Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 541

Search results for: Active snubber cell

541 ZVZCT PWM Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: İsmail Aksoy, Hacı Bodur, Nihan Altıntas

Abstract:

This paper introduces a boost converter with a new active snubber cell. In this circuit, all of the semiconductor components in the converter softly turns on and turns off with the help of the active snubber cell. Compared to the other converters, the proposed converter has advantages of size, number of components and cost. The main feature of proposed converter is that the extra voltage stresses do not occur on the main switches and main diodes. Also, the current stress on the main switch is acceptable level. Moreover, the proposed converter can operates under light load conditions and wide input line voltage. In this study, the operating principle of the proposed converter is presented and its operation is verified with the Proteus simulation software for a 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: Active snubber cell, boost converter, zero current switching, zero voltage switching.

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540 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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539 The Experience with SiC MOSFET and Buck Converter Snubber Design

Authors: P. Vaculik

Abstract:

The newest semiconductor devices on the market are MOSFET transistors based on the silicon carbide – SiC. This material has exclusive features thanks to which it becomes a better switch than Si – silicon semiconductor switch. There are some special features that need to be understood to enable the device’s use to its full potential. The advantages and differences of SiC MOSFETs in comparison with Si IGBT transistors have been described in first part of this article. Second part describes driver for SiC MOSFET transistor and last part of article represents SiC MOSFET in the application of buck converter (step-down) and design of simple RC snubber. 

Keywords: SiC, Si, MOSFET, IGBT, SBD, RC snubber.

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538 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: Active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition.

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537 Design Optimization Methodology of CMOS Active Mixers for Multi-Standard Receivers

Authors: S. Douss, F. Touati, M. Loulou

Abstract:

A design flow of multi-standard down-conversion CMOS mixers for three modern standards: Global System Mobile, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone and Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems is presented. Three active mixer-s structures are studied. The first is based on the Gilbert cell which gives a tolerable noise figure and linearity with a low conversion gain. The second and third structures use the current bleeding and charge injection techniques in order to increase the conversion gain. An improvement of about 2 dB of the conversion gain is achieved without a considerable degradation of the other characteristics. The models used for noise figure, conversion gain and IIP3 used are studied. This study describes the nature of trade-offs inherent in such structures and gives insights that help in identifying which structure is better for given conditions.

Keywords: Active mixer, Radio-frequency transceiver, Multistandardfront end, Gilbert cell, current bleeding, charge injection.

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536 A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current

Authors: A. A. Penin, A. S. Sidorenko

Abstract:

A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.

Keywords: A solar cell generator, I−V characteristic, activetwo-pole.

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535 Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

Authors: Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Dmitri O. Lapotko

Abstract:

Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

Keywords: Delivery, cell separation, graft, laser, plasmonic nanobubble, cell therapy, gold nanoparticle.

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534 Active Fiber Composites for Smart Damping of Doubly Curved Laminated Shells

Authors: Saroj Kumar Sarangi, M. C. Ray

Abstract:

This paper deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of doubly curved laminated composite shells using active fiber composite (AFC) materials. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment has been considered to be made of the AFC materials. A three dimensional energy based finite element model of the smart doubly curved laminated composite shell integrated with a patch of such ACLD treatment has been developed to demonstrate the performance of the patch on enhancing the damping characteristics of the doubly curved laminated composite shells. Particular emphasis has been placed on studying the effect of variation of piezoelectric fiber orientation angle in the constraining AFC layer on the control authority of the ACLD patch.

Keywords: Active constrained layer damping, Active fibercomposites, Finite element modeling, First order shear deformationtheory.

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533 Sprayer Boom Active Suspension Using Intelligent Active Force Control

Authors: M. Tahmasebi, R.A. Rahman, M. Mailah, M. Gohari

Abstract:

The control of sprayer boom undesired vibrations pose a great challenge to investigators due to various disturbances and conditions. Sprayer boom movements lead to reduce of spread efficiency and crop yield. This paper describes the design of a novel control method for an active suspension system applying proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with an active force control (AFC) scheme integration of an iterative learning algorithm employed to a sprayer boom. The iterative learning as an intelligent method is principally used as a method to calculate the best value of the estimated inertia of the sprayer boom needed for the AFC loop. Results show that the proposed AFC-based scheme performs much better than the standard PID control technique. Also, this shows that the system is more robust and accurate.

