Survey on Nano-fibers from Acetobacter Xylinum
fibers of pure cellulose can be made from some bacteria such as acetobacter xylinum. Bacterial cellulose fibers are very pure, tens of nm across and about 0.5 micron long. The fibers are very stiff and, although nobody seems to have measured the strength of individual fibers. Their stiffness up to 70 GPa. Fundamental strengths should be at least greater than those of the best commercial polymers, but best bulk strength seems to about the same as that of steel. They can potentially be produced in industrial quantities at greatly lowered cost and water content, and with triple the yield, by a new process. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose as a biological nonwoven fabric with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Characteristics of bacterial cellulose biofabric with respect to its structure and physicochemical properties are discussed. Current and potential applications of bacterial cellulose in textile, nonwoven cloth, paper, films synthetic fiber coating, food, pharmaceutical and other industries are also presented.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1074281Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1312
 V. A. Bykov,"Biotekhnologiya,"1987, No. 6, pp. 692-700.
 N. H. Mendelson," Bioprocess. Technol," 1990 12, pp. 1- 6.
 N.G. Rybarskii and 0. M. Komarova,"Biotechnology of Polysaccharides
[in Russian], Biotechnology Ser," VNIIPI, Moscow 1990.
 A. Meftahi, R. Khajavi, A. Rashdi, M. Sattari, M.E. Yazdanshenas and M. Torabi, " The effect of cotton gauze coating with microbial cellulose", Cellulose .j, 2010, 17, pp. 199-204.
 X. Cai, H. Tong, X. Shen, W. Chen, J. Yan and J. Hu, "preparation and characterization of homogeneous chitosan polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering and evaluation of its mechanical properties", ActaBiomateriala, IN Press, Corrected proof, Available onl in 14 March 2009.
 H. Tan, C. Chu, K. Payne, and K. Marra, " Injectable in situ forming biodegrabdabel chitosan- hyaluronic acid based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering", Biomaterials, 2009, 30, pp. 2499- 2506.
 J. Xu, J. Zhang, W. Gao, H. Liang, H. Wang, and J. Li, " preparation of chitosan/PLA blend micro/ nanofibers by elecrospinning", Mater Lett, 2006, pp. 658-660.
 F. Marchetti, M. Bergamin, H. Bosi, R. Khan, E. Murano and S. Norbedo," Syntheses of 6- deoxy-6-chloro and 6-deoxy-6-bromo derivatives of sclerogucan as intermediates for conjugation with methotrexate and other carboxylate containing compounds", CarbohydrPolym, 2009, 75, pp. 670-676.
 I.F. Kennedy and C. A. White," Bioactive Carbohydrates in Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology," 1983, Ellis Horwood, New York, pp. 98¬308.
 R.I. Gvozdyakand M. S. Malyshevskaya, et al," The Microbial Polysaccharide Xanthate
[in Russian]," NaukovaDumka, Kiev, 1989.
 T. Harada, "Production, properties and application of curdlan extracellular microbial polysaccharides," 1977, in: ACS Symp, Ser. 45, Washington, pp. 265-283.
 J.F. Wilkinson, " The extracellular polysaccharides of bacteria," Bacteriol. Rev,1958, 22 pp. 46-73.
 S.V. Gorokhova, I. I. Shamolina, and V. F. Danilichev, "Microbial polysaccharide films," in: Proceedings of the All- Union Conference Results and Prospects for Scientific Research in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutics
[in Russian], Leningrad,1989, pp. 129-130.
 W. Sutherland, "Structure-function relationship in microbial exopolysaccharides," Biotechnol. Adv, 1994, 12, pp. 393-448.
 A. Ya. Teslenko and V. G. Popova, "Chitin and its production in biotechnology," Data Sheet, Ser. V, Preparation and Use of Enzymes, Vitamins, and Amino Acids
[in Russian], No. 3, Moscow 1982, p. 44. 10- N.P. Elinov, Usp. Mikrobio1,1982, No. 17, pp. 158-177.
