Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32131
Effect of Increasing Road Light Luminance on Night Driving Performance of Older Adults
Abstract:The main objective of this study was to determine if a minimal increase in road light level (luminance) could lead to improved driving performance among older adults. Older, middleaged and younger adults were tested in a driving simulator following vision and cognitive screening. Comparisons were made for the performance of simulated night driving under two road light conditions (0.6 and 2.5 cd/m2). At each light level, the effects of self reported night driving avoidance were examined along with the vision/cognitive performance. It was found that increasing road light level from 0.6 cd/m2 to 2.5 cd/m2 resulted in improved recognition of signage on straight highway segments. The improvement depends on different driver-related factors such as vision and cognitive abilities, and confidence. On curved road sections, the results showed that driver-s performance worsened. It is concluded that while increasing road lighting may be helpful to older adults especially for sign recognition, it may also result in increased driving confidence and thus reduced attention in some driving situations.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1062558Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1691
 A.J. Adams, "Aging vision: The healthy eye and beyond," Optometry, vol. 10, 2006.
 J.A. Braybn, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M.E., Schneck and L.A. Lott., "Visual impairments in elderly people under everyday viewing conditions," Journal of Vision Impairment and Blindness, vol. 94, 2000, pp. 741-755.
. J.D. Edwards, L.A.Ross, V.G. Wadley, O.J. Clay, M. Crowe, D. L. Roenker and K.K.Ball, "The Useful Field of View Test: Normative data for older adults," Archives in Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 21, 2005, pp. 275-286.
 A. Horowitz, "The prevalence and consequence of vision impairment in later life," Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, vol. 20, 2004, pp. 185- 195.
 K. Ishihara, S. Ishihara, M. Nagamachi, H. Osaki and S. Hiramatsu, "Independence of older adults in performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and the relation of this performance to visual abilities," Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, vol. 5, 2004, pp. 198-213.
 G. M. Long, and R. F. Crambert, "The nature and basis of age-related changes in dynamic visual acuity," Psychology and Aging, vol. 5, 1990, 138-143.
 C. Owsley, R. Sekular and D. Siemsen, "Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood," Vision Research, vol. 23, 1983, pp. 689-699.
 US Department of Transportation, "Synthesis of human factors research on older drivers and highway safety," vol. I: Older driver research synthesis, Publication no. FHWA-RD-97-094, 1997.
 Canada Safety Council, "Seniors behind the wheel," Safety Canada, vol. XLIV (1), 2000, pp. 1-2.
 J.F. Sturr, L. Zhang, H.A. Taub, D. L. Hannon and M. M. Jackowski.," Psychophysical Evidence for Losses in Rod Sensitivity in the Aging Visual System," Vision Research, vol. 37, 1997, pp.475-481.
 G. R. Jackson, C. Owsley and G. McGwin Jr, "Aging and dark adaptation," Vision Research, vol. 39, 1999, pp. 3975-3982.
 D. A. Owens, J. M. Wood and J. M. Owens, "Effects of Age and Illumination on Night Driving: A Road Test," Human Factors, vol. 49, 2007, pp.1115-1131.
 J. M. Wood, R. A. Tyrell and T. P. Cranberry, "Limitations in Drivers' Ability to Recognize Pedestrians at Night," Human Factors, vol. 47, 2005, pp. 644-653.
 M. R. J. Baldock, J. L. Mathias, A. J. McLean, and A. Berndt, "Selfregulation of driving and its relationship to driving ability among older adults," Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 38, 2006, pp. 1038- 1045.
 J. L. Charlton, J. Oxley, B. Fildes, P. Oxley, S. Newstead, S. Koppel and M. O-Hare, "Characteristics of older drivers who adopt selfregulatory driving behaviours," Transportation Research, Part F, vol. 9, 2006, pp.363-373.
 L. Hakamies-Blomqvist, T. Raitanen, O. Desmond and D. O. O-Neill, "Driver ageing does not cause higher accident rates per km" Transportation Research, Part F vol. 5, 2002, pp. 271-274.