Keywords: Active force control, sprayer boom, active suspension, iterative learning.

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532 A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad Reza Sahebi, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani

Abstract:

To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.

Keywords: SRAM Cell, leakage current, cell area.

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531 Immunomodulatory Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on T-Cell Populations at Tissue-Related Oxygen Level

Authors: A. N. Gornostaeva, P. I. Bobyleva, E. R. Andreeva, L. B. Buravkova

Abstract:

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties. The effect of MSCs on the crucial cellular immunity compartment – T-cells is of a special interest. It is known that MSC tissue niche and expected milieu of their interaction with T- cells are characterized by low oxygen concentration, whereas the in vitro experiments usually are carried out at a much higher ambient oxygen (20%). We firstly evaluated immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on T-cells at tissue-related oxygen (5%) after interaction implied cell-to-cell contacts and paracrine factors only. It turned out that MSCs under reduced oxygen can effectively suppress the activation and proliferation of PHAstimulated T-cells and can provoke decrease in the production of proinflammatory and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. In hypoxia some effects were amplified (inhibition of proliferation, antiinflammatory cytokine profile shift). This impact was more evident after direct cell-to-cell interaction; lack of intercellular contacts could revoke the potentiating effect of hypoxia.

Keywords: Cell-to-cell interaction, low oxygen, MSC immunosuppression, T-cells.

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530 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel

Abstract:

In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: Fuel cell dynamics, real time simulation, fuel cell, modelling, testing.

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529 Phenotypes of B Cells Differ in EBV-positive Burkitt-s lymphoma Derived Cell Lines

Authors: Irina Spaka, Rita Birkenfelde, Svetlana Kozireva, Jevgenija Osmjana, Madara Upmane, ElenaKashuba, Irina Kholodnyuk Holodnuka

Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the endemic Burkitt-s lymphoma (BL). The EBVpositive BL-derived cell lines initially maintain the original tumor phenotype of EBV infection (latency I, LatI), but most of them drift toward a lymphoblast phenotype of EBV latency III (LatIII) during in vitro culturing. The aim of the present work was to characterize the B-cell subsets in EBV-positive BL cell lines and to verify whether a particular cell subset correlates with the type of EBV infection. The phenotype analysis of two EBV-negative and eleven EBV-positive (three of LatI and eight of LatIII) BL cell lines was performed by polychromatic flow cytomery, based on expression pattern of CD19, CD10, CD38, CD27, and CD5 markers. Two cell subsets, CD19+CD10+ and CD19+CD10-, were defined in LatIII BL cell lines. In both subsets, the CD27 and CD5 cell surface expression was detected in a proportion of the cells.

Keywords: B-cell subsets, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, EBV latency, phenotype profiles.

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528 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: Virgularia gustaviana, Cembrane Diterpene, anti-cancer, HeLa cancer Cell, MDA-Md-231 Cancer cell.

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527 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes a study of input impedance of 2 types of CMOS active inductors. It derives 2 input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of the grounded active inductor. The second formula is the input impedance of the floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption. 

Keywords: Grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, Fully differential bandpass amplifier.