 I.W. Sutherland, " Novel and established applications of microbial polysaccharides," Trends Biotechno1,1998, 16, 41-46.
 S.Kobayashi, K. Kashiwa, T. Kawasaki and S. Shoda, " Novel method for polysaccharide synthesis using an enzyme: the first in vitro synthesis of cellulose via a nonbiosynthetic path utilizing cellulase as catalyst," 1991, 113(8), pp.3079-3084.
 H. Nicholas, " Cellulose for medical applications: past, present, and future ",BioResources, 2006,1(2), pp.270-280.
 W.K, Wan and L. Millon, " Poly(vinyl alcohol)-bacterial cellulose nanocomposite," Patent: WO/016397, 2005.
 F. Nakatsubo, H. Kamitakahra and M. Hori, " Cationic ringopening polymerization of 3, 6-Di-O-benzyl-a-d-glucose 1, 2, 4-Orthopivalate and the first chemical synthesis of cellulose", J Am ChemSoc, 1996, 118,7, pp.1677-1681.
 T. Takayasu, Y. Fumihiro, "Production of bacterial cellulose by agitation culture systems", Pure ApplChem, 1997, 69,11, pp.2453-2458.
 J.D. Fontana, A.M. de Sousa, C.K. Fontana, I.L. Torriani, J.C. Moreschi, B.J. Gallotti, S.J. de Sousa, G.P. Narcisco, J.A. Bichara and L.F. Farah, " Acetobacter cellulose pellicles as a temporary skin substitute," ApplBiochemBiotechnol, 1990, 24(25), pp.253-264.
 W. Czaja, A. Krystynowicz, S. Bielecki, and R.M. Brown, " Microbial cellulose—the natural power to heal wounds," Biomaterials, 2006, 27(2), pp.145-151.
 D .Klemm, D. Schumann, U. Udhardt and S. Marsch, " Bacterial synthesized cellulose—artificial blood vessels for microsurgery," ProgPolymSci, 2001, 26(9), pp.1561-1603.
 P. Ross, R. Mayer and M. Benziman, " Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria," Microbiol. Rev, 1991, 55, pp. 35-58.
 S. Bielecki, A. Krystynowicz, M. Turkiewicz, H. Kalinowska: Bacterial Cellulose. In: Polysaccharides and Polyamides in the Food Industry, A. Steinbuchel, S.K. Rhee (Eds.), Wiley- VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany,2005, pp. 31-85.
 E.J. Vandamme, S. De Baets, A. Vanbaelen, K. Joris and P. De Wulf, " Improved production of bacterial cellulose and its application potential," Polym. Degrad. Stabil, 1998, 59, pp. 93– 99.
 Y. Nishi, M. Uryu, S. Yamanaka, K. Watanabe, N. Kitamura, M. Iguchi and S. Mitsuhashi, " The structure and mechanical properties of sheets prepared from bacterial cellulose," J. Mater. Sci, 1990, 25, pp. 2997-3001.
 S. Isizawa, M. Araragi: Chromogenicity of Actinomycetes. In: Actinomycetes: The Boundary Microorganisms, T. Arai (Ed.), Toppan Co., Tokyo, Japan,1976, pp 43-65.
 I.M. Saxena, R. M. Brown Jr.: Cellulose Biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum: A Genetic Approach. In: Cellulose and Wood – Chemistry and Technology, C. Schuerch (Ed.), JohnWiley& Sons, Inc, New York, USA, 1989, pp. 537-557.
 F.C. Lin, R.M. Brown Jr.: Purification of Cellulose Synthase from Acetobacter xylinum. In: Cellulose and Wood: Chemistry and Technology, C. Schuerch (Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, USA, 1989, pp. 473-492.
 P.A. Richmond: Occurrence and Functions of Native Cellulose. In: Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Cellulose, C.H. Haigler, P.J. Weimer (Eds.), Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York,USA, 1991, pp. 5-23.
