Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 279

Search results for: Binary to excess-1 converter

279 A Parallel Implementation of the Reverse Converter for the Moduli Set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1}

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini, Keivan Navi

Abstract:

In this paper, a new reverse converter for the moduli set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1} is presented. We improved a previously introduced conversion algorithm for deriving an efficient hardware design for reverse converter. Hardware architecture of the proposed converter is based on carry-save adders and regular binary adders, without the requirement for modular adders. The presented design is faster than the latest introduced reverse converter for moduli set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1}. Also, it has better performance than the reverse converters for the recently introduced moduli set {2n+1–1, 2n, 2n–1}

Keywords: Residue arithmetic, Residue number system, Residue-to-Binary converter, Reverse converter

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278 Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit

Authors: Y. Kobori, L. Xing, H. Gao, N.Onozawa, S. Wu, S. N. Mohyar, Z. Nosker, H. Kobayashi, N. Takai, K. Niitsu

Abstract:

This paper proposes two types of non-isolated direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components (three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications. This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for both circuits.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, Buck-boost converter, Buck converter, PFC, BCM PFC circuit.

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277 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: Coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, cuk converter, sepic converter.

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276 Performance Analysis of High Speed Adder for DSP Applications

Authors: N. Mahendran, S. Vishwaja

Abstract:

The Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is a fast adder which improves the speed of addition. From the structure of the CSLA, it is clear that there is opportunity for reducing the area. The logic operations involved in conventional CSLA and binary to excess-1 converter (BEC) based CSLA are analyzed to make a study on the data dependence and to identify redundant logic operations. In the existing adder design, the carry select (CS) operation is scheduled before the final-sum, which is different from the conventional CSLA design. In the presented scheme, Kogge stone parallel adder approach is used instead of existing adder design it will generate fast carry for intermediate stages and also improves the speed of addition. When compared to existing adder design the delay is less in the proposed adder design.

Keywords: Binary to excess-1 converter, delay, carry select adder, Kogge stone adder, speed.

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275 Design and Control of DC-DC Converter for the Military Application Fuel Cell

Authors: Tae-Yeong Lee, Eun-Ju Yoo, Won-Yeong Choi, Young-Woo Park

Abstract:

This paper presents a 24 watts SEPIC converter design and control using microprocessor. SEPIC converter has advantages of a wide input range and miniaturization caused by the low stress at elements. There is also an advantage that the input and output are isolated in MOSFET-off state. This paper presents the PID control through the SEPIC converter transfer function using a DSP and the protective circuit for fuel cell from the over-current and inverse-voltage by using the characteristic of SEPIC converter. Then it derives them through the experiments.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Fuel-Cell, Microprocessor Control, Military Converter, SEPIC Converter

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274 A Fully Parallel Reverse Converter

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini, Keivan Navi

Abstract:

The residue number system (RNS) is popular in high performance computation applications because of its carry-free nature. The challenges of RNS systems design lie in the moduli set selection and in the reverse conversion from residue representation to weighted representation. In this paper, we proposed a fully parallel reverse conversion algorithm for the moduli set {rn - 2, rn - 1, rn}, based on simple mathematical relationships. Also an efficient hardware realization of this algorithm is presented. Our proposed converter is very faster and results to hardware savings, compared to the other reverse converters.

Keywords: Reverse converter, residue to weighted converter, residue number system, multiple-valued logic, computer arithmetic.

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273 A Robust Redundant Residue Representation in Residue Number System with Moduli Set(rn-2,rn-1,rn)

Authors: Hossein Khademolhosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

The residue number system (RNS), due to its properties, is used in applications in which high performance computation is needed. The carry free nature, which makes the arithmetic, carry bounded as well as the paralleling facility is the reason of its capability of high speed rendering. Since carry is not propagated between the moduli in this system, the performance is only restricted by the speed of the operations in each modulus. In this paper a novel method of number representation by use of redundancy is suggested in which {rn- 2,rn-1,rn} is the reference moduli set where r=2k+1 and k =1, 2,3,.. This method achieves fast computations and conversions and makes the circuits of them much simpler.

Keywords: Binary to RNS converter, Carry save adder, Computer arithmetic, Residue number system.

