**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2680

# Search results for: Characteristic function

##### 2680 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

**Authors:**
Vladimir S. Timofeev

**Abstract:**

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

**Keywords:**
Characteristic function,
distributional moments,
robustness,
outlier,
statistical estimation problem,
statistical simulation.

##### 2679 Exterior Calculus: Economic Growth Dynamics

**Authors:**
Troy L. Story

**Abstract:**

Mathematical models of dynamics employing exterior calculus are mathematical representations of the same unifying principle; namely, the description of a dynamic system with a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold leads, by analysis with exterior calculus, to a set of differential equations and a characteristic tangent vector (vortex vector) which define transformations of the system. Using this principle, a mathematical model for economic growth is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential one-form for economic growth dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics), then generating a pair of characteristic differential equations and solving these equations for the rate of economic growth as a function of labor and capital. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian for economic growth dynamics is obtained.

**Keywords:**
Differential geometry,
exterior calculus,
Hamiltonian geometry,
mathematical economics.

##### 2678 Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics

**Authors:**
Troy L. Story

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Differential geometry,
exterior calculus,
Hamiltonian
geometry,
mathematical economics,
economic functions,
and
dynamics

##### 2677 A Note on the Numerical Solution of Singular Integral Equations of Cauchy Type

**Authors:**
M. Abdulkawi,
Z. K. Eshkuvatov,
N. M. A. Nik Long

**Abstract:**

This manuscript presents a method for the numerical solution of the Cauchy type singular integral equations of the first kind, over a finite segment which is bounded at the end points of the finite segment. The Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind with the corresponding weight function have been used to approximate the density function. The force function is approximated by using the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. It is shown that the numerical solution of characteristic singular integral equation is identical with the exact solution, when the force function is a cubic function. Moreover, it also shown that this numerical method gives exact solution for other singular integral equations with degenerate kernels.

**Keywords:**
Singular integral equations,
Cauchy kernel,
Chebyshev polynomials,
interpolation.

##### 2676 Clustering Multivariate Empiric Characteristic Functions for Multi-Class SVM Classification

**Authors:**
María-Dolores Cubiles-de-la-Vega,
Rafael Pino-Mejías,
Esther-Lydia Silva-Ramírez

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cluster Analysis,
Empiric Characteristic Function,
Multi-class SVM,
R.

##### 2675 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

**Authors:**
Bing Li,
Tong Lu,
Lei Qiang

**Abstract:**

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in *n*th layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

**Keywords:**
Characteristic equation,
interface waves,
dispersion curves,
potential function,
Stoneley waves,
wave structures.

##### 2674 Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation

**Authors:**
Attapon Charoenpon,
Ekkarach Pankeaw

**Abstract:**

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

**Keywords:**
Aerodynamic,
Characteristic Equation,
Angle ofAttack,
Polynomial interpolation,
Trajectories

##### 2673 Optimization of a Triangular Fin with Variable Fin Base Thickness

**Authors:**
Hyung Suk Kang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
A triangular fin,
Convection characteristic number,
Heat loss,
Fin base thickness.

##### 2672 A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current

**Authors:**
A. A. Penin,
A. S. Sidorenko

**Abstract:**

A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.

**Keywords:**
A solar cell generator,
I−V characteristic,
activetwo-pole.

##### 2671 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

**Authors:**
R. K. Saxena,
Ravi Saxena

**Abstract:**

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

**Keywords:**
Fox-Wright function,
Inverse Gaussian distribution,
Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

##### 2670 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method

**Authors:**
Chaoraingern J.,
Trisuwannawat T.,
Numsomran A.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Following Control,
Hard Disk Drive,
PID,
CRA

##### 2669 A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

**Authors:**
Kyu Jin Kim,
Byung Kwan Oh,
Hyo Seon Park

**Abstract:**

The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

**Keywords:**
Structural health monitoring,
dynamic response,
artificial neural network,
radial basis function network,
genetic algorithm.