 W. Czaja, M. Kawecki, A. Krystynowicz, K. Wysota, S. Sakiel and P Wroblewski, et al,"Application of bacterial cellulose in treatment of second and third degree burns," In: The 227th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 28 March-1 April 2004.
 J.K. Park, J.Y. Jung, Y.H. Park, " Cellulose production by Gluconacetobacterhansenii in a medium containing ethanol," Biotechnol. Lett. 25 (2003), pp. 2055-2059.
 O.M. Alvarez, M .Patel, J. Booker and L. Markowitz," Effictiveness of biocellulose wound dressing for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers: results of a single center randomized study involving 24 patients,"2004, Wounds 16, pp.224-233 .
 M. Shoda, Y. Sugano," Recent advances in bacterial cellulose production," Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng, 2005, pp. 10 1-8.
 W.J. Gallin and B Hepperle, Burn healing in organ cultures of embryonic chicken skin: a model system," 1998, Burns 24: 613-20.
 F. Yoshinaga, N. Tonouchi, K. Watanabe," Research progress in production of bacterial cellulose by aeration and agitation culture and its application as a new industrial material,"Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem, 1997, 61, pp. 219-224.
 S. Hestrin, M. Schramm, " Synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum: II. Preparation of freeze-dried cells capable of polymerizing glucose to cellulose," Biochem. J, 1954, 58 345-352.
 R. Prashnt, B. Ishwar, A. Shrikant, S. Suruase and Rekha, " Microbal Cellulose: Fermentative Production and Application", Food Technol. Biotechnol. J , 2009, pp. 107-124.
 S. Bae, M. Shoda, " Bacterial cellulose production by fed- -batch fermentation in molasses medium," Biotechnol. Progr, 2004, 20, pp. 1366-1371.
 K. Miihlethaler, " The structure of bacterial cellulose," Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1949, pp. 3527-535.
 S. Hestrin, M. Schramm," Synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum: II. Preparation of freeze-dried cells capable of polymerizing glucose to cellulose," Biochem. J, 1954 , 58, pp. 345-352.
 N. Noro, Y. Sugano, M. Shoda, " Utilization of the buffering capacity of corn steep liquor in bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 2004, 64, pp. 199-205.
 W. Czaja, D. Romanoviczand R.M. Brown, " Structural investigations of microbial cellulose produced in stationary and agitated culture," Cellulose, 2004, 11, pp. 403-411.
 C .Tokoh, K. Takabe, M. Fujita and H. Saiki, " Cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in the presence of acetyl glucomannan," Cellulose, 1998, 5, pp.249-261.
 R. Murugan and S. Ramakrishna, " Bioresorbable composite bone paste using polysaccharide based nano hydroxyapatite," Biomaterials, 2004, 25(17) , pp. 3829-3835.
 Jr. RM. Brown, J.H.M. Willison and CL. Richardson, "Cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum: 1. Visualization of the site of synthesis and direct measurement of the in vivo process", Proc Nat AcadSci, USA,1976, 73(12), pp.45-65.
 L.F. Farah, "Process of the preparation of cellulose film, cellulose film produced thereby, artificial skin graft and its use",United States Patent No, 4,912,049,1990.
 P. Ross, R. Mayer and M. Benziman, "Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria", Microbiol Rev, 1991, 55(1), pp.35-58.
 M. Schramm and H. Hestrin," Factors affecting production of cellulose at the air/liquid interface of a culture of Acetobacter xylinum", J. Gen. Microbiol, 1954, 11, pp. 123-129.
 Y. Nishi, M. Uryu, S. Yamanaka, K. Watanabe, N .Kitamura and M. Iguchi, et al. The structure and mechanical properties of sheets prepared from bacterial cellulose. Part 2: improvement of the RTICLE IN PRESS 150 W. Czaja et al. / Biomaterials 27 (2006) 145-151 mechanical properties of sheets and their applicability to diaphragms of electroacoustic transducers. J Mater Sci 990;25, pp. 2997-3001.