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526 Interactions between Cells and Nanoscale Surfaces of Oxidized Silicon Substrates

Authors: Chung-Yao Yang, Lin-Ya Huang, Tang-Long Shen, J. Andrew Yeh

Abstract:

The importance for manipulating an incorporated scaffold and directing cell behaviors is well appreciated for tissue engineering. Here, we developed newly nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges capable of being various chemical modifications to provide much insight into the fundamental biology of how cells interact with their surrounding environment in vitro. A wet etching technique is exerted to allow us fabricated the silicon nanosponges in a high-throughput manner. Furthermore, various organo-silane chemicals enabled self-assembled on the surfaces by vapor deposition. We have found that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells displayed certain distinguishable morphogenesis, adherent responses, and biochemical properties while cultured on these chemical modified nano-topographic structures in compared with the planar oxidized silicon counterparts, indicating that cell behaviors can be influenced by certain physical characteristic derived from nano-topography in addition to the hydrophobicity of contact surfaces crucial for cell adhesion and spreading. Of particular, there were predominant nano-actin punches and slender protrusions formed while cells were cultured on the nano-topographic structures. This study shed potential applications of these nano-topographic biomaterials for controlling cell development in tissue engineering or basic cell biology research.

Keywords: Nanosponge, Cell adhesion, Cell morphology

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525 Active Contours with Prior Corner Detection

Authors: U.A.A. Niroshika, Ravinda G.N. Meegama

Abstract:

Deformable active contours are widely used in computer vision and image processing applications for image segmentation, especially in biomedical image analysis. The active contour or “snake" deforms towards a target object by controlling the internal, image and constraint forces. However, if the contour initialized with a lesser number of control points, there is a high probability of surpassing the sharp corners of the object during deformation of the contour. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to construct the initial contour by incorporating prior knowledge of significant corners of the object detected using the Harris operator. This new reconstructed contour begins to deform, by attracting the snake towards the targeted object, without missing the corners. Experimental results with several synthetic images show the ability of the new technique to deal with sharp corners with a high accuracy than traditional methods.

Keywords: Active Contours, Image Segmentation, Harris Operator, Snakes

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524 Comparison of the DC/DC-Converters for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: Oleksandr Krykunov

Abstract:

The source voltage of high-power fuel cell shows strong load dependence at comparatively low voltage levels. In order to provide the voltage of 750V on the DC-link for feeding electrical energy into the mains via a three phase inverter a step-up converter with a large step-up ratio is required. The output voltage of this DC/DC-converter must be stabile during variations of the load current and the voltage of the fuel cell. This paper presents the methods and results of the calculation of the efficiency and the expense for the realization for the circuits of the DC/DC-converter that meet these requirements.

Keywords: DC/DC-converter, calculation, efficiency, fuel cell.

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523 Forces Association-Based Active Contour

Authors: Aicha Baya Goumeidane, Nafaa. Nacereddine

Abstract:

A welded structure must be inspected to guarantee that the weld quality meets the design requirements to assure safety and reliability. However, X-ray image analyses and defect recognition with the computer vision techniques are very complex. Most difficulties lie in finding the small, irregular defects in poor contrast images which requires pre processing to image, extract, and classify features from strong background noise. This paper addresses the issue of designing methodology to extract defect from noisy background radiograph with image processing. Based on the use of actives contours this methodology seems to give good results

Keywords: Welding, Radiography, Computer vision, Active contour.

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522 Comparison between Batteries and Fuel Cells for Photovoltaic System Backup

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Batteries and fuel cells contain a great potential to back up severe photovoltaic power fluctuations under inclement weather conditions. In this paper comparison between batteries and fuel cells is carried out in detail only for their PV power backup options, so their common attributes and different attributes is discussed. Then, the common and different attributes are compared; accordingly, the fuel cell is selected as the backup of Photovoltaic system. Finally, environmental evaluation of the selected hybrid plant was made in terms of plant-s land requirement and lifetime CO2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossilfuel power generating forms.

Keywords: Fuel cell, PV cell, hybrid power plant.

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521 AGV Guidance System: An Application of Simple Active Contour for Visual Tracking

Authors: M.Asif, M.R.Arshad, P.A.Wilson

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple active contour based visual tracking algorithm is presented for outdoor AGV application which is currently under development at the USM robotic research group (URRG) lab. The presented algorithm is computationally low cost and able to track road boundaries in an image sequence and can easily be implemented on available low cost hardware. The proposed algorithm used an active shape modeling using the B-spline deformable template and recursive curve fitting method to track the current orientation of the road.