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272 PI Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter

Authors: K. Ramash Kumar, S. Jeevananthan

Abstract:

The object of this paper is to design and analyze a proportional – integral (PI) control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a development of PI control capable of providing the good static and dynamic performance compared to proportional – integralderivative (PID) controller. Using state space average method derives the dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter and PI control is designed. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The PI control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for transient region, line changes, load changes, steady state region and also for components variations.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Positive output elementarysuper lift Luo converter (POESLLC), Proportional – Integral (PI)control.

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271 Speech Enhancement Using Wavelet Coefficients Masking with Local Binary Patterns

Authors: Christian Arcos, Marley Vellasco, Abraham Alcaim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a wavelet coefficients masking based on Local Binary Patterns (WLBP) approach to enhance the temporal spectra of the wavelet coefficients for speech enhancement. This technique exploits the wavelet denoising scheme, which splits the degraded speech into pyramidal subband components and extracts frequency information without losing temporal information. Speech enhancement in each high-frequency subband is performed by binary labels through the local binary pattern masking that encodes the ratio between the original value of each coefficient and the values of the neighbour coefficients. This approach enhances the high-frequency spectra of the wavelet transform instead of eliminating them through a threshold. A comparative analysis is carried out with conventional speech enhancement algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed technique achieves significant improvements in terms of PESQ, an international recommendation of objective measure for estimating subjective speech quality. Informal listening tests also show that the proposed method in an acoustic context improves the quality of speech, avoiding the annoying musical noise present in other speech enhancement techniques. Experimental results obtained with a DNN based speech recognizer in noisy environments corroborate the superiority of the proposed scheme in the robust speech recognition scenario.

Keywords: Binary labels, local binary patterns, mask, wavelet coefficients, speech enhancement, speech recognition.

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270 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Current Sensing, Power-on protection, Step-up Converter, Soft-start.

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269 Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison

Authors: Mohammad Asif

Abstract:

An accurate prediction of the minimum fluidization velocity is a crucial hydrodynamic aspect of the design of fluidized bed reactors. Common approaches for the prediction of the minimum fluidization velocities of binary-solid fluidized beds are first discussed here. The data of our own careful experimental investigation involving a binary-solid pair fluidized with water is presented. The effect of the relative composition of the two solid species comprising the fluidized bed on the bed void fraction at the incipient fluidization condition is reported and its influence on the minimum fluidization velocity is discussed. In this connection, the capability of packing models to predict the bed void fraction is also examined.

Keywords: Bed void fraction, Binary solid mixture, Minimumfluidization velocity, Packing models

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268 On the Use of Correlated Binary Model in Social Network Analysis

Authors: Elsayed A. Habib Elamir

Abstract:

In social network analysis the mean nodal degree and density of the graph can be considered as a measure of the activity of all actors in the network and this is an important property of a graph and for making comparisons among networks. Since subjects in a family or organization are subject to common environment factors, it is prime interest to study the association between responses. Therefore, we study the distribution of the mean nodal degree and density of the graph under correlated binary units. The cross product ratio is used to capture the intra-units association among subjects. Computer program and an application are given to show the benefits of the method.

Keywords: Correlated Binary data, cross product ratio, densityof the graph, multiplicative binomial distribution.

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267 A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology

Authors: H. Asiaban, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current, low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE. The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: Current-mode, squarer/divider, low-pass filter, converter, translinear loop, RMS-to-DC.

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266 A 1.2-ns16×16-Bit Binary Multiplier Using High Speed Compressors

Authors: A. Dandapat, S. Ghosal, P. Sarkar, D. Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

For higher order multiplications, a huge number of adders or compressors are to be used to perform the partial product addition. We have reduced the number of adders by introducing special kind of adders that are capable to add five/six/seven bits per decade. These adders are called compressors. Binary counter property has been merged with the compressor property to develop high order compressors. Uses of these compressors permit the reduction of the vertical critical paths. A 16×16 bit multiplier has been developed using these compressors. These compressors make the multipliers faster as compared to the conventional design that have been used 4-2 compressors and 3-2 compressors.

Keywords: Binary multiplier, Compressors, Counter, Column adder, Low power.