 G. Helenius, H. Backdahl, A. Bodin, U. Nannmark, P. Gatenholm and B. Risberg, "In vivo biocompatibility of bacterial cellulose", J Biomed Mater Res A, 2006 76(2), pp.431-438.
 R. Jonas and L.F. Farah," Production and application of microbial cellulose", PolymDegrad Stab, 1998, 59, pp.101-106.
 A .Krystynowicz, W. Czaja, L. Pomorski, M. Ko"odziejczyk and S. Bielecki, "The evaluation of usefulness of microbial cellulose as wound dressing material. In: 14thForum for Applied Biotechnology, Gent, Belgium, Proceedings Part 1", MededFacLandbouwwet- Rijksuniv Gent, 2000, p: 213-20.
 S. Bielecki, A. Krystynowicz, M .Turkiewicz and H. Kalinowska, Bacterial cellulose. In: einbuchel A, editor. Biopolymers: vol. 5. Polysaccharides I. Munster, Gremany: Wiley-VCH, Verlag GmbH p: 37-90 2002.
 K.V. Ramana, A. Tomar and L. Singh, "Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose synthesis by Acetobacter xylinum", World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2000, 16, pp. 245-248.
 M. Matsuoka, T. Tsuchida, K. Matsushita, 0. Adachi and F. Yoshinaga, "A synthetic medium for bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinumsubsp", sucrofermentans, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem, 1996, 60, pp. 575-579.
 T. Yoshino, T. Asakura and K. Toda, "Cellulose production by Acetobacter pasteurianus on silicone membrane", J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1996, 81, pp. 32-36.
 C. Wiegand and D. Klemm, "Influence of protective agents for preservation of Gluconacetobacterxylinus on its cellulose production", Cellulose, 2006, 13, pp.485-492.
 D.P. Delmer and Y. Amor, "Cellulose biosynthesis", Plant Cell, 1995, 7, 987-1000.
 J.Y. Jung, J.K. Park and H.N. Chang, "Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconoacetobacterhansenii in an agitated culture without living non-cellulose producing cells", Enzyme Microb, Technol, 2005, 37, pp. 347-354.
 S. Masaoka, T. Ohe and N. Sakota, "Production of cellulose from glucose by Acetobacter xylinum", J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1993, 75, pp. 18-22.
 S. Kongruang, "Bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum strains from agricultural waste products", Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol, 2008, 148, 245-256.
 P. De Wulf, K. Joris and E.J. Vandamme," Improved cellulose formation by an Acetobacter xylinum mutant limited in (keto)gluconate synthesis", J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol, 1996, 67 376-380.
 K. Toda, T. Asakura, M. Fukaya, E. Entani and Y. Kawamura, "Cellulose production by acetic acid-resistant Acetobacter xylinum", J. Ferment. Bioeng, 1997, 84, pp. 228-231.
 S.M.A.S. Keshk, K and Sameshima," Evaluation of different carbon sources for bacterial cellulose production", Afr. J. Biotechnol, 2005, 4, pp. 478-482.
 N. Sakairi, H. Asano, M. Ogawa, N. Nishi and S. Tokura," A method for direct harvest of bacterial cellulose filaments during continuous cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum", Carbohydr. Polym, 1998, 35, pp. 233-237.
 K.V. J. George, S.N. Ramanaand A.S. Sabapathy, "Physico¬mechanical properties of chemically treated bacterial (Acetobacter xylinum) cellulose membrane", World J. MicrobiolBiotechnol, 2005, 21, pp. 1323-1327.
 A.R. White and R.M. Brown Jr.," Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: Visual characterization of the process", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1981, 78, pp. 1047-1051.
 T. Shigematsu, K. Takamine, M. Kitazato, T. Morita, T. Naritomi, S. Morimura and K. Kida, "Cellulose production from glucose using a glucose dehydrogenase gene (gdh)-deficient mutant of Gluconacetobacterxylinus and its use for bioconversion of sweet potato pulp", J. Biosci. Bioeng, 2005, 99, pp. 415-422.
