Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30578
Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products
Abstract:A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339456Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 891
 International Olive Oil Council, 2007. Available from http// www.internationaloliveoil.org.
 Rodriguez, G., Lama, A., Rodriguez, R., Jimenez, A., Guillen, R. and Fernandez-Bolanos, J. (2008) ‘Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds’, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 13, pp.5261–5269
 Guillermo Rodriguez, Antonio Lama, Rocio Rodriguez, Ana Jime´nez, Rafael Guille´n, Juan Ferna´ndez-Bolanos (2007) 'Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds' Bioresource Technology, 99(13), pp.5261–5269.
 Wang J., Chen C. Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 2009,27, 195-226.
 Calero M., Hernáinz F., Blázquez G., Martín-Lara M. A., Tenorio G. Biosorption kinetics of Cd (II), Cr (III) and Pb (II) in aqueous solutions by olive stone. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 2009, 26, 2-9.
 Elouear Z., Bouzid J., Boujelben N., Ben Amor R. Study of adsorbent derived from exhausted olive pomace for the removal of Pb2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. Environmental Engineering Science 2009, 26, 4, 767-774.
 Ghanbari, R., Anwar, F., Alkharfy, K.M., Gilani, A-H. and Saari, N. (2012) ‘Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Oleaeuropaea L.)–a review’, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.3291–3340.
 Hamed, O.A., Fouad, Y., Hamed, E.M. and Al-Hajj, N. (2012) ‘Cellulose powder from olive mill waste’, Bioresources, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.4190–4201
 Adapa P., Karunakaran C., Tabil L., and Schoenau G.; Potential Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectromicroscopy for Agricultural Biomass; Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal; XI 1-25 (2009).
 Chang, C., Zhang, L., Zhou, J., Zhang, L. & Kennedy, J. F. (2010) Structure and properties of hydrogels prepared from cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solutions. Carbohydrate Polymers 82, 122-127.
 1E. Jansen, German Patent (1918) A Study on the adsorption properties of qunternized cellulose, 332, 203.
 Ardeby, K., Germgård, U., Kreutz, B., Heinze, T., (2005) “Effects of Pulp Composition on the Characteristics of Residuals in CMC-Solutions Made from Such Pulps’’ J. Cell., 12, 385-389.
 Pushpamalar, V., Langford, S., Ahmad, M., Lim, Y.Y. 2004. Isolation of cellulose and preparation and characterisation of carboxymethyl.
 He, X., Sh., Wu., D., Fu, J., Ni, Preparation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose from paper sludge - J. Chem Technol Biotechnol, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 427-434, 2009.
 Mohkami, M., and Talaeipour M. 2011. Investigation of the chemical structure of carboxylated and carboxymethylatedfibres from waste paper via XRD and FTIR analysis. BioResources 6(2): 1988-2003
 Luo, M., and Neogi, A. (2006). “Carboxyallkyl cellulose.’’ US patent 0142561.
 Nada, A., Abd El-Mong, S., and Abd El-Sayed E. S., (2009). “Effect of different treatments on cellulose toward carboxylation and application for metal ion absoption,” BioResources 4(1), 80-93.
 Abdel-Aal, S. E., Gad, Y. H., & Dessouki, A. M. (2006). Use of rice straw and radiation modified maize starch/acrylonitrile in the treatment of wastewater. The Journal of Hazardous Materials, B129, 204–215.
 Ibrahim, S. M., El Salmawi, K. M., & Zahran, A. H. (2007). Synthesis of crosslinked superabsorbent carboxymethylcellulose/acrylamide hydrogels through electron-beam irradiation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 104,2003–2008
 Murthy, P. K., Mohan, Y. M., Varaprasad, K., Sreedhar, B., & Raju, K. M. (2008). First successful design of semi-IPN hydrogel–silver nanocomposites: A facile approach for antibacterial application. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,318, 217–224
 Kim, J., Lee, K., Hefferan, T., Currier, B., Yaszemski, M., & Lu, L. (2008). Synthesis and evaluation of novel biodegradable hydrogels based on poly(ethyleneglycol) and sebacic acid as tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomacromolecules, 9,149–157.