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265 H-ARQ Techniques for Wireless Systems with Punctured Non-Binary LDPC as FEC Code

Authors: Ł. Kiedrowski, H. Gierszal, W. Hołubowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the H-ARQ techniques comparison for OFDM systems with a new family of non-binary LDPC codes which has been developed within the EU FP7 DAVINCI project. The punctured NB-LDPC codes have been used in a simulated model of the transmission system. The link level performance has been evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency, codeword error rate and average number of retransmissions. The NB-LDPC codes can be easily and effective implemented with different methods of the retransmission needed if correct decoding of a codeword failed. Here the Optimal Symbol Selection method is proposed as a Chase Combining technique.

Keywords: H-ARQ, LDPC, Non-Binary, Punctured Codes.

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264 Probabilistic Electrical Power Generation Modeling Using Decimal to Binary Conversion

Authors: Ahmed S. Al-Abdulwahab

Abstract:

Generation system reliability assessment is an important task which can be performed using deterministic or probabilistic techniques. The probabilistic approaches have significant advantages over the deterministic methods. However, more complicated modeling is required by the probabilistic approaches. Power generation model is a basic requirement for this assessment. One form of the generation models is the well known capacity outage probability table (COPT). Different analytical techniques have been used to construct the COPT. These approaches require considerable mathematical modeling of the generating units. The unit-s models are combined to build the COPT which will add more burdens on the process of creating the COPT. Decimal to Binary Conversion (DBC) technique is widely and commonly applied in electronic systems and computing This paper proposes a novel utilization of the DBC to create the COPT without engaging in analytical modeling or time consuming simulations. The simple binary representation , “0 " and “1 " is used to model the states o f generating units. The proposed technique is proven to be an effective approach to build the generation model.

Keywords: Decimal to Binary, generation, reliability.

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263 Methods for Data Selection in Medical Databases: The Binary Logistic Regression -Relations with the Calculated Risks

Authors: Cristina G. Dascalu, Elena Mihaela Carausu, Daniela Manuc

Abstract:

The medical studies often require different methods for parameters selection, as a second step of processing, after the database-s designing and filling with information. One common task is the selection of fields that act as risk factors using wellknown methods, in order to find the most relevant risk factors and to establish a possible hierarchy between them. Different methods are available in this purpose, one of the most known being the binary logistic regression. We will present the mathematical principles of this method and a practical example of using it in the analysis of the influence of 10 different psychiatric diagnostics over 4 different types of offences (in a database made from 289 psychiatric patients involved in different types of offences). Finally, we will make some observations about the relation between the risk factors hierarchy established through binary logistic regression and the individual risks, as well as the results of Chi-squared test. We will show that the hierarchy built using the binary logistic regression doesn-t agree with the direct order of risk factors, even if it was naturally to assume this hypothesis as being always true.

Keywords: Databases, risk factors, binary logisticregression, hierarchy.

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262 Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Dan Rădulescu

Abstract:

In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language.

Keywords: Tag, HTML, web page, genetic algorithm, similarity value, binary tree.

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261 An Improved Method on Static Binary Analysis to Enhance the Context-Sensitive CFI

Authors: Qintao Shen, Lei Luo, Jun Ma, Jie Yu, Qingbo Wu, Yongqi Ma, Zhengji Liu

Abstract:

Control Flow Integrity (CFI) is one of the most promising technique to defend Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs). Traditional CFI Systems and recent Context-Sensitive CFI use coarse control flow graphs (CFGs) to analyze whether the control flow hijack occurs, left vast space for attackers at indirect call-sites. Coarse CFGs make it difficult to decide which target to execute at indirect control-flow transfers, and weaken the existing CFI systems actually. It is an unsolved problem to extract CFGs precisely and perfectly from binaries now. In this paper, we present an algorithm to get a more precise CFG from binaries. Parameters are analyzed at indirect call-sites and functions firstly. By comparing counts of parameters prepared before call-sites and consumed by functions, targets of indirect calls are reduced. Then the control flow would be more constrained at indirect call-sites in runtime. Combined with CCFI, we implement our policy. Experimental results on some popular programs show that our approach is efficient. Further analysis show that it can mitigate COOP and other advanced attacks.