Keywords: Active contour, B-spline, recursive curve fitting.

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520 Active Tendons for Seismic Control of Buildings

Authors: S. M. Nigdeli, M. H. Boduroglu

Abstract:

In this study, active tendons with Proportional Integral Derivation type controllers were applied to a SDOF and a MDOF building model. Physical models of buildings were constituted with virtual springs, dampers and rigid masses. After that, equations of motion of all degrees of freedoms were obtained. Matlab Simulink was utilized to obtain the block diagrams for these equations of motion. Parameters for controller actions were found by using a trial method. After earthquake acceleration data were applied to the systems, building characteristics such as displacements, velocities, accelerations and transfer functions were analyzed for all degrees of freedoms. Comparisons on displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time, acceleration vs. time and transfer function (Db) vs. frequency (Hz) were made for uncontrolled and controlled buildings. The results show that the method seems feasible.

Keywords: Active Tendons, Proportional Integral DerivationType Controllers, SDOF, MDOF, Earthquake, Building.

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519 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya

Abstract:

In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: Cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis.

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518 Identification of Individual Objects at the Intelligent Assembly Cell

Authors: Ružarovský, Roman, Danišová, Nina, Velíšek, Karol

Abstract:

In this contribution is presented a complex design of individual objects identification in the workplace of intelligent assembly cell. Intelligent assembly cell is situated at Institute of Manufacturing Systems and Applied Mechanics and is used for pneumatic actuator assembly. Pneumatic actuator components are pneumatic roller, cover, piston and spring. Two identification objects alternatives for assembly are designed in the workplace of industrial robot. In the contribution is evaluated and selected suitable alternative for identification – 2D codes reader. The complex design of individual object identification is going out of intelligent manufacturing systems knowledge. Intelligent assembly and manufacturing systems as systems of new generation are gradually loaded in to the mechanical production, when they are removeing human operation out of production process and they also short production times.

Keywords: system, cell, intelligent, mechanics, device

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517 The Cytotoxic Effect of PM 701 and its Fractions on Cell Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells, McF7

Authors: Faten A. Khorshid

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in the world among women. Many therapies have been designed to treat this disease. Mamectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still the main therapies of breast cancer. However, the results were unsatisfactory and still far from the ideal treatment. PM 701is a natural product, has anticancer activity. The bioactive fraction PMF and subfraction PMFK had been isolated from PM701. PM 701 and its fractions were proved to have a cytotoxic properties against different cancer cell lines. This article is directed for the further examination of lyophilized PM701 and its active fractions on the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). PM 701, PMF or PMFK were adding to the cultural medium, where MCF-7 is incubated. PM 701, PMF or PMFK were able to inhibit significantly the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, Moreover these new agents were proved to induce apoptosis of the breast cancer cells; through its direct effect on the nuclei.

Keywords: Anticancer agent, breast carcinoma, MCF-7 cell line, PM 701

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516 Contributions to Design of Systems Actuated by Shape Memory Active Elements

Authors: Daniel Amariei, Calin O. Miclosina, Ion Vela, Marius Tufoi, Cornel Mituletu

Abstract:

Even it has been recognized that Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have a significant potential for deployment actuators, the number of applications of SMA-based actuators to the present day is still quite small, due to the need of deep understanding of the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMA, causing an important need for a mathematical model able to describe all thermo-mechanical properties of SMA by relatively simple final set of constitutive equations. SMAs offer attractive potentials such as: reversible strains of several percent, generation of high recovery stresses and high power / weight ratios. The paper tries to provide an overview of the shape memory functions and a presentation of the designed and developed temperature control system used for a gripper actuated by two pairs of differential SMA active springs. An experimental setup was established, using electrical energy for actuator-s springs heating process. As for holding the temperature of the SMA springs at certain level for a long time was developed a control system in order to avoid the active elements overheating.

Keywords: active element, actuator, model, Nitinol, prehension

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515 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer

Abstract:

Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2 and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: Bilirubin oxidase, Enzymatic fuel cell, Glucose oxidase, Nanoparticles.

