the problem of synchronization chaotic Chen system in CDMA satellite communication in the presence of constant attenuation and offset. An analytic algorithm that provides closed form channel and carrier offset estimates is presented. The principle of this approach is based on adding a compensation block before the receiver to compensate the distortion of the imperfect channel by using genetic algorithm. The resultants presented, show that the receiver is able to recover rapidly the synchronization with the transmitter.

Keywords: Chaotic Chen system, genetic algorithm, Synchronization, CDMA

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58 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali

Abstract:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties was evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p<0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: Yellow alkaline noodle, mangosteen pericarp powder, proximate composition, antioxidant properties.

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57 Professionals’ Collaboration on Strengthening the Teaching of History

Authors: L. B. Ni, N. S. Bt Rohadi, H. Bt Alfana, A. S. Bin Ali Hassan, J. Bin Karim, C. Bt Rasin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the shared effort of teaching history in K-12 schools, community colleges, four-year colleges and universities to develop students' understanding of the history and habits of thought history. This study presents and discusses the problems of K-12 schools in colleges and universities, and the establishment of secondary school principals. This study also shows that the changing nature of practice can define new trends and affect the history professional in the classroom. There are many problems that historians and teachers of college faculty share in the history of high school teachers. History teachers can and should do better to get students in the classroom. History provides valuable insights into the information and embedded solid-state analysis models that are conflicting on the planet and are quickly changing exceptionally valuable. The survey results can reflect the history teaching in Malaysia.

Keywords: History issue, history teaching, school-university collaboration, history profession.

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56 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim

Abstract:

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: Triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search, synthesis.

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55 New Methods for E-Commerce Databases Designing in Semantic Web Systems (Modern Systems)

Authors: Karim Heidari, Serajodin Katebi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Far

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study Database Models to use them efficiently in E-commerce websites. In this paper we are going to find a method which can save and retrieve information in Ecommerce websites. Thus, semantic web applications can work with, and we are also going to study different technologies of E-commerce databases and we know that one of the most important deficits in semantic web is the shortage of semantic data, since most of the information is still stored in relational databases, we present an approach to map legacy data stored in relational databases into the Semantic Web using virtually any modern RDF query language, as long as it is closed within RDF. To achieve this goal we study XML structures for relational data bases of old websites and eventually we will come up one level over XML and look for a map from relational model (RDM) to RDF. Noting that a large number of semantic webs get advantage of relational model, opening the ways which can be converted to XML and RDF in modern systems (semantic web) is important.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Semantic Web, Database, XML, RDF.

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54 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: Feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots.

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53 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk

Abstract:

In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: Noise pollution, road traffic, sound intensity, public health, noise monitoring.

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52 Projective Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems

Authors: Zahra Yaghoubi, Nooshin Bigdeli, Karim Afshar

Abstract:

This paper at first presents approximate analytical solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the differential transform method. The application of differential transform method, developed for differential equations of integer order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. After that a drive-response synchronization method with linear output error feedback is presented for “generalized projective synchronization" for a class of fractional-order chaotic systems via a scalar transmitted signal. Genesio_Tesi and Duffing systems are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

Keywords: Generalized projective synchronization; Fractionalorder;Chaos; Caputo derivative; Differential transform method

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51 Properties of SMA Mixtures Containing Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Taher Baghaee Moghaddam, Mohamed Rehan Karim

Abstract:

Utilization of waste material in asphalt pavement would be beneficial in order to find an alternative solution to increase service life of asphalt pavement and reduce environmental pollution as well. One of these waste materials is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a type of polyester material and is produced in a large extent. This research program is investigating the effects of adding waste PET particles into the asphalt mixture with a maximum size of 2.36 mm. Different percentages of PET were added into the mixture during dry process. Gap-graded mixture (SMA 14) and PG 80-100 asphalt binder have been used for this study. To evaluate PET reinforced asphalt mixture different laboratory investigations have been conducted on specimens. Marshall Stability test was carried out. Besides, stiffness modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test were conducted on specimens at optimum asphalt content. It was observed that in many cases PET reinforced SMA mixture had better mechanical properties in comparison with control mixture.

Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Environment, Mix properties, Polyethylene terephthalate

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