##### 2668 Theoretical Analysis of Damping Due to Air Viscosity in Narrow Acoustic Tubes

**Authors:**
M. Watanabe,
T. Yamaguchi,
M. Sasajima,
Y. Kurosawa,
Y. Koike

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
acoustic tube,
air viscosity,
earphones,
FEM,
porous material,
sound-absorbing material,
transfer function method

##### 2667 A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function

**Authors:**
Zhihua Yang,
Lihua Yang

**Abstract:**

This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.

**Keywords:**
Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD),
Hilbert-Huang transform(HHT),
Intrinsic Mode Function(IMF).

##### 2666 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

**Authors:**
Bhupeshwaran Mani,
S. Radha,
A. Jawahar,
A. Sivasubramanian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Soliton,
dispersion length,
Soliton period,
Return-tozero
(RZ),
Q-factor.

##### 2665 The Adsorption of SDS on Ferro-Precipitates

**Authors:**
R.Marsalek

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
ferro-precipitate,
adsorption,
SDS,
zeta potential

##### 2664 Comparison of the Existing Methods in Determination of the Characteristic Polynomial

**Authors:**
Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei,
Mohammad Haeri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Characteristic Polynomial,
Transient Response,
Filters,
Stability.

##### 2663 Studying Mistaken Theory of Calendar Function of Iran-s Cross-Vaults

**Authors:**
Ali Salehipour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
cross-vault,
fire temple,
Calendar function,
Sassanid period

##### 2662 Online Robust Model Predictive Control for Linear Fractional Transformation Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities

**Authors:**
Peyman Sindareh Esfahani,
Jeffery Kurt Pieper

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the *l*_{2}-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.

**Keywords:**
Linear fractional transformation,
linear matrix inequality,
robust model predictive control,
state feedback control.

##### 2661 Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm

**Authors:**
Fırat Matur,
Yekta Ülgen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bio-impedance spectroscopy,
bone mineral density,
characteristic frequency,
osteoporosis,
receiver operating curve.

##### 2660 Stability Analysis in a Fractional Order Delayed Predator-Prey Model

**Authors:**
Changjin Xu,
Peiluan Li

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the stability of a fractional order delayed predator-prey model. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system. It is shown that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above fractional order predator-prey system is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

**Keywords:**
Fractional predator-prey model,
laplace transform,
characteristic equation.

##### 2659 Complex-Valued Neural Network in Image Recognition: A Study on the Effectiveness of Radial Basis Function

**Authors:**
Anupama Pande,
Vishik Goel

**Abstract:**

A complex valued neural network is a neural network, which consists of complex valued input and/or weights and/or thresholds and/or activation functions. Complex-valued neural networks have been widening the scope of applications not only in electronics and informatics, but also in social systems. One of the most important applications of the complex valued neural network is in image and vision processing. In Neural networks, radial basis functions are often used for interpolation in multidimensional space. A Radial Basis function is a function, which has built into it a distance criterion with respect to a centre. Radial basis functions have often been applied in the area of neural networks where they may be used as a replacement for the sigmoid hidden layer transfer characteristic in multi-layer perceptron. This paper aims to present exhaustive results of using RBF units in a complex-valued neural network model that uses the back-propagation algorithm (called 'Complex-BP') for learning. Our experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of a Radial basis function in a complex valued neural network in image recognition over a real valued neural network. We have studied and stated various observations like effect of learning rates, ranges of the initial weights randomly selected, error functions used and number of iterations for the convergence of error on a neural network model with RBF units. Some inherent properties of this complex back propagation algorithm are also studied and discussed.

**Keywords:**
Complex valued neural network,
Radial BasisFunction,
Image recognition.

##### 2658 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

**Authors:**
Wajdi Bellil,
Chokri Ben Amar,
Adel M. Alimi

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate Ôêºf as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

**Keywords:**
Beta wavelets networks,
RBF neural network,
training algorithms,
MSE,
1-D,
2D function approximation.

##### 2657 Evaluation on Recent Committed Crypt Analysis Hash Function

**Authors:**
A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar,
C. Suresh Ganandhas

**Abstract:**

This paper describes the study of cryptographic hash functions, one of the most important classes of primitives used in recent techniques in cryptography. The main aim is the development of recent crypt analysis hash function. We present different approaches to defining security properties more formally and present basic attack on hash function. We recall Merkle-Damgard security properties of iterated hash function. The Main aim of this paper is the development of recent techniques applicable to crypt Analysis hash function, mainly from SHA family. Recent proposed attacks an MD5 & SHA motivate a new hash function design. It is designed not only to have higher security but also to be faster than SHA-256. The performance of the new hash function is at least 30% better than that of SHA-256 in software. And it is secure against any known cryptographic attacks on hash functions.