 C. Owsley, B. T. Stalvey and J. M. Phillips, "The efficacy of an educational intervention in promoting self-regulation among high-risk older drivers," Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 35, 2003, pp. 393-400.
 C.G. West, g. Gildengorin, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, L. Lott, M. E. Schneck and J. A. Brabyn, "Vision and driving self-restriction in older adults." Journal of the American Geriatric Society, vol. 51, 2003, pp. 1348-1355.
 A. Zur and D. Shinar,"Older people's driving habits, visual abilities, and subjective assessment of daily visual functioning," Work, vol. 11, 1998, pp. 339-348.
 T. Assume, T. Bjornskau, S. Fosser, and F. Sagberg, "Risk compensation - the case of road lighting," Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 31, 1999, pp. 545-553.
 E.R. Green, K.R. Agent, M. L. Barrett and J. P. Pigman, "Roadway lighting and driver safety," Kentucky Transportation Center, Research Report KTC-03-12/SPR247-02-IF, 2003.
 D. Raven and R. Loveless, "Assessing road lighting performance," New Zealand: Odyssey Energy Limited, 1999.
 US Department of Transportation, "European Road Lighting Technologies," International Technologies Exchange Program, 2001 Retrieved October 25, 2009 from international.fhwa.dot.gov/euroroadlighting/index.cfm
 P.M. Banks, L. A. Moore, C. Liu and B. Wu, B. "Dynamic visual acuity: a review," South African Optometry, vol. 63, 2004, pp. 58-64.
 L. G. Hoffman, M. Rouse and J. B. Ryan, "Dynamic visual acuity: A review," Journal of the American Optometric Association, vol. 52, 1981, pp.883-886.
 Visual Awareness Inc. UFOV User-s Guide, Version 6.0.9., Birmingham Atlanta, 2002.
 D. Weschler, "Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised," Psychological Corporation, New York, 1981.
 T. A. Salthouse, "Attempted decomposition of age-related influences on two tests of reading," Psychology and Aging, vol. 16, 2001, pp. 251263.
 R. M. Reitan, "Validity of the Trail Making test as an indicator of brain damage," Perceptual Motor Skills, vol. 8, 1958, pp. 271-76.
. Ontario Ministry of Transport. "Lighting System Design," The Electrical Engineering Manual, vol. 1, Part 4, ch. 5, 1993, pp. 5-8.
 P. J. Carlson and H. G. Hawkins, "Updated minimum retroreflectivity levels for traffic signs," Federal Highway Administration, Report no. FHWA-RD-03-081, 2003.
 J. A. M. Alferdinck, "Target detection and driving behaviour measurements in a driving simulator at mesopic light levels," Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, vol. 26, 2006, pp. 264-280.
 M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley and S. L. Alvarez, "Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance," Vision Research, vol. 28, 1988, pp. 1235-1246.
 G. Va'rady and P. Bodrogi, "Mesopic spectral sensitivity functions based on visibility and recognition contrast thresholds," Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, vol. 26, 2006, pp. 246-253.
 G. Wilde, "Target risk 2: A new psychology of safety and health," Toronto: PDE Publications, 2001.
 P. Arumi, K. Chauhan and W. N. Charman, "Accommodation and acuity under night driving illumination levels," Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, vol. 17(4), 1997, pp. 291-299.
 K. Ball, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, D. L. Roenker and J. R. Bruni, "Visual attention problems as a predictor of vehicle crashes in older adults," Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, vol. 34, 1993, pp. 3110-3123.
 J. M.Wood, "Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a close-circuit road," Human Factors, vol. 44, 2002, pp. 482-494.
 E. D. Richardson and R. S. Marottoli, "Visual attention and driving behaviors among community-living older persons," The Journal of Gerontology, vol. 58A, 2003, pp. 832-836.
 L. C. McPhee, C. T. Scialfa, W. M. Dennis, G. Ho, and J. K. Caird, "Age Differences in Visual Search for Traffic Signs During a Simulated Conversation," Human Factors, vol. 46, 2004, pp. 674-685.