Keywords: Contex-sensitive, CFI, binary analysis, code reuse attack.

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260 Algorithm for Reconstructing 3D-Binary Matrix with Periodicity Constraints from Two Projections

Authors: V. Masilamani, Kamala Krithivasan

Abstract:

We study the problem of reconstructing a three dimensional binary matrices whose interiors are only accessible through few projections. Such question is prominently motivated by the demand in material science for developing tool for reconstruction of crystalline structures from their images obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Various approaches have been suggested to reconstruct 3D-object (crystalline structure) by reconstructing slice of the 3D-object. To handle the ill-posedness of the problem, a priori information such as convexity, connectivity and periodicity are used to limit the number of possible solutions. Formally, 3Dobject (crystalline structure) having a priory information is modeled by a class of 3D-binary matrices satisfying a priori information. We consider 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints, and we propose a polynomial time algorithm to reconstruct 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints from two orthogonal projections.

Keywords: 3D-Binary Matrix Reconstruction, Computed Tomography, Discrete Tomography, Integral Max Flow Problem.

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259 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the binary system when compared with the conventional sorption isotherm models.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, binary system, neural network; sorption

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258 Computation of Probability Coefficients using Binary Decision Diagram and their Application in Test Vector Generation

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper deals with efficient computation of probability coefficients which offers computational simplicity as compared to spectral coefficients. It eliminates the need of inner product evaluations in determination of signature of a combinational circuit realizing given Boolean function. The method for computation of probability coefficients using transform matrix, fast transform method and using BDD is given. Theoretical relations for achievable computational advantage in terms of required additions in computing all 2n probability coefficients of n variable function have been developed. It is shown that for n ≥ 5, only 50% additions are needed to compute all probability coefficients as compared to spectral coefficients. The fault detection techniques based on spectral signature can be used with probability signature also to offer computational advantage.

Keywords: Binary Decision Diagrams, Spectral Coefficients, Fault detection

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257 Medical Image Segmentation Using Deformable Models and Local Fitting Binary

Authors: B. Bagheri Nakhjavanlo, T. J. Ellis, P. Raoofi, J. Dehmeshki

Abstract:

This paper presents a customized deformable model for the segmentation of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in CTA datasets. An important challenge in reliably detecting aortic aneurysm is the need to overcome problems associated with intensity inhomogeneities and image noise. Level sets are part of an important class of methods that utilize partial differential equations (PDEs) and have been extensively applied in image segmentation. A Gaussian kernel function in the level set formulation, which extracts the local intensity information, aids the suppression of noise in the extracted regions of interest and then guides the motion of the evolving contour for the detection of weak boundaries. The speed of curve evolution has been significantly improved with a resulting decrease in segmentation time compared with previous implementations of level sets. The results indicate the method is more effective than other approaches in coping with intensity inhomogeneities.

Keywords: Abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms, intensityinhomogeneity, level sets, local fitting binary.

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256 Ultrasonic Investigation of Molecular Interaction in Binary Liquid Mixture of Polyethylene Glycol with Ethanol

Authors: S. Grace Sahaya Sheba, R. Omegala Priakumari

Abstract:

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a condensation polymer of ethylene oxide and water. It is soluble in water and in many organic solvents. PEG is used to make emulsifying agents, detergents, soaps, plasticizers, ointments etc. Ethanol (C2H5OH) also known as ethyl alcohol is a well-known organic compound and has wide applications in chemical industry as it is used as a solvent for paint, varnish, in preserving biological specimens, used as a fuel mixed with petrol etc. Though their chemical and physical properties are already studied, still because of their uses in day to day life the authors thought it is better to study some more of their physical properties like ultrasonic velocity and hence adiabatic compressibility, free length, etc. A detailed study of such properties and some excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility, excess free volume and few more in the liquid mixtures of these two compounds with PEG as a solute and Ethanol as a solvent at various mole fractions may throw some light on deeper understanding of molecular interaction between the solute and the solvent supported by NMR, IR etc. Hence the present research work is on ultrasonics/allied studies on these two liquid mixtures. Ultrasonic velocity (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) at room temperature and at different mole fraction from 0 to 0.055 of ethanol in PEG have been experimentally carried out by the authors. Acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β), free volume (Vf), acoustic impedance (Z), internal pressure (πi), intermolecular free length (Lf) and relaxation time (τ) were calculated from the experimental data. We have calculated excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), excess internal pressure (πiE) free length (LfE) and excess acoustic impedance (ZE) etc for these two chosen liquid mixtures. The excess compressibility is positive and maximum around a mole fraction 0.007 and excess internal pressure is negative and maximum at the same mole fraction and longer free length. The results are analyzed and it may be concluded that the molecular interactions between the solute and the solvent is not strong and it may be weak. Appropriate graphs are drawn.

