Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
Investigation of Physicochemical Properties of the Bacterial Cellulose Produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus from Date Syrup

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Ali R. Yousefi


Bacterial cellulose, a biopolysaccharide, is produced by the bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Static batch fermentation for bacterial cellulose production was studied in sucrose and date syrup solutions (Bx. 10%) at 28 °C using G. xylinus (PTCC, 1734). Results showed that the maximum yields of bacterial cellulose (BC) were 4.35 and 1.69 g/l00 ml for date syrup and sucrose medium after 336 hours fermentation period, respectively. Comparison of FTIR spectrum of cellulose with BC indicated appropriate coincidence which proved that the component produced by G. xylinus was cellulose. Determination of the area under X-ray diffractometry patterns demonstrated that the crystallinity amount of cellulose (83.61%) was more than that for the BC (60.73%). The scanning electron microscopy imaging of BC and cellulose were carried out in two magnifications of 1 and 6K. Results showed that the diameter ratio of BC to cellulose was approximately 1/30 which indicated more delicacy of BC fibers relative to cellulose.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gluconacetobacter xylinus, X-ray Diffractometry

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2767


[1] H. Backdahl, G. Helenius, A. Bodin, U. Nannmark, B.R. Johansson, B. Risberg, and P. Gatenholm, "Mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose and interactions with smooth muscle cells, " Biomaterials, vol. 27, pp. 2141-2149, 2006.
[2] R. M. Brown, "Microbial cellulose modified during synthesis," US Patent 4, 942, 128,1990.
[3] R. E. Cannon and S. M. Anderson, "Biogenesis of Bacterial Cellulose," Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 17 (6), pp. 435-447, 1991.
[4] Y. Choi, Y. Ahn, M. Kang, H. Jun, I.S. Kim, and S. Moon, "Characterization of acrylic acid-treated bacterial cellulose cationexchange membrane, " Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 79, pp. 79-84, 2004.
[5] D.Cienchanska, "Preparation and Multifunctional bacterial cellulose/chitosan composite materials for medical applications, " Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, vol. 12, pp. 69-72, 2004.
[6] W. Czaja, A. Krystynowicz, S. Bielecki and R. M. Brown, "Microbial cellulose-the natural power to heal wounds, " Biomaterials, vol. 27, pp. 145-151, 2006.
[7] W. Czaja, D. J. Young, M. Kawechi and R. M. Brown, "The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications, " Biomacromolecules, vol. 8, pp. 1-12, 2007.
[8] J. Engelhardt, "Sources, industrial derivatives and commercial applications of cellulose, " Carbohydr. Eur., pp. 5-14, 1995.
[9] C. H. Haigler, P. J. Weimer, "Biosynthesis and biodegradation of cellulose, " Marcel Dekker, Inc p.5-23, p.71-98, p.219-243, 1991.
[10] P.F. Hamlyn, J. Crighton, M. G. Dobb, and A. Tasker, "Cellulose product, " UK Patent Application GB 2314856 A No. 9713991.9, 1997.
[11]K. Hieta, S. Kuga, M. Usuda, "Electron staining of reducing ends evidences a parallel-chain structure in Valonia cellulose. Biopolymers, " vol. 23, pp. 1807-1810, 1984.
[12] R. Jonas and L. F. Farah, "Production and application of microbial cellulose," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 59, pp. 101-106, 1998.
[13] D. Klemm, D. Schumann, U. Udhardt, and S. Marsch, "Bacterial synthesized cellulose artificial blood vessels for microsurgery, " Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 26, pp. 1561-1603, 2001.
[14]V. I. Legeza, V. P. Galenko-Yaroshevskii, E. V. Zinov'ev, B. A. Paramonov, G. S. Kreichman, I. I. Turkovskii, E. S. Gumenyuk, A. G. Karnovich, and A. K. Khripunov, "Effects of new wound dressings on healing of thermal burns of the skin in acute radiation disease, " Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 138, pp. 311-315, 2004.
[15] Y. Nishi, M. Uryu, S. Yamanaka, K. Watanabe, N. Kitamura, M. Iguchi, S. Mitsuhashi, "The Structure And Mechanical-Properties Of Sheets Prepared From Bacterial Cellulose and Improvement of the Mechanical- Properties of Sheets and Their Applicability to Diaphragms of Electroacoustic Transducers, " Journal of Materials Science, vol. 25 (6), pp. 2997-3001, 1990.
[16]P. Ross, R. Mayer, M. Benziman, "Cellulose biosynthesis and Function in bacteria, Microbiological Reviews, " vol. 55 (1), pp. 35-58, 1991.
[17] M. Schramm, S. Hestrin, "Factors Affecting Production of Cellulose at the Air/Liquid Interface of a Culture of Acetobacter xylinum, " Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 11, pp. 123-129, 1954.
[18] G. C. Serafica, "Production of Bacterial Cellulose Using a Rotating Disk Film Bioreactor by Acetobacter xylinum, " PhD Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1997.
[19]M. Shoda and Y. Sugano, "Recent advances in bacterial cellulose production," Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 1-8, 2005.
[20]A. M. Sokolnicki, R. J. Fisher, T. P. Harrah and D. L. Kaplan, "Permeability of bacterial cellulose membranes, " Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 272, pp. 15-27, 2006.
[21] J. Sugiyama, R. Vuong, H. Chanzy, "Electron Diffraction Study Of Two Crystalline Phases Occurring In Native Cellulose From An Algal Cell Wall Macromolecules, " vol. 24, pp. 4168-4175, 1991.
[22]W. K. Wan and L. E. Millon, "Poly(vinyl alcohol)-bacterial cellulose nanocomposite, " U.S. Pat.Appl., Publ. US 2005037082 A1, 16, 2005.
[23] W. K. Wan, J. L. Hutter, L. Millon and G. Guhados, "Bacterial cellulose and its nanocomposites for biomedical applications, " ACS Symposium Series, vol. 938, pp. 221-241, 2006.