**Keywords:**
Crypt Analysis,
cryptographic.

##### 2656 A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions

**Authors:**
Hany Alashwal,
Safaai Deris,
Razib M. Othman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bioinformatics,
Protein-protein interactions,
Bayesian Kernel,
Support Vector Machines.

##### 2655 Stability Analysis of Linear Fractional Order Neutral System with Multiple Delays by Algebraic Approach

**Authors:**
Lianglin Xiong,
Yun Zhao,
Tao Jiang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the stability of n-dimensional linear fractional neutral differential equation with time delays. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system with multiple time delays. We discover that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above linear system with fractional order is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable if the equilibrium exist that is almost the same as that of classical differential equations. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

**Keywords:**
Fractional neutral differential equation,
Laplace transform,
characteristic equation.

##### 2654 Meandered Microstrip Open Circuited Stub with Bandstop Characteristic

**Authors:**
Goh Chin Hock,
Chandan Kumar Chakrabarty,
Mohammad Hadi Badjian,
Sanjay Devkumar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bandstop,
Equivalent Lumped Element Model,
Electromagnetic Model,
Meandered Open Circuited Stub

##### 2653 Reliability Based Investigation on the Choice of Characteristic Soil Properties

**Authors:**
Jann-Eike Saathoff,
Kirill Alexander Schmoor,
Martin Achmus,
Mauricio Terceros

**Abstract:**

By using partial factors of safety, uncertainties due to the inherent variability of the soil properties and loads are taken into account in the geotechnical design process. According to the reliability index concept in Eurocode-0 in conjunction with Eurocode-7 a minimum safety level of β = 3.8 for reliability class RC2 shall be established. The reliability of the system depends heavily on the choice of the prespecified safety factor and the choice of the characteristic soil properties. The safety factors stated in the standards are mainly based on experience. However, no general accepted method for the calculation of a characteristic value within the current design practice exists. In this study, a laterally loaded monopile is investigated and the influence of the chosen quantile values of the deterministic system, calculated with p-y springs, will be presented. Monopiles are the most common foundation concepts for offshore wind energy converters. Based on the calculations for non-cohesive soils, a recommendation for an appropriate quantile value for the necessary safety level according to the standards for a deterministic design is given.

**Keywords:**
Asymptotic sampling,
characteristic value,
monopile foundation,
probabilistic design,
quantile values.

##### 2652 The Core and Shapley Function for Games on Augmenting Systems with a Coalition Structure

**Authors:**
Fan-Yong Meng

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we first introduce the model of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure, which can be seen as an extension of games on augmenting systems. The core of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure is defined, and an equivalent form is discussed. Meantime, the Shapley function for this type of games is given, and two axiomatic systems of the given Shapley function are researched. When the given games are quasi convex, the relationship between the core and the Shapley function is discussed, which does coincide as in classical case. Finally, a numerical example is given.

**Keywords:**
Cooperative game,
augmenting system,
Shapley function,
core.

##### 2651 An Empirical Validation of the Linear- Hyperbolic Approximation of the I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator

**Authors:**
A. A. Penin

**Abstract:**

An empirical linearly-hyperbolic approximation of the I - V characteristic of a solar cell is presented. This approximation is based on hyperbolic dependence of a current of p-n junctions on voltage for large currents. Such empirical approximation is compared with the early proposed formal linearly-hyperbolic approximation of a solar cell. The expressions defining laws of change of parameters of formal approximation at change of a photo current of family of characteristics are received. It allows simplifying a finding of parameters of approximation on actual curves, to specify their values. Analytical calculation of load regime for linearly - hyperbolic model leads to quadratic equation. Also, this model allows to define soundly a deviation from the maximum power regime and to compare efficiency of regimes of solar cells with different parameters.

**Keywords:**
a solar cell generator,
I − V characteristic,
p − n junction,
approximation