Keywords: Adiabatic Compressibility, Binary mixture, Induce dipole, Polarizability, Ultrasonic.

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255 The Design of PFM Mode DC-DC Converter with DT-CMOS Switch

Authors: Jae-Chang Kwak, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

The high efficiency power management IC (PMIC) with switching device is presented in this paper. PMIC is controlled with PFM control method in order to have high power efficiency at high current level. Dynamic Threshold voltage CMOS (DT-CMOS) with low on-resistance is designed to decrease conduction loss. The threshold voltage of DT-CMOS drops as the gate voltage increase, resulting in a much higher current handling capability than standard MOSFET. PFM control circuits consist of a generator, AND gate and comparator. The generator is made to have 1.2MHz oscillation voltage. The DC-DC converter based on PFM control circuit and low on-resistance switching device is presented in this paper.

Keywords: DT-CMOS, PMIC, PFM, DC-DC converter.

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254 Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping

Authors: Adnan A. Y. Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.

Keywords: Big images, binary images, similarity, matching.

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253 Modeling and Simulation of PSM DC-DC Buck Converter

Authors: Ramamurthy S, Vanaja Ranjan P

Abstract:

A DC-to-DC converter for applications involving a source with widely varying voltage conditions with loads requiring constant voltage from full load down to no load is presented. The switching regulator considered is a Buck converter with Pulse Skipping Modulation control whereby pulses applied to the switch are blocked or released on output voltage crossing a predetermined value. Results of the study on the performance of regulator circuit are presented. The regulator regulates over a wide input voltage range with slightly higher ripple content and good transient response. Input current spectrum indicates a good EMI performance with crowding of components at low frequency range.

Keywords: DC/DC Converter, Pulse Skipping Modulation, Buckregulator, Modulation Factor, Electromagnetic Interference

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252 A Cost-Effective Design and Analysis of Full Bridge LLC Resonant Converter

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Sreyasee Rout

Abstract:

LLC (Inductor-inductor-capacitor) resonant converter has lots of advantages over other type of resonant converters which include high efficiency, more reliable and have high power density. This paper presents the design and analysis of a full bridge LLC resonant converter. In addition to the operational principle, the ZVS and ZCS conditions are also explained with the DC characteristics. Simulation of the LLC resonant converter is performed in MATLAB/ Simulink and the practical prototype setup is analyzed in Proteus software. The result is verified through analysis and design of a low cost, 200 watt prototype converter.

Keywords: LLC, Proteus, Resonant converter ZCS, ZVS.

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251 An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains

Authors: Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Feifei Lee, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.

Keywords: Face recognition, Binary vector quantization (BVQ), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), DCT coefficients.

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250 Investigation of Chaotic Behavior in DC-DC Converters

Authors: Sajid Iqbal, Masood Ahmed, Suhail Aftab Qureshi

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used in regulated switched mode power supplies and in DC motor drive applications. There are several sources of unwanted nonlinearity in practical power converters. In addition, their operation is characterized by switching that gives birth to a variety of nonlinear dynamics. DC-DC buck and boost converters controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) have been simulated. The voltage waveforms and attractors obtained from the circuit simulation have been studied. With the onset of instability, the phenomenon of subharmonic oscillations, quasi-periodicity, bifurcations, and chaos have been observed. This paper is mainly motivated by potential contributions of chaos theory in the design, analysis and control of power converters, in particular and power electronics circuits, in general.

Keywords: Buck converter, boost converter, period- doubling, chaos, bifurcation, strange attractor.

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