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514 The Determination of Cellulose Spiral Angle by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Structurally Characterized Acacia mangium Cell Wall

Authors: Tamer A. Tabet, Fauziah Abdul Aziz, Shahidan Radiman

Abstract:

The spiral angle of the elementary cellulose fibril in the wood cell wall, often called microfibril angle, (MFA). Microfibril angle in hardwood is one of the key determinants of solid timber performance due to its strong influence on the stiffness, strength, shrinkage, swelling, thermal-dynamics mechanical properties and dimensional stability of wood. Variation of MFA (degree) in the S2 layer of the cell walls among Acacia mangium trees was determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The length and orientation of the microfibrils of the cell walls in the irradiated volume of the thin samples are measured using SAXS and optical microscope for 3D surface measurement. The undetermined parameters in the analysis are the MFA, (M) and the standard deviation (σФ) of the intensity distribution arising from the wandering of the fibril orientation about the mean value. Nine separate pairs of values are determined for nine different values of the angle of the incidence of the X-ray beam relative to the normal to the radial direction in the sample. The results show good agreement. The curve distribution of scattered intensity for the real cell wall structure is compared with that calculated with that assembly of rectangular cells with the same ratio of transverse to radial cell wall length. It is demonstrated that for β = 45°, the peaks in the curve intensity distribution for the real and the rectangular cells coincide. If this peak position is Ф45, then the MFA can be determined from the relation M = tan-1 (tan Ф45 / cos 45°), which is precise for rectangular cells. It was found that 92.93% of the variation of MFA can be attributed to the distance from pith to bark. Here we shall present our results of the MFA in the cell wall with respect to its shape, structure and the distance from pith to park as an important fast check and yet accurate towards the quality of wood, its uses and application.

Keywords: Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Microfibril Angle, MFA, rectangular cell wall and real cell wall, Acacia mangium.

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513 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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512 Influence of Cell-free Proteins in the Nucleation of CaCO3 Crystals in Calcified Endoskeleton

Authors: M. Azizur Rahman, Tamotsu Oomori

Abstract:

Calcite aCalcite and aragonite are the two common polymorphs of CaCO3 observed as biominerals. It is universal that the sea water contents a high Mg2+ (50mM) relative to Ca2+ (10mM). In vivo crystallization, Mg2+ inhibits calcite formation. For this reason, stony corals skeleton may be formed only aragonite crystals in the biocalcification. It is special in case of soft corals of which formed only calcite crystal; however, this interesting phenomenon, still uncharacterized in the marine environment, has been explored in this study using newly purified cell-free proteins isolated from the endoskeletal sclerites of soft coral. By recording the decline of pH in vitro, the control of CaCO3 nucleation and crystal growth by the cellfree proteins was revealed. Using Atomic Force Microscope, here we find that these endoskeletal cell-free proteins significantly design the morphological shape in the molecular-scale kinetics of crystal formation and those proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite steps.nd aragonite are the two common polymorphs of CaCO3 observed as biominerals. It is universal that the sea water contents a high Mg2+ (50mM) relative to Ca2+ (10mM). In vivo crystallization, Mg2+ inhibits calcite formation. For this reason, stony corals skeleton may be formed only aragonite crystals in the biocalcification. It is special in case of soft corals of which formed only calcite crystal; however, this interesting phenomenon, still uncharacterized in the marine environment, has been explored in this study using newly purified cell-free proteins isolated from the endoskeletal sclerites of soft coral. By recording the decline of pH in vitro, the control of CaCO3 nucleation and crystal growth by the cell-free proteins was revealed. Using Atomic Force Microscope, here we find that these endoskeletal cell-free proteins significantly design the morphological shape in the molecular-scale kinetics of crystal formation and those proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite steps. KeywordsBiomineralization, Calcite, Cell-free protein, Soft coral

Keywords: Biomineralization, Calcite, Cell-free protein, Soft coral

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