 S. Schrecker and P. Gostomski,"Determining the water holding capacity of microbial cellulose", Biotechnol. Lett, 2005, 27, pp. 1435-1438.
 P. Wanichapichart, S. Kaewnopparat, K. Buaking and W. Puthai, "Characterization of cellulose membranes produced by Acetobacter xylinum", J. Sci. Technol, 2002, 24, pp. 855-862.
 B. £aszkiewicz, "Solubility of bacterial cellulose and its structural properties", J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 1998, 67, pp. 1871– 1876.
 G. Helenius, H. Backdahlm, A. Bodin, U. Nannmark, P. Gatenholm and B. Risberg," In vivo biocompatibility of bacterial cellulose" J. Biomed. Mater. Res, 2006, 76A , pp. 431-438.
 S. Montanari, M. Roumani, L. Heux and M.R. Vignon," Topochemistry of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals resulting from TEMPO-mediated oxidation", Macromolecules, 2005, 38 , pp. 1665-1671.
 K.I. Uhlin, R.H. Atalla and N.S. Thompson," Influence of hemicelluloses on the aggregation patterns of bacterial cellulose", 1995, Cellulose, 2, pp.129-144.
 R.L. Legge," Microbial cellulose as a specialty chemical", Biotechnol. Adv, 1990, 8 303-319.
 J. Shah and R.M. Brown Jr., "Towards electronic paper displays made from microbial cellulose", Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 2005, 66, pp. 352-355.
 K. Tajima, M. Fujiwara, M. Takai and J. Hayashi, "Synthesis of bacterial cellulose composite by Acetobacter xylinum I. Its mechanical strength and biodegradability", MokuzaiGakkaishi, 1995, 41, pp.749– 757.
 N. Hioki, Y. Hori, K. Watanabe, Y. Morinaga, F. Yoshinaga, Y. Hibino and T. Ogura, "Bacterial cellulose as a new material for papermaking", Jpn TAPPI J, 1995, 49, pp.718-723.
 M. Takai, Y. Tsutaand J. Hayashi, "Watanabe S Biosynthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum III. X-ray studies of preferential orientation of the crystallites in a bacterial cellulose membrane", Polym J, 1975, 7(2), pp.157-164.
 K . Yoshino, R. Matsuoka, A.K. Nogami, H. Araki, S. Yamanaka, K. Watanabe, M. Takahashi and M. Honma," Electrical property of pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose and its interaction effect", Synth Mater, 1991, 42, pp.1593-1599.
 D. Ciechanska, H. Struszczyk and K .Guzinska," Modification of bacterial cellulose", Fibres Text East Eur, 1998, 6(4), pp.61-65.
 V.I. Legeza, V.P. Galenko-Yaroshevskii, E.V. Zinov'ev, B.A. Paramonov, G.S. Kreichman, I.I .Turkovskii, E.S. Gumenyuk, A.G. Kamovich and A.K. Khripunov ,Effects of new wound dressings on healing of thermal bums of the skin in acute radiation disease. Bull ExpBiol Med 138(3), pp.311– 315 (2004).
 H. Backdahl, G. Helenius, A. Bodin, U. Nannmark, B.R. Johansson, B. Risberg and P. Gatenholm, Mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose and interactions with smooth muscle cells. Biomaterials 27(9), pp.2141– 2149(2006).
 K. Watanabe, Y. Eto, S. Takano, S. Nakamori, H. Shibai and S. Yamanaka, "A new bacterial cellulose substrate for mammalian cell culture—a new bacterial cellulose substrate", Cytotechnology, 1993, 13(2), pp.107-114.
 A. Svensson, E. Nicklasson, T. Harrah, B. Panilaitis, D.L. Kaplan, M. Brittberg and P. Gatenholm, "Bacterial cellulose as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering of cartilage", Biomaterials, 2005, 26, pp.419-431.