 Adhikari, B., &Majumdar, S. (2004). Polymers in sensor applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 29, 699–766.
 Guilherme, M. R., Reis, A. V., Paulino, A. T., Fajardo, A. R., Muniz, E. C., &Tambourgi, E. B. (2007). Superabsorbent hydrogel based on modified polysaccharide for removal of Pb2+ and Cu2+ from water with excellent performance. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 105, 2903–2909.
 Rodriguez, R., Alvarez, C., & Concheiro, A. (2003). Cationic cellulose hydrogels: Kinetics of the cross-linking process and characterization as pH-/ion-sensitive drugdelivery systems. Journal of Controlled Release, 86, 253–265.
 TAPPI; Tappi Test Methods: Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose in pulp; T 203 cm -99 (1999).
 TAPPI; Tappi Test Methods: Ash in paper and paperboard; TAPPI T211 om-93 (2001).
 Gümüskaya, E., Usta, M., & Kirci, H. (2003). The effects of various pulping conditions on crystalline structure of cellulose in cotton linters. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 81, 559–564.
 Compendium of International Methods of Analysis - OIV Folin-Ciocalteu Index Method OIV-MA-AS2-10 Type IV method OIV-MA-AS2-10: R2009.
 29. De Marco, E., Savarese, M., Paduano, A., &Sacchi, R. (2007). Characterization and fractionation of phenolic compounds extracted from olive oil mill wastewaters Food Chemistry, 104, 858-867.
 Heidrich, M. and Ullmann, L., DD Patent 249,912, 1988; Chem. Abstr. 109, 75, 612 (1988).
 Achwal, W. B., Nabar, G. M., and Pudmanabhan, C. V., J. Sci. Ind. Research 17B, 497 (1958).
 L.F. Gudeman, N.A. Peppas, Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive, interpenetrating networks of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid), J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 55 (1995) 919–928.
 A. Kostic, B. Adnadjevic, A. Bopovic, J. Jovanovic, Comparison of the swelling kinetics of a partially neutralized poly (acrylic acid) hydrogel in distilled water and physiological solution, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 72 (2007) 1139–1153.
 Thomas, V., Mohan, M., Sreedhar, B., & Bajpai, K. (2007). A versatile strategy to fabricate hydrogel–silver nanocomposites and investigation of their antimicrobial activity. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 315, 389–395.
 Uruş S., Serindağ O., and Diğrak M.; Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Cu(I), Ag(I), Au(I), and Co(II) Complexes with (CH3N(CH2PPh2)2); Heteroatom Chemistry 16(6) 484-491 (2005).
 A.K. Bajpai, A. Giri, Water sorption behaviour of highly swelling (carboxy methylcellulose-g-polyacrylamide) hydrogels and release of potassium nitrate as agrochemical, Carbohydr. Polym. 53 (2003) 271–279.
 O. Guven, M. Sen, Preparation and characterization of poly(n-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone) hydro gels, Polymer 32 (1991) 2491–2495.
 A. Pourjavadi, G.R. Mahdavinia, H. Hosseinzadeh and M.J. Zohuriaan-Mehr, Eur. Polym. J., 40, 1399-1407 (2004).
 D.W. Lim, H.S. Whang and K.J. Yoon, 2001. Synthesis and Absorbency of a Superabsorbent from Sodium Starch Sulfate-g-Polyacrylonitrile. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 79: 1423
 Bahadory, M. Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles, Dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, 2008
 Sadeghi M., Soleimani F., Yarahmadi M. (2011) Chemical Modification of Carboxymethyl Cellulose via Graft Copolymerization and Determination of the Grafting Parameters. Orient. J. Chem. Vol.27 No. (3) 967 – 972.
 Nada A.M.A, Mohammed Y.A, Hesham M.F (2007). Synthesis and Characterization of Grafting Cellulose for use in Water and Metal Ion Sorption Bio Res. 3 (1) 46–59.